Sept 2004 nl

S T R E S S , N E U R OT R A N SM I T T E R S &
KEYWORDS: Vagusstoff, the "Big Three", the "Mighty Two", the "Dracula Hormone", Awakenings,Zyban, schizophrenia, Prozac, REM sleep, the dantian, Rabelais purposeful during evolution. Thus, diarrhea could have life saving value for an antelope manifested by gastrointestinal complaints.
fleeing from a tiger since lightening the load Numerous people get "butterflies" in the performing before a large audience. Others from the gut, where it was not immediately are nervous or upset. A disgusting sight can provide more strength in combat or a faster might give you "agita" or a 'bellyache".
exit from a scene of potential peril. Hans could be cited as well as disorders that are stress consistently caused stomach ulcers in (gastroesophageal reflux disease), peptic ulcer, irritable bowel syndrome, ileitis and ulcerative colitis. In some instances, these observations explain other effects of stress on the gut and how stress could contribute reduce natural defenses or represent "fight to some of the diseases listed. Over the past few decades, research on neurotransmitters, as well as an appreciation that the
gastrointestinal tract has its own

"brain" that operates independently of
What And Where Are Neurotransmitters?
the central nervous system, has provided
What Do Neurotransmitters Do?
An Odd Orchestra With No Conductor
The Dopamine Dilemma
the brain are derived very early in life from • The "Second Brain" In The Gut
the same primitive neural crest tissue. As • Emotions And Energies From The Gut?
Why We Know Relatively Little About Stress
the fetus develops, this tissue divides and And Disease Or How Drugs Work
one section becomes the central nervoussystem and the rest migrates away to form a September 2004 The Newsletter of THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STRESS Page 2 separate nervous system for the gut. Later Sunday was the most desperate day in my whole scientific life. During the next night, nervous systems. "Vagus" is derived from however, I awoke again, at three o'clock, Latin, where it means wandering, since the and I remembered what it was. This time I vagus winds from the brain stem through the did not take any risk; I got up immediately, went to the laboratory, made the experiment on the frog's heart, described above, and at five o'clock the chemical transmission of and the gut, neurotransmitters also seem to nervous impulse was conclusively proved." hearts. Heart #1 was still connected to the What & Where Are Neurotransmitters?
another at a junction between the two called a synapse. They are particularly abundant in stimulation of the vagus nerve attached to acetylcholine allow neurons to talk to each other in ways that affect how we feel, think after a slight delay, heart #2 also slowed and act. Most people are unaware that the hypothesized that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve caused the release of some Gershon notes in The Second Brain, a book chemical into the fluid of chamber #1 that flowed into chamber #2. He referred to this substance as "Vagusstoff".
neurotransmitters line the length of the gut, was acetylcholine and that it was released following stimulation of the vagus and all cells in the gastrointestinal tract than in the entire remainder of the peripheral nervous found that a substance closely related to Henry Dale shared a 1936 Nobel Prize "for to be discovered. Nearly every
neurotransmitter involved in
transmission of nerve impulses." The two communication in the brain in the head
had been close friends since 1902 when they has been identified in the gut's "second
brain". That should not be too surprising
identified acetylcholine in ergot extracts and since both brains originated from the same his analysis of its actions confirmed and rudimentary tissue. The question is what are greatly extended the application of Loewi's many?The first neurotransmitter was What Do Neurotransmitters Do?
discovered in 1921 by Otto Loewi, an
Austrian scientist during a dream that he neurotransmitters have stimulating actions, "In the night of Easter Saturday, 1921, 1 some have inhibiting effects and many, like awoke, turned on the light, and jotted down acetylcholine can do both, depending on the a few notes on a tiny slip of paper. Then I nature of the receptor. The two acetylcholine fell asleep again. It occurred to me at six o'clock in the morning that during the night I had written down something most important, acting receptor is called nicotinic because it but I was unable to decipher the scrawl. That is specifically activated by the toxin found in September 2004 The Newsletter of THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STRESS Page 3 tobacco. The slow acting muscarinic receptor is activated by muscarine found in poisonous closely related chemically to noradrenaline mushrooms. Acetylcholine will activate it but was discovered in 1957. It was referred to as the brain's "feel good" or "reward" chemical by nicotine from tobacco or arecoline from release was stimulated by nicotine, cocaine, betel nuts (chewed by millions of people in found that a dopamine deficiency in certain satisfaction that often leads to addiction.
