4 This diagram shows some of the elements in
Core curriculum
1 This extract from the Periodic Table shows the
Look at the row from lithium (Li) to neon (Ne).
a What are the elements in this group called?
a What is this row of the Periodic Table called?
b Chlorine reacts explosively with hydrogen. The
b Which element in it is the least reactive? Why?
Look at the column of elements from lithium (Li) The reaction requires sunlight, but not heat.
c What is this column of the table called?
i How would you expect fluorine to react with
d Of the three elements shown in this column,
ii Write the word equation for the reaction.
2 Rubidium is an alkali metal. It lies below
c i How might bromine react with hydrogen?
potassium in Group I. Here is data for Group I: ii Write the word equation for that reaction.
5 The Periodic Table is the result of hard work by
point / ° C point / ° C reactivity
many scientists, in many countries, over hundreds of years. They helped to develop it by discovering, The Russian chemist Mendeleev was the first person to produce a table like the one we use today. He put all the elements he knew of into his table. But he realized that gaps should be left for elements not yet discovered. He even predicted the a Describe the trends in melting point, boiling
point, and reactivity, as you go down the group.
Mendeleev published his Periodic Table in 1869. b Now predict the missing data for rubidium.
The extract on the right below shows Groups I and c In a rubidium atom:
VII from his table. Use the modern Periodic Table i how many electron shells are there?
(page 314) to help you answer these questions.
ii how many electrons are there?
a What does Period 2 mean?
iii how many valency electrons are there?
b i How does Group I in the modern Periodic
3 Identify these non-metal elements:
Table differ from Group I in Mendeleev’s table? a a colourless gas, used in balloons and airships
ii The arrangement in the modern table is
b a poisonous green gas
more appropriate for Group I. Explain why.
c a colourless gas that glows with a red light in
iii What do we call the Group I elements today?
c i What do we call the Group VII elements?
d a red liquid
ii The element with the symbol Mn is out of
e a yellow gas which is so reactive that it is not
iii Where is the element Mn in today's table?
f a black solid that forms a purple vapour when
d Mendeleev left gaps in several places in his
e There was no group to the right of Group VII,
in Mendeleev’s table. Suggest a reason for this omission.
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d Name elements that fit descriptions A to G.
6 This question is about elements from these families:
e Which of A to G may be useful as catalysts?
alkali metals, alkaline earth metals (Group II), 7 The elements of Group 0 are called the noble gases.
transition elements, halogens, noble gases.
A is a soft, silvery metal that reacts violently with
a Name four of the noble gases.
b i What is meant by monatomic?
B is a gas at room temperature. It reacts violently
ii Explain why the noble gases, unlike all other
with other elements, without heating.
C is an unreactive gas that sinks in air.
When elements react, they become like noble gases.
D is a hard solid at room temperature, and forms
c i Explain what the above statement means.
ii What can you conclude about the reactivity
E conducts electricity, and reacts slowly with
water. Its atoms each give up two electrons.
F is a reactive liquid; it does not conduct
An extract from Mendeleev’s Periodic Table electricity; it shows a valency of 1 in its compounds.
Group VII
G is a hard solid that conducts electricity, can be
beaten into shape, and rusts easily.
a For each element above, say which of the listed
b i Comment on the position of elements A, B,
and C within their families.
ii Describe the valence (outer) shell of electrons
for each of the elements A, B, and C.
c Explain why the arrangement of electrons in
their atoms makes some elements very reactive, and others unreactive.
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Dr. Daniel R. Jones 4201 South Washington Street Marion, IN 46953 Telephone: 765-677-2296 Fax: 765-677-2455 E-mail: [email protected] 9389 Rockwood Court, Noblesville, IN 46060 PERSONAL: CAREER SUMMARY: I have been blessed with opportunities to learn and serve in the dental, biomedical research, and teaching fields. I am most grateful for the opportunity to serve Christ at Ind

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