Content-Based Search and Annotations in Multimedia Digital Libraries
Laboratory of Interactive and Cooperative Abstract
producing “knowledge centers” in which authoring, reading and viewing multimedia documents occur seamlessly along This paper describes a solution for the organization and with activities such as searching, annotating and linking for management of multimedia collections in d igital libraries. The Video U-DL-A (VUDLA) system allows for storage, The remainder of the paper is organized as follows: Section indexing and annotation of multimedia documents in such 2 provides some additional background on the context of a way that text- and image-based queries can be issued in the project. Next, we describe the design of a video digital order to retrieve specific scenes from digital video library and discuss the main aspects of its prototypical collections. Technologies such as image and speech implementation in Sections 3 and 4, respectively. We refer processing, video streaming, multimedia databases, to salient related work in Section 5 and, finally, we present information retrieval and graphical user interfaces are some preliminary results and conclusions in Section 6. integrated to produce a novel multimedia, multimodal environment which re-valuates text as an important 2. Context
knowledge tra nsmission medium. We have developed a fully operational testbed to explore multimedia data 2.1 Multimedia objects in databases
properties and organization possibilities as well as a wide For some time now, commercial database management systems have been incorporating technologies for multimedia management extending regular data models [17]. 1. Introduction
In limited ways, commercial products have proposed storage and temporal functions as well as annotating Internet information is much more than just text: services for multimedia materials. Exploiting or customizing increasingly, multimedia resources are becoming available this functionality is not trivial, so usually projects through global networks including documents with images, supporting multimedia technology are based on commercial audio and video. At the same time, fast data access from products extended with proprietary software. Moreover, any place at any time is motivating developments in several projects involving multimedia management usually need to directions to organize huge multimedia information cope with growing hardware and software requirements [6]. repositories and to make them accessible to users in a simple and effective way [15]. The challenge we are facing is 2.2 Streaming media
to move ahead from a text-based information retrieval Streaming media technology continuously sends data from paradigm that has been derived from and applied to a server to a client. Depending on available bandwidth, the conventional databases onto new retrieval alternatives that server may adjust the transfer rate allowing for real-time include audio and video as data sources, and generally visualization on the client side, which in this way has developing mechanisms for handling data formats with 2.3 Content-based search
In this paper we describe the design and implementation of Traditional functions over multimedia utilize what may be VUDLA, a system component that endows a digital library referred to as their syntactical properties: moving forward with capabilities for managing multimedia collections. In and rewinding functions manipulate the temporal structure particular, VUDLA introduces a data model for digital video of these data types [3]. Nevertheless, particular event as well as content-based search and annotation search or automatic summarizing requires semantic mechanisms. In order to extend the digital library document analysis. Currently, semantic analysis is architecture, VUDLA integrates diverse technologies such performed by humans in tasks such as interactive CD as speech and image processing, video streaming, creation, but for digital libraries the amounts of data to be multimedia databases and information retrieval, thus processed makes it necessary to define automatic techniques for generating content representation of (publications concerning this work can be found at [9]). We multimedia information. Metadata generation for multimedia data can be accomplished using speech recognition [31] 3.1 Digital library architecture
and image processing as indexing technologies, whereas information retrieval models may be used to organize The general architecture of VUDLA, including the new components designed to support multimedia functionality, metadata and facilitate searching through the resulting index space. is illustrated in Figure 1. The architecture is an evolution of the one proposed at the inception of our digital libraries 2.4 Annotations
program [19] As can be observed, this is a layered, Enabling text and graphic annotations in video materials is extensible, client-server architecture comprising collections, important in order to analyze and share views on the data management and modeling facilities as well as a variety contents presented in multimedia format. Simone [24] of services on the server side, and various user interfaces observes that writing has allowed for more articulate, and work environments on the client side. In Figure 1, the refined and complex forms of expression, whereas major components that needed to be developed to extend knowledge expressed or acquired from audiovisual media the existing digital library (DL) architecture are presented in tends to be less articulate and less subtle. Some of the a darker shade, whereas components that were adapted or advantages of the cognitive processes associated with used directly by VUDLA (as described in the next section) Pacing. In general, the pace of reading is determined by the Digital Library Client
reader (“pulling” text as desired), whereas the pace of viewing a video is decided by its author, who “pushes” Multimedia
Corrigibility. A reader may stop at any point in time to reflect on the text just read; a viewer cannot do this easily. Encyclopedic references. As a result of its user-controlled pace, reading allows users to stop and use complementary sources, whereas this cannot be done easily when viewing XML, Dublin Core, DTDs, OpenGIS, etc.