disease. As will be explained, dopamine may nicotine receptors. It has been suggested
that nicotine may be able to improve
Alzheimer's patients since they have
reduced acetylcholine nicotinic
receptors in brain sites responsible for
memory and learning. Scientists have long
suicide, obsessive-compulsive disorder and acetylcholine and Alzheimer's since there is a problems with anger control. Too little can brains of patients in advanced stages.
common complaints in depression and other stimulation of all skeletal muscles and some morphine relieved pain, and heroin brought because botulinus toxin blocks acetylcholine.
pleasure, by acting on receptors for some chemicals with similar effects were isolated affects specific muscles. Acetylcholine is also and named endorphins, for "morphine from present in sensory as well as motor neurons within." In addition to reducing pain, they and has even been found to play a role in "runner's high" and promoted endurance by by the Swedish physician and physiologist demonstration that exercise, laughter, sex, Ulf von Euler. He demonstrated that this was touch, and massage can increase endorphin production helps to explain many anecdotal observations and why such activities tend to the key neurotransmitter in the sympathetic have varied effects. Beta-endorphins activate natural killer cells that boost immune system stress and causes an increase in heart rate resistance to infections and cancer.
An Odd Orchestra With No Conductor
be essential in retrieving certain types of memories. Researchers are now studying its important members of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine are often referred to as "The characterized by difficulties and disturbances Big Three". All these neurotransmitters are 1970 Nobel Prize for "discoveries concerning and forth to one another. Others that are also involved in the response to stress are September 2004 The Newsletter of THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STRESS Page 4 acid), which some view as illustrating the yin hormone that is manufactured in the pineal and yang balance of neurotransmitters. Both gland at the base of the brain. It is called are present in nearly all synaptic connections "The Dracula Hormone" because it is secreted at night and regulates sleep-wake cycles. Serotonin in the pineal is converted inhibitory role. It's not quite that simple reversed every 24 hours. This sequence of receptors, one of which, NMDA, controls the events takes exactly 25 hours when subjects flow of calcium into nerve cells. Drugs that are placed in a cave at constant levels of act as NMDA antagonists have been found to decrease depression and improve memory.
impaired and increased calcium influx can automatically reset the body’s clock to a 24 hour day. Melatonin makes you feel sleepy at night and the surge of stress hormones in neurotransmitter in the brain and blocks the the early morning is what wakes you up.
Melatonin is also a powerful antioxidant that anxiety. Tranquilizers like Valium as well as blocks the free radical damage thought to barbiturates and alcohol all act by facilitating play a role in age related diseases such as GABA activities. Depressed individuals have cancer, cataracts, coronary, Alzheimer's and glucagon, and cholecystokinin that control depressed patients that may have diagnostic digestion, hormones (vasopressin, oxytocin, prolactin, thyrotropin, and gonadotropin and doubled. Antidepressants like Prozac that are have widespread and varied effects. Soluble thought to act by boosting serotonin also gases like carbon monoxide and nitric oxide are recent additions. Nitric oxide reduces inflammation, relaxes smooth muscle in the two different types of amino acids, speeds gut to promote peristalsis and in coronaries to relieve angina, stimulates the release of increases inflammatory reactions during the neurotransmitter orchestra are constantly anxiety and depression and one was recently approved for treating chemotherapy induced (corticotropin releasing factor) also known as The Dopamine Dilemma
(CRH) is a much larger peptide composed of chemical messengers does from this tangled 41 amino acids. During stress, it is secreted interrelationships is impossible, as illustrated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response that by the very versatile dopamine. So much
causes ACTH to stimulate the production of has been written about the role of
cortisol. In addition, it activates sympathetic dopamine in sex, love, compulsive
and behavioral responses to stressors and gambling, smoking, drinking, and other
causes the release of GABA in the amygdala, addictions that provide pleasure, that a
a portion of the brain that is often referred movie was devoted to it. The prize
September 2004 The Newsletter of THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STRESS Page 5 winning Dopamine, which premiered at the whether all of the above are merely different effective in treating addictions. Zyban, a manifestations of dopamine activities and if sustained release version, is used to aid mechanisms because you don't learn as well contradictory effects, including: promoting if you're not rewarded. Zyban works best in feelings of rage or falling in love, making patients who are not motivated as opposed depressed, schizophrenic, decreasing blood other addictive drugs increase dopamine by binding to sites that remove it but as these similar fashion are also associated with an increased incidence of compulsive gambling, three scientists who showed that dopamine that the high rate of drug use and
Parkinson's disease was due to a deficiency smoking in people with eating disorders
of dopamine in a certain portion of the brain.
