ACCESS TO CARE The Equity Gap Pedro Chequer UNAIDS ICPA for the Southern Cone Buenos Aires, Argentina The Equity Gaps in Latin American Countries
GNP Growth - Average Per Year 1945-1980 1990-1999 To Reduce GAPS Health Expenditure by Aggregation Method, 1990-98 Unweighted Weighted Weighted Average Population GDP
Middle income 5.8
High income 6.8 Health Expenditure in Selected Countries, Related to GDP Total % of GDP 1990-98 Health Expenditure per Capita PPP $ 90-98 United States Switzerland Proportion of Doctors per 1000 pop. In Selected Countries Latin America: Poverty and Indigence, 1980-1997
Source: ECLAC, Social Panorama of Latin America, 1998 (LC/G.2050-P), chapter 1, p. 18, Santiago, Chile, 1999. United Nations publication, sales No.
a Estimate for 19 countries of the region.
b Perecentage of Households with incomes below the poverty line. Includes indigent households.
c Percentage of households with incomes below the indigent line. ARV:Free Access to Treatment. Estimated Coverage in Selected LA Counties at end Percentage of Adults over 18 with no Regular Doctor, 1997*; Non-Insured Ratios by Race** Hispanic Percentage of Adults 18 and Older without a Regular Doctor, 1997 Non-Insured ratios by race
* Source: Author´s tabulations of The Kaiser/Commonwealth 1997
** Source: Hall, Collins, and Glied, 1999
Countries in the tropics lag behind those in temperate zones in innovation, markets, and intellectual property Different resources: Indicators of global science Population Publications Patents (EU) Patents (US) Advanced Economies Rest of the World
Sources: J. Sachs: UNESCO: The Economist, 14 August 1999
Brazil: AIDS Drugs Expenditure 1996-2000 Expenditure (US$ million) Source: Ministry of Health, 1999 Brazil: ARV Price Reduction According to Source of Production Multinationals Multi + Government Companies ) $ S t (U le b r ta o le u s p a r c e t p s o C Indinavir Saquinavir Lamivudi Zalcitabi Didanosine Zidovudine(ZD (ddi), 100 mg V), 100 mg Source: MOH Savings of Economic Resources With Antiretroviral Therapy (1997/1999*)
¾ Total savings: US$472 million
• Estimated cost savings with ganciclovir
prescription: US$35 million
• Estimated cost savings with treatment of
admissions: US$371 million Source: Ministry of Health Costs of ARV Purchases, Savings and Final Costs to Brazilian Government Brazil. 1997-1999 ARV EXPENDITURES COST SAVINGS* ACTUAL COSTS
Common Sense Immigration ReformWomen in communities across the country are affected by U.S. immigration policies that undermine their and their families’ wellbeing. The following profiles illustrate some of the impacts of these policies on women’s lives, as well as the need for an immigration process that will ensure that women are treated humanely and fairly. These stories speak to the need
The effects of a tea tree oil-containing gel on plaque and chronic gingivitis S Soukoulis,* R Hirsch*, Australian Dental Journal 2004;49:(2):78-83 Abstract Background: This clinical study assessed the effects of topically applied tea tree oil (TTO)- containing gel on dental plaque and chronic gingivitis. Methods: This was a double-blind, longitudinal, non-crossover study in 49 medica