Veterinary Times
industries estimated at more of implementing regulations a number of pharmaceutical allowing for the establishment companies to investigate the of maximum residue limits opportunity to develop studies Regulation changes
(MRLs) for milk in respect of to establish withdrawal periods. looks at herd management issues when dealing these four substances with These investigations are ongo- with the growing problem of this parasite mintics that are active against active ingredients against fluke. ing, with the hope we may in the parasites belonging to the class Although the contraindication future have a product licensed intermediate host, is increasingly of finished cattle had evidence liver fluke3, with the effects on Trematoda (trematodes).
for the use of these products to treat dairy cattle with a very being identified by producers of fluke infection at slaughter2.
in lactating cows, sheep and short or zero milk withdrawal.
Dairy vets across the UK are of 1.0kg a day and an increase mission (EC) initiated a referral goats remained, these changes reporting an increase in cases in calving interval by 20 days4.
procedure for all flukicides (for removed the specific provision reported its final opinion that Fluke is an increasing cost which no maximum residue limit “Not for use in animals from variations were necessary in veillance Report (VIDA) data as well as the traditional effect to UK cattle keepers and was was established in milk) intended which milk is produced for the marketing authorisations for demonstrates a doubling in on younger growing animals. estimated to cost the industry in for use in ruminants producing human consumption”.
diagnosis from 628 cases in Studies show 76 per cent of excess of £23m a year 10 years milk for human consumption. The establishment of MRLs dazole and clorsulon as single 2004 to 1,352 in 20101, and, dairy herds in England and ago5. Recent estimates are This included nitroxynil, closan- in a recent study, 38 per cent Wales have been exposed to higher, with the cost to livestock tel, triclabendazole and clorsu- lon. Opinion was sought from sation for these products, to role in cattle production, their TABLE 1. Safe time spans between treatment and calving in cattle,
the Committee for Medicinal undertake residue studies to use in the non-lactating periods recommended by the CVMP
Products for Veterinary Use establish appropriate with- Relevant outcome for use of product in UK
(CVMP) as to whether the use drawal periods for their prod- substance
time span
of these products in heifers or ucts. Established MRLs allow of the acceptable daily intake. Not relevant as product only available in combination during the dry period would lead residues of these products to Not relevant as product only available in combination to an unacceptable daily intake be monitored against a refer- ence value considered safe elapse between treatment and Do not use during the last trimester of gestation Also, during the first half of for consumers8.
Do not use during the last trimester of gestation TABLE 2. Summary of flukicides authorised for sale on the UK market (information from NOAH and VMD)
Active ingredient Route
Authorised for use during
Authorised for use in the dry period
Authorised for use in pregnant maiden
Authorised products (MA Holder)
lactation in cows producing
in pregnant dairy cattle producing
dairy heifers intended to produce milk
milk for human consumption? milk for human consumption?
for human consumption?
Yes, but restrictions apply. Do not use during Closamectin Solution for Injection for Cattle and Sheep injection cattle producing milk for human producing milk for human consumption, the last trimester of pregnancy in heifers (Norbrook); Closiver Solution for Injection for Cattle (Norbrook); Closivet Solution for Injection for Cattle (Norbrook); Norofas Solution for Injection (Norbrook) Yes, but restrictions apply. Do not use during Closamectin Pour-On Solution for Cattle (Norbrook); cattle producing milk for human producing milk for human consumption, the second half of pregnancy in heifers which Closiver 5 mg/ml + 200 mg/ml Pour-On Solution for Cattle (Norbrook); Norofas Pour-On Solution for Cattle Yes, but restrictions apply. Do not use during Flukiver Bovis 50 mg/ml Solution for Injection (Eli Lilly) injection cattle producing milk for human producing milk for human consumption, the last trimester of pregnancy in heifers Yes, but restrictions apply. Do not use during Trodax 34% w/v Solution for Injection (Merial) injection cattle producing milk for human producing milk for human consumption, the last trimester of pregnancy in heifers Yes, but restrictions apply. Not intended Yes, but restrictions apply. Not intended for use within 48 days of calving. Milk for human hours after calving. Not intended for use Should a cow calve earlier than 48 days within 48 days of calving. Should a cow calve after the last treatment, milk for human earlier than 48 days after the last treatment, taken from 50 days after the last treatment.
Yes, but restrictions apply. Do not use during Endofluke 100 mg/ml Oral Suspension (Cross Vetpharm cattle producing milk for human producing milk for human consumption, the last trimester of pregnancy in heifers Group); Fasinex 10% Oral Suspension for Cattle (Novartis Animal Health); Fasinex 100 10% (w/v) Oral Suspension for Cattle and Sheep (Novartis Animal Health); Tribex 10% Oral Suspension for Cattle (Chanelle); Triclacert 10% Oral Suspension for Cattle (Chanelle) No. Do not use in cattle of any age intended Cydectin TriclaMox 5 mg/ml + 200mg/ml Pour-on to produce milk for human consumption.