could be partly explained by their
This led to the discovery of L-dopa, which is increased need for dopamine. In one
study, obese individuals had less dopamine receptors than controls of normal weight and model of severe Parkinson's, rabbits that had the heavier the individual, the fewer the been in a sustained stupor awakened rapidly This was the basis for Awakenings, a and a shortage here is associated with poor disease was seen following the Spanish flu pandemic after World War I that killed up to 40 million people and caused encephalitis personality given to bouts of paranoia or that left many others in a permanent coma.
In the movie, Robin Williams, a neurologist assigned to a ward of such patients, decided effects. Risperdal, one of the most popular, breasts in young males, in addition to the that he is no longer a teen-ager and how he and other treated patients try to cope with dizziness, nausea, weight gain, constipation, the brain can cause depression, which is alsocommon in Parkinson's. While most attention The “Second Brain” In The Gut
noradrenaline are also effective. Since these important influences on the gastrointestinal determine which is being affected. Drugs like tract. Antidepressant and other drugs that affect neurotransmitter levels are frequently noradrenaline and Wellbutrin raises levels of all three but particularly dopamine.
nausea, diarrhea, or constipation. This is not September 2004 The Newsletter of THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STRESS Page 6 danger signal from above, it also helps to messengers in the brain are also found in abundance in the nerve supply to the gut.
immune system responses. Mast cells in the lining of the small intestine and colon release communicates with the brain via the vagus, it has a mind of its own. It regulates the response to attract immune cells from the colon by mixing food with digestive enzymes blood stream into the affected area to deal and pushing it along via peristalsis. It is with animal bites, knives or other foreign structurally quite similar to the central objects that might allow infectious material messages are also constantly being sent up the line. The enteric nervous system signals the brain if it senses dangerous or infected provides "second-to-second control" and abdominal pain or diarrhea. Just like the
primary brain, the "second brain" in the
gut is able to learn, remember, and also
produce emotion-based feelings. The
nervous system are entirely contained in the sensation of fulfillment, satisfaction and gut, it can be disconnected from the spinal cord and brain to study various parts as they turkey, which is converted into serotonin or opportunity to study the effects of different neurotransmitters. For example, serotonin carbohydrates that not only increases levels plays an important role in peristalsis by of tryptophan in the brain but pulls blood constriction and relaxation are cordoned up benzodiazepines that alleviate pain and are and down the line. Altering serotonin levels found in anti-anxiety drugs like Valium.
synthesizes benzodiazepines from chemicals why half of senior citizens in nursing homes in our foods, bacterial actions, or both, we suffer from fecal incontinence, diarrhea and do know that during severe stress, the gut benzodiazepines to the brain to reduce pain and anxiety. Some believe that the brain in the gut provides a major source of relief serotonin. By placing an artificial pellet in the brain, the "second brain" has receptors for intestine, it is also possible to study the opiates. Drugs like morphine and heroin also influence of different drugs on motility and attach to the gut's opiate receptors and both brains can become addicted to opiates.
Emotions And Energies From The Gut?
head to the enteric nervous system. Thus, interconnected that both have natural 90- minute "sleep cycles." In the brain, slow- for "fight or flight". This response can vary wave sleep is interrupted by periods of rapid from slowing down normal intestinal motility, shutting it down completely or evacuating September 2004 The Newsletter of THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STRESS Page 7 interrupted by similar short bursts of rapid often rub to obtain good luck. In the King James Version of the Bible's Song of Solomon, "bowels" are "the seat of the nightmares after a late night spicy snack and others develop cramps, agita or diarrhea Testament also translate "bowels" as "the when they are very nervous or angry.
