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100% if used consistently
92% to 99+% if used
Birth Control
Rare, but serious health risks (blood clots, Ability to become pregnant returns quickly heart attack, and stroke – these risks are Protects against painful, heavy, or irregular periods, ovarian and endometrial cancer, and infections of the fallopian tubes Implant*
97% to 99+% if used
Menstruation stops for over half of women Provera and Lunelle similar to those of the Private – no visible sign that person is Return to fertility may take several months Other physiological advantages similar to Increased spotting/bleeding in first month 99+% if used correctly and
Other physiological advantages the same as 99+% if used correctly and
Vaginal Ring
menstruation, and then insert new ring for Requires high level of comfort with one’s Other physiological advantages the same as Must be inserted and removed by clinician Intrauterine
protection against pregnancy for 5 years, Device (IUD)
Not typically recommended for adolescents Non hormonal IUDs are an alternative for * At the time of this printing, Implanon is not yet available in the United States and there are no plans to reintroduce Norplant.
For updated information about contraceptive methods, please visit www.managingcontraception.com.
85% to 98% if used
Male Condom
Male involvementInexpensive, available over the counter Requires high level of comfort with one’s 79% to 95% if used
Female Condom
Alternative for people with latex allergies May be difficult to insertMay become dislodged during intercourseMay interfere with spontaneity Can be inserted in advance of intercourse Requires high level of comfort with one’s Diaphragm or
Can remain in place for multiple acts of (diaphragm) if used
Cervical Cap
May be difficult to insertLimited STI protection, but also possibility of irritation (by spermicide) that could facilitate STI transmission Available over the counter in a variety of 71% to 85% if used
Possibility of irritation that could facilitateSTI transmission Withdrawal
75% to 99% if used
No intercourse for much of menstrual cycle Awareness
basal temperature andcervical mucous methods No Method
Vasectomy or
Tubal Ligation
No protection against STIUsually available only to older individuals Can be used up to 120 hours after
taken after unprotectedintercourse, the higher the success rate. Used within24 hours – reduces risk ofpregnancy by up to 95%;used within 72 hours –reduces risk of pregnancyby 75% to 89% Note:
If a method is 99% “effective,” 99 women in 100 having sexual intercourse regularly for one year are expected not to become
pregnant. If a method is 15% “effective,” 15 women out of 100 would be expected not to become pregnant. (Lower percentages
indicate “typical user” rates; higher percentages indicate “perfect user” rates.)
Hatcher, R. et al, A Pocket Guide to Managing Contraception, 2002-2003, 2002Hatcher, R. et al, Contraceptive Technology, 17th Edition, 1998Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Your Contraceptive Choices, 2002 To be used with Positive Images: Teaching Abstinence, Contraception, and Sexual Health, Third Edition. Brickand Taverner, Planned Parenthood of Greater Northern New Jersey, 2001, revised 2003.
From Brick, Peggy, and Taverner, Bill (2001). Positive Images: Teaching Abstinence, Contraception, and Sexual Health, 3rd Ed. 2001 by Planned Parenthood of Greater Northern New Jersey and reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.

Source: http://honorsbiology.wiki.lovett.org/file/view/IWHC+Contraception.pdf

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Ampicilin-resistant bacteria in excrement of Oulema melanopus larvae data: L. Meile and G. Hugenschmidt; Text: T. Schlaich and C. Sautter Larvae of the cereal leaf beetle ( Oulema melanopus ) feed on single wheat plants, provided the plants are not too densely planted. The larvae do not loose theirexcrements, but carry them on their back as a protectant shield. At about mid of May adult be

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