without disrupting the intended rhythm of the materials. Citability. A text that has been read can be easily cited or Digital Collections (theses, images, videos, etc.)
even quoted. What has been viewed does not exhibit this Digital Library Server
Simone explains that nowadays reading is clearly losing Figure 1. General DL architecture with video
adherents mainly due to the effortless way in which management capabilities.
audiovisual informa tion is acquired (“the effort of reading The storage and retrieval of digital video constitute a first cannot compete with the ease of viewing”). Linking, step towards the exploration of video in a digital library. annotating and searching in VUDLA as an effort to combine Visualizing, controlling, annotating, querying, and linking the sequential intelligence derived from reading with the video segments to and from other resources are among the simultaneous intelligence fostered by viewing. desirable capabilities. Thus, VUDLA has been designed to include the following functionality: 3. Adding video to a digital library
We have extended the architecture of a digital library to Interfaces that allow diverse users to maintain include multimedia collections and services. Our work is multimedia collections as well as to visualize, framed by an initiative we termed University Digital search, broadcast (or multi-cast), annotate, link Libraries for All (U-DL-A). U-DL-A has produced a highly from and refer to any portion of their contents. distributed digital library that now comprises a wide range • A video streaming server to provide an efficient of collections, services and user interfaces. Collections include theses and dissertations, university publications • A speech recognition service to generate textual and historic archives. Services vary from information transcriptions of the audio track that accompanies retrieval methods to agent services and interoperability the video (word spotting). These metadata can be mechanisms. Finally, user interfaces include personal and used later on when searching the video collections group spaces, visualization aids and user agents for the occurrence of specific utterances. • An image processing service to create vector have been typed and should be displayed at specific times. representations from the key video frames based In addition, before the second textual comment is presented, on their color and texture contents. This is also helpful metadata when searching the video collections for the occurrence of images or frames with certain characteristics. 4. The VUDLA prototype
• An information retrieval server to provide rich 4.1 Supporting Technologies
access means to the metadata generated by the As noted previously, we conceive of the construction of VUDLA as the result of integrating various technologies. Various information retrieval models should be Our prototype has resulted from integrating the following: available so the user may be presented with • A graphical user interface (GUI) implementing most multiple paths to explore the multimedia of the desired functionality. We relied for this on Java and its specialized classes for graphical user interfaces (Swing), Internet communication (RTP), • A speech processing component for generating metadata from the accompanying audio track. Since our materials are mostly in Spanish, we used a speech recognizer based on neural networks that has been trained for Mexican Spanish [23]. This work specializes a speech processing toolkit known as CSLU [26], of which a “shell” version has been used [22]. The corpus used to train the 3-layers neural network was generated in Mexico at the speech recognition lab of the University. • The Ozono media streaming server [13], a video- Figure 2. Metadata layers of a video segment.