deep, inner seat of tender emotions in the whole personality". Expressions like "My gut reaction is", "he has a lot of guts" and "I can't stomach that fellow" still support the sleep. In some instances, antidepressants notion that feelings can originate in various can make all these complaints disappear and in others, there may be an improvement in The use of "gut" to denote spirit or force of character, usually considered as being brain attributes, is a slang word that be so unpredictable. Depression is associated first appeared in the 1890's. Having "guts" with poor appetite, decreased salivation and constipation. On the other hand, Prozac and endurance and variations of these such as antidepressants that increase brain serotonin constipation. In one study, when a traceable intestinal fortitude. In addition to feelings, pellet was put in the "mouth end" of isolated the gut is also believed to be an important guinea pig colon, it traveled down to the "anal" end just as it would inside the animal.
500 years ago, "From the gut comes the
strut, and where hunger reigns,
the pellet passed through twice as fast but strength abstains." In the martial arts, Qi
is believed to be stored in the dantian to produce the "elixir of immortality." This ancient Chinese term refers to a "center of energy" located deep in the abdomen at the constipation, larger doses cause constipation level of the solar plexus, a large network of and some people get diarrhea. In addition, nerves behind the stomach. A karate chop or Prozac stimulates sensory nerves resulting in boxing blow that affects the solar plexus can nausea or even vomiting. While these drugs incapacitate an opponent by causing severe pain and "knocking the wind out" due to serotonin, less is available for the gut, where else in the body to regulate peristalsis and The cerebral and gut brain
during stress is a mystery. In addition to connection is so close that determining
serotonin, there are 'brain-gut" receptors for which is doing what can be difficult and
numerous other neurotransmitters with wide confusing. This is especially true when it
ranging functions. Why these are present in comes to responses to stress as well as
both brains is not clear, but suggests that numerous drugs that increasingly
appear to affect both brains.
the heart rather than the brain was the seat of emotions but in other cultures it was the Why We Know Relative Little About
gut. Indian deities are often depicted with Stress And Disease Or How Drugs Work
prana energy to sustain life was stored.
and articles about the response to stress and Chinese statues of Hotei, the obese, "Happy Cannon's "fight or flight" sympathetic September 2004 The Newsletter of THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STRESS Page 8 r e s p o n s e s a n d S e l y e ' s " A l a r m R e a c t i o n " r e l a t e d d i s o r d e r s . F e w w o u l d b e w i l l i n g a n d " G e n e r a l A d a p t a t i o n S y n d r o m e " t o m a k e t h e s u b s t a n t i a l i n v e s t m e n t f e a t u r i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e p i t u i t a r y - n e e d e d t o p r o v e b o t h t h e e f f i c a c y a n d a d r e n a l - c o r t i c a l a x i s i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s a f e t y r e q u i r e d t o o b t a i n F D A a p p r o v a l . c o r t i s o l a n d c o r t i c a l h o r m o n e s . M o r e A n o t h e r s t u m b l i n g b l o c k i s t h a t e v e n i f r e c e n t r e s e a r c h h a s f o c u s e d o n h o w y o u d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t a n e w d r u g p r o v i d e s b e n e f i t s a n d i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e s i s t a n c e t o i n f e c t i o n s a n d p o s s i b l y a c o n s i s t e n t e f f e c t o n s o m e s p e c i f i c c a n c e r a n d c a u s e s s h o r t t e r m m e m o r y n e u r o t r a n s m i t t e r , t h e r e i s n o p r o o f t h a t l o s s a n d c o g n i t i v e d i s t u r b a n c e s , a n d h o w t h i s i s t h e m e c h a n i s m o f a c t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e . W e a r e j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o h o r m o n e s c a n c o n t r i b u t e t o d e p r e s s i o n , a p p r e c i a t e t h i s w i t h r e s p e c t t o P r o z a c a n x i e t y , P T S D a n d o t h e r p s y c h i a t r i c p r o b l e m s . T h e r e i s r a r e l y a n y r e