Yes, but restrictions apply. Do not use during Combinex Cattle Oral Suspension (Novartis Animal producing milk for human consumption, the last trimester of pregnancy in heifers Yes. Milk withdrawal period of 60 hours. Yes. Milk withdrawal period of 60 hours Albacert 2.5% SC Oral Suspension (Chanelle); Albenil 2.5% w/v SC Oral Suspension (Virbac); Albenil Low Dose 10% w/v Oral Suspension (Virbac); Albensure 10% w/v Oral Suspension (Animax); Albensure 2.5% w/v SC Oral Suspension (Animax); Albex 10% w/v Oral Suspension (Chanelle); Albex 2.5% w/v SC Oral Suspension (Chanelle); Endospec SC 10% w/v Oral Suspension (Cross Vetpharm Group); Endospec SC 2.5% w/v Oral Suspension (Cross Vetpharm Group); Ovispec S & C 10% w/v Oral Suspension (Eli Lilly); Ovispec S & C 2.5% w/v Oral Suspension (Eli Lilly); Tramazole 2.5% w/v SC No. Do not use in cattle of any age intended Downland Fluke and Worm Oral Suspension (Norbrook); to produce milk for human consumption.
Levafas Diamond Oral Suspension (Norbrook); Levafas Oral Suspension Fluke and Worm Drench (Norbrook).
Zanil Fluke Drench 34 mg/ml Oral Suspension (MSD/ Yes but restrictions apply. Do not use in Yes but restrictions apply. Do not use in Alverin Plus 10/100 mg/ml Solution for Injection for ml (in combination injection producing milk for human non-lactating dairy cows within 60 days pregnant heifers within 60 days of calving.
Cattle (Chanelle); Animec Super Solution for Injection of calving. (i.e. do not use if dry period for Cattle (Chanelle); Bimectin Plus, 10/100 mg/ml Solution for Injection for Cattle (Cross Vetpharm Group); Ivermectin and Clorsulon Solution for Injection for Cattle (Virbac); Ivomec Super Injection for Cattle (Merial); Molemec Super Solution for Injection for Cattle (Merial); Supremadex Solution for Injection (Virbac); Virbamec Super Solution for Injection(Virbac) Veterinary Times
a flukicide at dry off, as part of a No area should be regarded as opment, so decisions on what put in place going forwards.” FLUKE CONTROL
sible to conclude whether the total dry cow programme. from page 6
programme and when to treat tory surveillance programme for available. These were further would also allow the residues of global warming appears to have nostics, with both serum anti- are vital to a successful outcome. residues of veterinary medicines rounded upwards to arrive at the second active substance to led to weather patterns creat- Triclabendazole resistance and unauthorised substances in general recommendations for deplete to safe levels. ing environments that have useful support to a diagnosis. has also been reported in the UK food producing animals16 However, a recent decision extended the habitat and range However, with the limitations of UK12, so monitoring treatment and these tests include looking by the VMD states that the ruling of the fluke intermediate host, antibody tests in the determina- efficacy with follow-up faecal egg for residues of flukicides. In The safe time spans between for single products also applies Lymnaea truncatual9. This has tion of current infection, the long hatch assays may be an impor- treatment and calving in cattle to combination products i.e. increased the area where the prepatent period al owing sub- the CVMP recommended are those that contain both flukcides disease may be seen and the stantial damage before egg laying tions led to an EU decision to this rose to 2.2 per cent of sam- The CVMP concluded the ment of worms, and, therefore ease that have been recorded tion between egg counts and ban the use of straight flukicides ples in 2011. This year, milk sam- benefit/risk balance of products the safe time spans should also in the UK in the past year10. the true level of infection, (even in dairy cattle at any stage of lac- containing these substances was apply to all the combination in a heavily infected animal), then tation14, that is, including a ban for flukicides17. positive, providing withdrawal products available in the UK.
clinical signs, herd health history, on use during the dry period. ited to a greater geographical exposure to habitat and weather UK implementation of label choices for farmers and vet based on time spans in Table 1. Practical implications
spread of risk areas, but also patterns are al important in changes on packs was July 18. The control of fascioliasis has to a wider range of habitats helping to reach a diagnosis.