on-demand component based on Java JMF. We are using the Solaris -based version 1.1.5 of Ozono, 3.2 Digital Video Data Modeling
guaranteed quality of service at 350 kbps. There has been a significant amount of work in the area of • The Hermes Information Retrieval Server, which digital video data modeling that can be applicable when provides access to several information retrieval defining the structure of a multimedia collection. models and facilitates access to collections in the Approaches vary in such aspects as the levels of library [14]. At present, Hermes implements three granularity (from frames to segments) or content models for information retrieval: vector space considerations (from purely physical features to more extended Boolean and latent semantic indexing [2]. elaborate models that involve the notions of scenes, • The Informix RDBMS and its multimedia subjects or hyper-linking provisions). Some relevant work in extensions (Video and Image “DataBlades”) [12] this area can be found, for example, in [27] [8] [10]. Progress [30]. These modules provide data types and SQL in modeling and manipulating multimedia collections has extensions that allow for video management and permeated to research and commercial database systems. In image processing [4] using the data model the domain-independent data model that we opted for in our DL design, multiple metadata layers can be associated with any instant of a given video segment so applications can be We describe the operation and properties of VUDLA next. developed to manipulate multimedia collections in flexible 4.2 Adding and managing multimedia content
and varied manners. Figure 2 exemplifies a video segment VUDLA offers user interfaces so multimedia content can be with which five layers of metadata have been associated: easily added to the collections. Every time a video three words have been spotted by a speech processing document is added, the speech recognition and image service; four images have been taken from video frames and processing systems generate the metadata that will be used processed as color and texture vectors; a website is to support video querying and viewing. All the words associated with the second word; two textual annotations recognized by the speech processing system are organized periods, are returned by the information retrieval service as a metadata stratum, whereas image processing generates and listed in the top left portion of the interface. In the color and texture indexes from key images taken from video figure, the user has selected one of the segments and is viewing its contents, as supplied by the Ozono media An interface is also available that allows specialized users server, on the bottom left panel. Naturally, the user may to create annotations associated with stored multimedia easily move back and forward in the video segment or objects. Users may add textual or graphical annotations or control the audio volume by using the buttons and sliders specify web links that will be attached to materials at displayed in this part of the interface. On the panels to the specific points in time. These analytic and supplementary right of the main interface, three major metadata strata are metadata are also organized as metadata strata. displayed as they appear in the timeline when the video is played. In the figure, a textual annotation is being displayed The information retrieval comp onent takes audio when the video reaches a specific instant. Similarly, a transcriptions resulting from speech processing and text reference to a website and a related image are shown. The annotations provided by users. Lemmatization and user may choose to stop the video and check the stopword elimination processes are applied to create annotations or visit the referenced websites or just continue to examine the video segment. The numbers to the right of the annotations provide handles to multiple associated metadata so they can be revisited by the user at will. The text search module uses the temporal DBMS component to manipulate time pointers to video segments. These functions allow VUDLA to establish relationships among the different metadata layers. For example, the Overlap function reports if two segments have a time point in common. Web links are presented as URLs and their contents can be displayed in a web browser, according to user preferences. Moreover, when materials of the collection are visualized, all web links associated to a video document are active and can be selected through the visual component when the current displaying time matches the “validity” time of a link attached to that material. This is possible because our data model includes a metadata stratum for web links referring to video objects. For image searching, the interface allows the user to load a target image from the local file system. This image’s color and texture components are compared with those derived from the key images stored at the corresponding metadata Figure 3. Client user interface of VUDLA.
