The Corporeal Signifier Theory (A.Lagache) : application to the succussed high dilution research and homeopathy
To the GIRI Working Group (Stephan Baumgartner, Lucietta Betti, Leoni Bonamin ,Christian Endler,René Halm, Elisabeth Malarczyck , Katia Martinho, Claudia Scherr) Working Document to prepare the next GIRI Meeting in Brussells, 12-14 November 2004. 1- General concept : It exists different communication levels in the living organisms.
1-1-The molecular one using the concept of interaction « molecule-receptor » with all the known consequences such as second messengers effects etc… It is a binary system (molecule + receptor). It concerns only objects.
1-2-The communication in the psychic world is only « informative exchange » . It is necessary to define what is “information”. As an example, we will speak on information for psyche:
-It is not an object-It is transmitted by mediation [words, paper and ink, physicalvibrations of voice, etc. -It exists only after reception by a receiver able to interpret it if it has asense for him: information becomes a « semantic signifier »
It is a ternary system of three inter-dependent elements. If onedisappears, there is no more information.
1-3-The Corporeal Signifier Theory : A.Lagache (1988, 1997a, 1997b) proposes the following: as semantic information exists between humans in the world of mind, we can propose that information interpreted by the body may exist.
This means that the ternary system existing in mind is transposed for the
-Matrix of information that is the molecular object (strains in
-Mediation that allows the passage to the receiver (succussed high
-Receiver (the sensitive subject to the homeopathic remedy).
The rules observed for psyche information are the same in the case of the corporealinformation. Defining these ones, we will be able to read differently our experimentalresults. More than that, we will be able to imagine experimental models according tothis theory; the results will valid or invalid the theory. 2-The rules of exchanges of information:
As we said, it needs 3 elements (matrix, mediation, receiver). Mediation Receiver 2-1-Comparison of the two kinds of exchanges:
The perception of the receiver may induce an opposite effect
Transmitted always by a vector (mediation)
2-2-Analysis of the three element relationship: (Bastide & Lagache, 1992, 1995,
This one is fundamental. The substance considered as the matrix of information
must have a significance for the receiver.
•It may concern products chosen according to the similia principle of
•It may concern products chosen in the isopathic model (identity between the
etiological substance and the remedy). A substance that is lethal or toxic whenadministered in high concentration may have no sense for the receiver after dilutionand succussion except in the isopathic model. Tested directly in an organism afterdilution and succussion out of the isopathy concept, it will show an effect only when itis in resonance with a specific part of the metabolism rather difficult to anticipate.
•It may concern products that belong to the organism such as biological
endogenous products: the relationship is evident and the experimental models are themost successful.
This concerns the choice of the technical preparation of the “homeopathic
dilutions”. It concerns the dynamisation process and the choice of the dilution tested. It concerns also the choice of the controls (succussed or unsuccussed). The role of themediation (whatever the physical explanation) concerns the succussed solvent. Thesuccussion induces changes into the solvent (showed by NMR, Thermoluminescence,microcalorimetry, discharge in gas, etc.). At this level, many theories or hypothesiscan be introduced (e-crystals, clathrates, aggregates, electromagnetic mediation seenby the printing effect of succussed high dilution in electromagnetic devices etc.). These hypothesis CONCERN ONLY THE MEDIATION; the effect in the body has to
be interpreted; it is not a molecular one as the only that we know is the classicalpharmacology.
This concerns the interpretation by the receiver. The effect on an organism is summarized in only 3 possibilities (compared to
No effectA “physiological” effect (according to the starting hypothesis i.e
An “opposite” effect to the previous one (according to the starting
•No effect: no sense for the receiver; no correspondence; no resonance; due tothe choice of the matrix or the choice of the dilution. Wrong “control’ (i.e. succussed solvent).
•‘Physiological effect’: all is wonderful! The model allows the interpretation of
the “corporeal” information received by cells, or plants or organs, or animals (Endler1994a, 1994b).
• Opposite effect (to the previous one or according to classical physiology or
by comparison with other experimentation):A misunderstanding (due to too strong information or weakness of the receiver, or
external conditions changing the equilibrium of the receiver etc.)Examples: Reilly (1986) and Aabel (2001) results in pollen treatment with a change inexternal conditionsExamples of opposite effects: Arsenicum album in plants ((Betti, 1997; Brizzi, 2000), andBaumgartner, GIRI 2003) maybe due to difference in the seeds and so on.