The decision by the VMD the security and safety of the binations of products and for always been a challenge for the now able to support the L It is also vital to understand extends this decision to com- dairy vet, with no UK licensed truncatula snail. Following a the life cycle of the fluke and bination products in the UK. to follow the appropriate milk treatment for use during lactation number of wet summers, some variation in weather that will These combination products withdrawal periods”, concluded lished, however for many others with zero milk withhold. Histori- downlands, heaths and even determine the stage likely to should also not be used in dairy Mr Hampton.
it has not. As the evaluation of cally, treatment of dairy cattle in hill pastures with no previous be present in the host. Some cattle at any stage of lactation. these second substances had not high-risk fluke areas would often history of fluke, have seen fluke flukicides are not active against It is estimated that it wil take Future of fluke control
been investigated, the CVMP include routine administration of infections in grazing stock11. immature stages of fluke devel- up to 9 months for the new Understanding the health, wel- One exception is Fasinex many veterinary researchers for use in dairy cows and not point Veterinary Group’s subject to the ban. This was due research team takes an interest to the successful presentation in advances in parasite control.
to the CVMP, resulting in the way on vaccines for fluke con- establishment of a specific milk trol and proof of concept of this Albendazole still retains a by research groups with both 60-hour milk withdrawal. Table Fasciola hepatica, and its cousin 2 provides flukicide withdrawal Fasciola gigantica. Some proto- Dairy industry concerns
The rising incidence of fluke situation in the real world) has within the national dairy herd is been elusive. There have been of concern not just to producers, substantial advances in vaccina- but also to those in the dairy tion research over recent years, supply chain. First purchasers are but these have yet to be trans- concerned about the effect of lated into something meaningful the disease on yield and profile for UK field conditions,” he said.
concerned about the onward has also published work on fluke impacts on supply, as well as the control and continues to be very Of particular concern is that working on improved diagnosis milk remains free of flukicide of active infection by using ELISA residues. With farmers facing developments in blood and such a clinical fluke problem, faeces19 (which would allow there is often a need for “in diagnosis early in the prepatent lactation” treatment in many period), and then monitoring herds. The temptation to avoid fluke levels to predict disease discarding the milk in accordance risk. It is also undertaking studies with the required withdrawal to determine the efficacy of flu- nary profession demonstrates its emerging resistance. Finally, it is commitment to use medicines identifying novel vaccine targets ods. This is particularly important lem affecting our dairy industry “As milk purchasers, although we must hope the pharma- tinely for flukicides, we are to the need for MRLs, and that aware of the rising prevalence, researchers and legislators can limits on treatments and residues both help hasten the develop- found,” said Tim Hampton, milk ment of a sustainable treatment quality manager for Alra Foods. for our nation’s dairy herd, to “The whole supply industry is prevent the health, welfare and taking a high level of interest production effects of this disease and is in the process of assessing increasing at the current rate.
options to monitor more closely References dues in milk, through improved 2004-2011.
and enhanced testing. These 2. Landward, BBC Scotland 13 findings will influence what type April, 2013.
tion activity the industry will Cattle – Costs and Control, http:// Veterinary Times
from page 8
demo.eblex.org.uk/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Liver-fluke-in-cattle- 4. The University of Reading, Department of Agriculture and Food Economics, 5. Bennett R and Ijpelaar J (2003). Economic assessment of livestock diseases in Great Britain. Final report to Defra; University of Reading.
6. www.moredun.org.uk/research/research-%40-moredun/parasitic-worms/ 7. EMA/759491/2012 - Veterinary Medicines and Product Data Manage- ment EMEA/V/A/069. Committee for medicinal products for veterinary use (CVMP), Opinion following an Article 351 referral for all veterinary medicinal products containing active substances belonging to the class of flukicides for which no maximum residue limit has been established in milk and which are intended for use in ruminants producing milk for human consumption. 8. Marketing Authorisation Veterinary Information Service, 84, October 2012.
9. www.nadis.org.uk/parasite-forecast.aspx 10. www.defra.gov.uk/ahvla-en/2013/01/29/ahvla-further-warning-flukes/ 11. AHVLA Winchester newsletter, December 2012.
12. Gordon D (2012). Liver fluke: confirmation of triclabendazole resistance in liver fluke in the UK, Vet Rec 171: 159-160. doi:10.1136/vr.e5381.
13. Fairweather et al (2012). Development of an egg hatch assay for the diagnosis of triclabendazole resistance in Fasciola hepatica: proof of concept, 14. http://ec.europa.eu/health/documents/community-register/html/ 16. www.vmd.defra.gov.uk/public/residues_stat.aspx 17. Veterinary Residues Committee Statutory Surveillance Results 2010-2013.
18. NFUS (2013). Liver fluke disease in sheep and cattle, Scottish Farming 19. Gordon et al (2012). On farm evaluation of the coproantigen ELISA and coproantigen reduction test in Scottish sheep naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica, Veterinary Parasitology 187: 436-444.
20. McAllister et al (2011). Using lectins to identify hidden antigens in Fasciola hepatica, Journal of Helminthology 85: 121-127.
MATT DOBBS spent time in practice in the south-west
and as a lecturer in dairy practice at the University of
Sydney and the RVC, before becoming a director and
vet with Westpoint Veterinary Group in Sussex. His
research and consultancy interests include animal
health policy and livestock agriculture law.

Source: http://www.westpointfarmvets.co.uk/library/files/Fluke%20Control.pdf

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