stratum. In our current implementation, when the comparison results in a similarity measure of 95% or higher in at least one of the two criteria, the video segment 4.3 VUDLA Interfaces
associated to the corresponding key image is incorporated The main user interface of VUDLA is illustrated in Figure 3. to the result set. The level of similarity should be tuned The three tabs at the top allow users to switch from according to application and user requirements. navigating the collections to searching their contents or to receiving a multicast video for one-way videoconferencing. 5. Preliminary results
Though the latter is a useful feature, we focus our The VUDLA prototype has been undergoing tests in two discussion on the first two modes (navigation and search), major areas: functionality and usability. In the first area, the as they present very similar interfaces and demonstrate our main challenge is the integration of diverse technologies and get them to work seamlessly. In the second area, we aim at demonstrating that VUDLA enables the use of digital The figure shows the results of searching the video video in new, much richer ways when compared to its collection for utterances that are related to “libraries” analog equivalent, and that users are able to perform tasks (“bibliotecas” in Spanish). The metadata of video segments involving multimedia resources not only without the that matched the queries, as well as the relevant time limitations referred to in Section 2, but with the added value time but substantially improving the system’s user of functionality made possible only by the digital nature of interface. The current implementation of VUDLA has been in use for one semester. Our video collection is mostly academic, completely in Spanish, and it includes interviews 5.1 Speech recognition
with researchers from various areas, lectures and software Tests were carried out to determine the reliability of the presentations. Its use has been restricted to our research speech recognition system. Using a general purpose corpus center and a few volunteer users, but is now open for beta of 300 voices sampled at 8 kHz in a free-noise env ironment, testing at http://ict.udlap.mx/people/anibal/ a threshold was established to make decisions from the ranking that the system gives to the words of the vocabulary. We defined a vocabulary for each video in the What is most important for our research interests, we have repository by choosing a set of words that might identify been able to observe users interact with the new multimedia collections as we expected. It is useful to revisit the relevant media traits introduced in Section 2.4, which guided our In general, with our current settings, 60% of the words in the audio track were correctly ranked (detected as part or not of the audio track) by the system and can be used for Pace. In VUDLA, the interaction with resources in all content-based queries. When analyzing recognition available media is completely under the user’s control. The problems, we found that most of them were related to user determines the pace at which temporal media are substitution problems due to the fact that the recognizer assigns a high ranking to words that are phonetically similar Corrigibility. Users of VUDLA may stop at any point in to those in the vocabulary. If more precision is needed, the time to reflect on resources being examined, regardless of speech processing component allows for finer precis ion their type. If audio or video are momentarily suspended, other activities may take place and streaming will continue when the user so decides. 5.2 Video Streaming
Communication with the Ozono media streaming server
Encyclopedic references. Not only can complementary allows VUDLA users to navigate through the video sources be used while examining multimedia resources in collections and within each video segment in a transparent VUDLA, but those resources may be associated directly fashion. Video is delivered in response to requests with a section of a document and available immediately for submitted from the graphical user interface and can be displayed according to specified parameters (e.g. starting at Citability. Content-based search over digital video using text or images, as well as the possibility to point to any instant within a video segment make multimedia collections 5.3 Information Retrieval
This is one of the most robust system components. Textual audio transcriptions, user annotations and other metadata VUDLA redefines the concepts of reading and viewing. In are used extensively in the application of the available the digital library, reading may be an isolated activity, but information retrieval models. Metadata and rankings the reader may also choose to be aware of the presence of returned by the Hermes server are displayed has allowed other readers and decide to interact with them by taking users to identify video segments that best fit their needs. advantage of the library’s collaboration facilities. Though videoconferencing has been mentioned as one of the 5.4 Image Processing