The “Arndt Schultz” law exists only in molecular system (read as a cybernetical
regulation by the organism, opposite effect according to the concentration like feedbacks).
The opposite effects in endogenous matrix systems (models of Endler 1994a, 1994b,
with thyroxin and frogs) is explained by an “excess” of information with Thyroxin 30D that isan addition to the normal thyroxin signal (too much gives opposite effect in information) etc.
A wrong interpretation due to a small change in isotherapic models between the high
The “zig zag” effects observed in serial high dilution effects due to either a
physiological or the opposite effect according to the “good” or “wrong “ dilution.
The suppression of molecular effect of Bonamin’s models (2001) with dexamethasone
is an isotherapy model; it proves that the effect of information is instantaneous ( as shown inmind, only the time to understand).
These indications should help the researchers involved in applying this theory to analyze thehigh dilution experimental results as shown in some examples. The validation of a theory goesthrough its verification by experimental results. No theory is available without these proofs.
Aabel S., « No beneficial effects of isopathic prophylactic treatment for birch pollen allergy during a low-pollen
season : a double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of homeopathic Betula 30C », Brit.Hom.J., 89 :
Bastide M, Lagache A., The paradigm of Signifiers, Alpha Bleue Publishers, Paris, 1992. Bastide M, Lagache A., Lemaire-Misonne C., "Le paradigme des signifiants: schème d'information applicable à
l'Immunologie et à l'Homéopathie", Revue Intern. Systémique, 9, pp 237-249, 1995.
Bastide M., Lagache A. A communication process: a new paradigm applied to high-dilution effects on the living
body. Altern Ther Health Med. 1997 Jul;3(4):35-9.
Bonamin L.V., Nina A.L., Caviglia F., Martinho K., « Very low dilutions of dexamethasone inhibit their own
pharmacological effect in vivo », Br.Hom.J.,90 :198-203, 2001.
Betti L, Brizzi M, Nani D, Peruzzi M, Effect of high dilutions of Arsenicum album on wheat seedlings from
seeds poisoned with the same substance, Br Hom J, 86 : 86-89, 1997.
Brizzi M, Nani D, Peruzzi M, Betti L, « Statistical analysis of the effect of high dilutions of arsenic in a large
dataset from a wheat germination model », Br Hom J, 89 :63-67, 2000.
Endler P.C, Pongratz W., Kastberger G., Wiegant F.A.C., Schulte J., "The effect of highly diluted agitated
thyroxine on the climbing activity of frogs", J.Vet.Hum.Tox., 36 : 56-59, 1994a.
Endler P.C., Pongratz W., van Wijk R., Wiegant F.A.C., Waltl K., Gehrer M., Hilgers H. “A zoological example
on ultra high dilution research”. In: Endler P.C., Schulte J. (Hrsg.). Ultra High Dilution: Physiology andPhysics. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 1994b.
Lagache A, Echos du sensible, Alpha Bleue Publisher, Paris, 1988. Lagache A, « What is Information ? »in Signal and Images, Bastide M ed., Dordrecht Kluwer Academic
Publisher, ISBN 0-7923-5051-0, 279-293, 1997a.
Lagache A,"Notes on the conceptual basis of Science", in Signal and Images, M.Bastide Ed, Kluwer Academic
Publisher, Dordrecht, ISBN 0-7923-5051-0, 269-279, 1997b.
Reilly D.T., Taylor M.A., Mc Sharry C., Aitchison T., « Is homeopathy a placebo response ? Controlled trial of
homeopathic potency with pollen in hayfever as model », The Lancet, 881-886, 1986.
ÍNDICE COMUNICACIONES PÓSTER - VIERNES 28 TOXICOLOGÍA MEDIOAMBIENTAL Y ECOTOXICOLOGÍA CP.138- Disruptores endocrinos y cáncer de testículo y próstata. Alarcón R , Hernández A, Requena M, Serrano MC, Yélamos F, Parrón T CP.139- Carcinogénesis por sustancias disruptoras endocrinas: cáncer de mama Alarcón R , Hernández A, Requena M, Serrano MC, Yélamos F, Parrón T
REPEAT PRESCRIBING GUIDANCE INTRODUCTION The purpose of this document is to set out the methods by which a repeat prescription will be issued and the roles and responsibilities within the practice. THERE ARE FOUR STAGES: 1. Initiation / Request 2. Production/ Authorisation 3. Clinical control/ Review 4. Management control The GP should retain an active involvement throughout the r