The effects of a tea tree oil-containing gel on plaque and
The effects of a tea tree oil-containing gel on plaque and chronic gingivitis S Soukoulis,* R Hirsch*, Australian Dental Journal 2004;49:(2):78-83 Abstract Background:This clinical study assessed the effects of topically applied tea tree oil (TTO)- containing gel on dental plaque and chronic gingivitis. Methods:This was a double-blind, longitudinal, non-crossover study in 49 medically fit non- smokers (24 males and 25 females) aged 18-60 years with severe chronic gingivitis. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups and given either TTO-gel (2.5 per cent), chlorhexidine (CHX) gel (0.2 percent), or a placebo gel to apply with a toothbrush twice daily. Treatment effects were assessed using the Gingival Index (GI), Papillary Bleeding Index (PBI) and plaque staining score (PSS) at four and eight weeks. Results:No adverse reactions to any of the gels were reported. The data were separated into subsets by tooth (anterior and posterior) and tooth surface (buccal and lingual). The TTO group had significant reduction in PBI and GI scores. However, TTO did not reduce plaque scores, which tended to increase over the latter weeks of the study period. Conclusion:Although further studies are required, the anti-inflammatory properties of TTO- containing gel applied topically to inflamed gingival tissues may prove to be a useful non-toxic adjunct to chemotherapeutic periodontal therapy. REFERENCES 1. Barr A, Chapman J, Smith N, Beveridge M. Traditional bush medicines – An Aboriginal pharmacopoeia. Victoria: Greenhouse Publications, 1988. 2. Juergens UR, Stober M, Schmidt-Schilling L, Kleuver T, Vetter H.Antiinflammatory effects of eucalyptol (1.8-cineole) in bronchial asthma: inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism in human blood monocytes ex vivo. Eur J Med Res 1998;3:407-412. 3. Juergens UR, Stober M, Vetter H. Inhibition of cytokine production and arachidonic acid metabolism by eucalyptol (1.8-cineole) in human blood monocytes in vitro. Eur J Med Res 1998;3:508-510. 4. Santos FA, Rao VS. Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils. Phytother Res 2000;14:240-244. 5. Williams AC, Barry BW. Terpenes and the lipid-proteinpartitioning theory of skin penetration enhancement. Pharm Res 1991;8:17-24. 6. Hart PH, Brand C, Carson CF, Riley TV, Prager RH, Finlay-Jones JJ. Terpinen-4-ol, the main component of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil), suppresses inflammatory mediator production by activated human monocytes. Inflamm Res 2000;49:619-626. 7. Brand C, Ferrante A, Prager RH, et al. The water soluble components of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) suppress the production of superoxide by human monocytes, but not neutrophils, activated in vitro. Inflamm Res 2001;50:213-219. 8. Carson CF, Cookson BD, Farrelly HD, Riley TV. Susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia. J Antimicrob Chemother 1995;35:421-424.
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Measuring Perceived Effects of Drinking an Extract of Basidiomycetes Agaricus blazei Murill: A Survey of Japanese Consumers with Cancer James A. Talcott, M.D., S.M.1§ Jack A. Clark, Ph.D.2 and Insu P. Lee3 1Center for Outcomes Research, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center and Harvard 2Center for Health Quality, Outcomes, and Economic Research, Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial Veter