features of VUDLA, other communication and awareness Image characteristics are highly variable and factors such as facilities are available in the overarching digital library (as lighting, focus, or subject position or motion greatly described, for example in [20] and [21]). influence any color or texture analysis. In our current implementation, color and texture comparisons have been 6. Related work
useful only when images used in queries come directly from Given its integrative nature, our project builds upon a (or are very similar) to frames in video sequences in the significant number of related efforts. Work on multimedia has been undertaken from several perspectives and much progress has been done in areas such as compression, 5.5 Usability
transmission and storage techniques. Semantic analysis and From the most preliminary interface designs, usability has indexing make it possible to perform content-based search been the most important area to evaluate [16]. Around ten and summarization in multimedia documents. important usability problems were initially detected and Informedia [29][28] is one of the most complex projects in corrected, some of them requiring important development the area of multimedia information management. Its first stage also focused on the integration of speech, image and 7. Ongoing work
language processing for creating digital video libraries. VUDLA is a relatively young project and can use that fact About 1500 hours of TV news have been segmented into to its advantage, as much of the ongoing work in the area some 40,000 independent segments and used to explore (e.g., projects referred to in the previous section) can be issues in storage, retrieval and applications of digital video. thought of as an opportunity for improvement. For instance, A second stage of the project is focusing on summarizing visual information retrieval does not yet produce impressive and visualizing video information as well as on spatial and results in VUDLA. In that respect, new processing temporal analysis for query processing. The important techniques are being studied and simulated, included ramifications and accomplishments of the Informedia contour and form detection. In that direction, the Video- Cuebik system [7] appears as a promising alternative to The QBIC (query by image content) [5] system was developed to retrieve images based on their visual Some of the existing functionality in our prototypical characteristics (color, texture and form). The user is able to implementation has ample room for improvement. For specify search parameters in queries. For video example, we plan to provide various formatting options for management, the system has functions for scene detection, textual annotations that we think will improve text histogram change analysis, and camera movements. readability. We will also implement frame hotspots, which In order to search in multimedia documents where most of should map specific frame regions to annotations or web the information is in audio format, researchers of the project links. We also have started work to explore heuristics and VideoMail [11] designed a speech recognition system based formal models for relationships among video metadata [1]. in Hidden Markov Models and a text retrieval engine. The Other scheduled evolutions are the development of a user interface presented multimedia information to the user mechanism involved that allows for annotations to be kept even if all the background processing was text -based. personal, not shared for dealing with an ever-growing An interesting development in multimodal interfaces is the number of annotations and exploring new video data Music Library [32], a system with tune recognition functionality. Acoustic input mechanisms allow users to As mentioned previously, VUDLA was originally developed sing or whistle a melody to search through more than 10,000 using the Informix RDBMS and its extensions for multimedia management. This made our prototype strongly dependent In [18] the author attempts to describe human behavior in a on proprietary data types and functions. In order to video sequence. Based upon silhouette and facial generalize the operation of the system so any RDBMS can expression recognition, an estimation model is constructed be used, we are in the process to migrate our current to establish probabilities of what the person in the video is implementation to MySQL. The process required the implementation of functions at the various architectural levels. About 80% of the functionality available in the Our project has been strongly influenced by Informedia and Informix-based version is now operational with MySQL. other projects. We also aim at integrating technologies and generally exploring digital video as a medium with Overall, we think of VUDLA as a testbed to explore the properties that are different from text, still images and potential of multimedia digital libraries. Systematic user analog video. However, we have emphasized issues that involvement and observation, corpus construction, and have not appeared in other projects or have received only technology integration are driving issues in our agenda. marginal attention from other research groups. From 8. Conclusions