f e r e n c e p r e s u m a b l y w o r k b y b o o s t i n g s e r o t o n i n t o , m u c h l e s s d i s c u s s i o n , o f e f f e c t s o n b u t h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o a f f e c t o t h e r n e u r o t r a n s m i t t e r s t h a t m o s t l i k e l y a l s o m e d i a t e d e p r e s s i o n , a v a r i e t y o f a n x i e t y p l a y a r o l e . S i m i l a r l y , i t i s n o w q u i t e d i s o r d e r s , a n d a d d i c t i v e b e h a v i o r s t h a t o b v i o u s t h a t t h e b e n e f i t s o f s t a t i n s a r e n o t r e l a t e d t o l i p i d l o w e r i n g b u t r a t h e r u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . S u c h r e s e a r c h i s i n i t s t o r e d u c i n g i n f l a m m a t i o n a n d o t h e r i n f a n c y f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . D e t e r m i n i n g " p l e i o t r o p i c " a c t i o n s . t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f c a t e c h o l a m i n e s , A s i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e s p a c e c o r t i s o l o r o t h e r b a r o m e t e r s o f s t r e s s i n c o n s t r a i n t s a n d t h e f o r m a t o f t h i s a n d b l o o d , c e r e b r o s p i n a l f l u i d , o r s a l i v a a r e m o s t N e w s l e t t e r s m a k e i t i m p o s s i b l e t o n o w s t a n d a r d , a n d a c c u r a t e , r e p r o d u c i b l e i n c l u d e i m p o r t a n t r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l a n d p r o c e d u r e s t h a t a r e r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e r e f e r e n c e s t h a t m a n y r e a d e r s h a v e a n d o f t e n r e i m b u r s a b l e a r e a v a i l a b l e . r e p e a t e d l y r e q u e s t e d . B e c a u s e o f t h i s a n d r i s i n g p r o d u c t i o n a n d p o s t a g e c o s t s , n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t w h a t i s g o i n g o n i n w e a r e c h a n g i n g o v e r t o a n e l e c t r o n i c t h e b r a i n . M e a s u r i n g l e v e l s o f s p e c i f i c v e r s i o n t h a t w i l l a l l o w a d d i t i o n a l a n d b r a i n n e u r o t r a n s m i t t e r s i s v e r y c o s t l y ; f r e q u e n t l y m o r e c u r r e n t c o v e r a g e o f t e c h n i q u e s v a r y a n d r e q u i r e s p e c i f i c c e r t a i n t o p i c s . T h i s s h o u l d a l s o p r o v i d e a s o p h i s t i c a t e d e q u i p m e n t a n d e x p e r t i s e . m o r e c o n v e n i e n t w a y t o s a v e a n d T h i s m a k e s i t d i f f i c u l t f o r o t h e r s t o r e f e r e n c e i s s u e s t h a t a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r c o n f i r m r e s u l t s o r t o c o n d u c t d o u b l e t h e r e f o r e
b l i n d s t u d i e s t h a t s a t i s f y t h e s c i e n t i f i c n e c e s s a r y f o r s u b s c r i b e r s t o s e n d
c o m m u n i t y ' s r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p r o o f . t h e i r p r e f e r r e d e - m a i l a d d r e s s t o :
M o s t s u c h r e s e a r c h i s s p o n s o r e d b y s t r e s s 1 2 5 @ o p t o n l i n e . n e t
p h a r m a c e u t i c a l c o m p a n i e s e a g e r t o a s s o o n a s p o s s i b l e t o i n s u r e
d e v e l o p b l o c k b u s t e r d r u g s f o r s t r e s s u n i n t e r r u p t e d s e r v i c e .
Copyright2004 by the American Institute of Stress. All rights reserved.
Health and Stress
ISSN # 1089-148X
124 Park Avenue Yonkers, NY 10703


Microsoft word - masoretic accent system.doc

The Masoretic Accent System The Tiberian Masoretes invented a complicated system of accent marks to accompany the biblical text. While it is not necessary for most Hebrew students to learn all of the intricacies of the system, there are a few points which can be of immense help in reading and interpreting the Hebrew text. The Masoretes actually made two systems of accents, one for so called

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Is a once-daily human GLP-1 (Glucagon-Like Peptide-1) analogue approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in adults.1 Has 97% similar to the body’s own hormone (GLP-1). GLP-1 is a natural hormone in the body that plays a critical role in maintaining a healthy level of sugar in the blood. In type 2 diabetes, GLP-1 production and Lowers blood sugar levels by stimulating the

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