technical and cultural viewpoints, we are interested in developing video corpora in Spanish and exploring Multimedia collections are increasingly popular and in many mechanisms for retrieval that are particularly appropriate for ways becoming a fundamental means for knowledge our collections. From a more philosophical perspective, we dissemination. New digital video collections are created are interested in the impact of the deployment of multimedia every day and occupy huge amounts of disk space. Novel collections in the context of communities with a strong, digital libraries integrate technologies and provide reading-based research tradition. Our proposal ultimately interfaces for seamless media integration that foster rich aims at contributing to make digital libraries a catalyst for interactions between users and media and among media the transformation of work practices in knowledge-intensive themselves. We have described VUDLA, a research and development project that integrates image and speech processing with database and information retrieval techniques to produce a DL with desirable media properties. One of the concerns regarding the prevalence of video and [8] Hjesvold, R., Midstraum, R. Modeling and querying video the abandonment of reading is that video appears as a data. Proceedings of the 20th VLDB Conference, 1994, 686- regression from the structured, sequential reasoning promoted by reading to more primitive, sensorial forms of [9] ICT. Laboratory of Interactive and Cooperative Technologies. Universidad de las Américas, Puebla, México. experienced by the user’s senses but associative thinking is also promoted. While still some of the mind structuring [10] Jiang, J., Elmagarmid, A. K. Spatial and temporal content- properties of knowledge construction based primarily on reading may be at risk, there sure are new, more powerful based access to hypervideo databases. The VLDB Journal 7, 4, 1998, 226-238. cognitive processes triggered by multimedia DLs. Our work makes a contribution to the study of the properties and [11] Jones, G. and Foote, J. Video Mail Retrieval using voice: An means for organization, manipulation and presentation of Overview of the Stage 2 System. In Proceedings of the multimedia collections in digital libraries. MIRO workshop, University of Glasgow, 1995. [12] Informix. Informix Video Foundation DataBlade Module 9. Acknowledgments
We would like to express our appreciation to Hugo López [13] López, H., Lazo, A. The Ozono Digital Media Server. and Arturo Lazo of our Videoconferencing Department for Internal Report. Special Projects and Videoconferencing their support in the construction of the Ozono Media Department. Universidad de las Américas, Puebla, México. Streaming Server. We also thank our colleagues in the 2002. Available from http://www.udlap.mx/~proyesp. Tlatoa Speech Processing Lab, whose support allowed us to use the CSLU Toolkit. We appreciate the colaboration of [14] Maldonado, F. Hermes: Servidor y biblioteca de modelos de Fernanda Maldonado in the design and implementation of recuperación de información. B. Eng. Thesis. Universidad de [15] Maybury, M. T. (Editor). Intelligent Multimedia Information This work has received financial support from the National Retrieval. The MIT Press. Bedford, Mass., 1997. Council of Science and Technology (Conacyt Projects No. 35804-A and G33009-A). [16] Nielsen, J. and Molich, R. Heuristic evaluation of user interfaces. In Proceedings ACM CHI'90 (Seattle WA, April 10. References
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Image Search to Video Shots. In Proceedings ACM JCDL'02 for automatic speech recognition, Technical Report No. (Portland, Oregon, July 13-17), 2002, 156-157. CSLU-011-96, Center for Spoken Language Understanding, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science & Technology, 1996. [23] Serridge, B., Cole, R., Barbosa, A., Munive, N., Vargas, A. [28] Wactlar, H. D. Informedia - Search and Summarization in the Creating a Mexican Spanish version of the CSLU toolkit. Video Medium. In Proceedings on Imagina 2000 conference Proceedings of the International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP), Sydney, Australia, 1998. [29] Wactlar, H. D., Kanade, T., Smith, M. A. Stevens, S. M. [24] Simone, R. La Terza Fase. Laterza. Rome, Italy, 2000. Intelligent Access to Digital Video: Informedia Project. IEEE [25] Sun. Java Media Framework API Guide. Sun Microsystems, [30] Westermann, U. and Klas, W. Architecture of a DataBlade [26] Sutton, S., Cole, R., de Villiers, J., Schalkwyk, J., Vermeulen, Module for the Integrated Management of Multimedia P., Macon, M., Yan, Y., Kaiser, E., Rundle, B., Shobaki, K, Assets. In Proceedings on Multimedia Intelligent Storage and Hosom, P., Kain, A., Wouters, J., Massaro, M., Cohen, M. Retireval Management (MISRM, Orlando, Florida), October Universal Speech Tools: the CSLU Toolkit. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Spoken Language Processing [31] Witbrock, M. and Hauptmann, A. Speech recognition for a (ICSLP), Sydney, Australia, November 1998, 3221-3224. digital video library.http://www.informedia.cs.cmu.edu. [27] Tusch, R. Kosch, H., Böszörményi, L. VIDEX: an integrated [32] Witten, I., McNab, R., Jones, S. Managing Complexity in a generic video indexing approach. Proceedings of the eighth Distributed Digital Library, IEEE Computer 32(2), 1999, 74- ACM International Conference on Multimedia, 2000, 448-

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