Ergonomics for Everyone
International Ergonomics Conference
Humanizing Work and Work Environment
December 17-19, 2009
Amit Bandyopadhyay, Fadzel Wong Chee Ping* and Chen Chee Keong** Sports & Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology University of Calcutta, University College of Science and Technology, Kolkata India *Sekolah Pendidikan dan Pembangunan Sosial, Universiti Malaysia Sabah **Sports Science Unit, School of Medical Sciences
Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia Abstract
Caffeine is one of the commonly used ergogenic aids. Many researches have established the performance enhancing property of caffeine but its effects on hydration status duringendurance exercise has not been explored.
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of acute supplementation of caffeine on hydration status during endurance running exercise in the hot and humid environ-ment. Nine heat acclimated recreational runners (25.4 + 6.9 years) and nonusers of caffeine(23.7+ 12.6 mg per day) participated in this placebo controlled double blind randomised study.
Subjects ingested caffeine at a dose of 5mg per kg of body weight or placebo (capsule) one hour before the exercise trial. The treadmill speed for the endurance exercise was set at70% of the VO in a heat-controlled laboratory environment (31oC, 70% relative humidity).
Subjects were allowed to drink 3 mL of cool water per kg of body weight every 20 minutesduring the trials to avoid the possibility of dehydration. Pre and post trial body weight wererecorded. Heart rate, skin temperature and core body temperature were recorded at an inter-val of 10 minutes. Sweat rate and changes in body weight were calculated. Heart rate, skintemperature and core body temperature did not show any significant variation between thetrials but these parameters were significantly increased (p<0.01) during the running endur-ance exercise from their respective resting values in both the trials. Body weight and sweatrate did not show any significant variation in both the trials.
Therefore, the present investigation may conclude that the ingestion of 5 mg of caffeine per kg of body weight does not impose any significant effect on hydration status of the bodyduring endurance running exercise in a hot and humid environment.
Keywords: Caffeine, acute supplementation, hydration, endurance running.
Ergonomics for Everyone
International Ergonomics Conference
Humanizing Work and Work Environment
December 17-19, 2009
Anindita Mandal (Majee) and Rumila Majumder Abstract
Respiratory problem is one of the major health threats to cotton mill workers . It leads to some systemic symptoms in exposed workers along with a no. of other physical problem like hearing loss ornoise problem , low back pain etc To assess the magnitude of respiratory health problems of inhalation of cotton dust by cotton mill workers of West Bengal.
This cross sectional study was carried out on 187 cotton mill workers of West Bengal and a control group of 65 non workers surrounding the industry . Anthropometric parameters and spirometry was performed. Spirometry includes FVC, FEV , FEV , FEF Results: Out of 187 employees restrictive lung function was observed in 65.7% cottonmill workers and among them 21.39% reported bissinosis like symptoms like chest pain, chest tightness, wheezingand cough. The bissinosis like symptoms were from carding mainly ring frame section (51.42%) andrest from winding , doubling and others.
Majority of workers with abnormal lung function test have du- ration of exposure to dust particle in between 10-40 years. But abnormal lung function below 10 years ofexposure have been observed in smokers. Besides higher age group (36-60yrs) smoker workers showedabnormality in lung function (75%) more in comparison to lower age group smoker workers (60%). Allthe lung function parameters show significantly (p<0.001) lower values in cotton mill workers of bothhigher and lower age group as well as smoker and non smoker groups in comparison to control group.
Conclusion: This study clearly indicates poor pulmonary function in cotton mill workers exposed to dust . This baseline information is expected to development of a regional occupational health data base for use in local regulation and resource allocation for intervention to ensure safe andhealthful working condition in cotton mill workers. Restrictive lung disorder is the prominent lung func-tion abnormality and higher age group workers are mostly affected depending on the duration of expo-sure to dust particle especially the carding and spinning section workers where suspended dust par-ticle and respirable dust particle is above the recommended level( 0.2 mg/m3). Smoking is anotherfactor for decline in lung function of cotton workers.
Recommendation: Therefore abiding to the international standard (100 µ/m3) is recommended. Tech- nical support like close cotton processing and air conditioning of work places, specially the high dustzone will be effective. Besides by providing protective face mask , by disallowing overtime working ,discouraging smoking and transfer of workers from more dusty to less dusty area when becomesymptomatic, periodic health check up and worker’s compensation for occupational disability shouldbe available.
Keywords: Pulmonary function, cotton mill worker
Ergonomics for Everyone
International Ergonomics Conference
Humanizing Work and Work Environment
December 17-19, 2009
Indranil Mannaa, Gulshan Lal Khannab, Prakash Chandra Dharac aDepartment of Physiology, Janaki Medical College, Janakpur, Nepal bDepartment of Health Sciences, Manav Rachana Educational Institute, Hariana, India cDepartment of Human Physiology, Vidyasagar University, West Bengal, India Abstract
Hockey is a sport with a long history that has undergone quite rapid and radical change The present study was aimed to find out the variability of age and training body composi- tion, aerobic capacity, anaerobic power and strength of hockey players. A total of 120 malehockey players volunteered for the present study, were divided equally (n=30) into 4 groups:U16 (14-15 yrs); U19 (16-18 yrs); U23 (19-22 yrs); senior (23-30 yrs). The training sessionswere divided into 3 phases: [Transition Phase (TP), 4 weeks], [Preparatory Phase (PP), 8weeks], and [Competitive Phase (CP), 4 weeks]. The training programme consist of aerobic,anaerobic and skill development training, and were completed 4 hrs/day; 5 days/week. Theselected physiological variables were measured in the laboratory.
The results showed a higher (P<0.05) height, body mass, lean body mass (LBM), maxi- ), anaerobic power and strength among the senior players than that of the junior players. However, a decrease (P<0.05) in body fat and heart rates havebeen found with the advancement of age of the players. Further, an increase (P<0.05) inVO , anaerobic power, grip and back strength; and a decrease (P<0.05) in body fat and recovery heart rate have been noted in PP and CP when compared to that of TP. But, nosignificant change was observed in height; body mass, LBM and maximal heart rate aftertraining.
The present study would provide useful information for training and selection of hockey Key words: anaerobic power, body fat, strength, training, VO2max
Ergonomics for Everyone
International Ergonomics Conference
Humanizing Work and Work Environment
December 17-19, 2009
A different Anthropometric measurement of 350 female college students of 18-22 years of age of almost same socioeconomic status was randomly selected among nontribals & tribalshere at Agartala.
Resting heart rate, anticipatory heart rate rise , blood pressure, extent of physical activity , sleeping hours & physical fitness index (PFI) by standard Harvard step test, intervals be-tween date of onset of menstruration days & taking the PFI test were recorded. Then theother abovementioned variables (including anthropometry but except PFI) were tried to relatewith the PFI of all subjects to find out the fact that which of the anthropometric & physiologicalvariable has got most close and statistically significant relation with the PFI.
The reasons of finding such significant relationship have been analyzed.
Keywords: Anthropometric measurements, heart rate, blood pressure, physical fitness in-
Ergonomics for Everyone
International Ergonomics Conference
Humanizing Work and Work Environment
December 17-19, 2009
1Department of Soil & Water Conservation Engineering, 2Department of Farm Machinery & Power, College of Agricultural Engineering & Technology, Abstract
The small and marginal farmers constitute 83.8 per cent of the total farming community in Orissa. They use different manual pumps for irrigation purpose. A double cylinder pedal op-erated diaphragm pump (PDP) was developed in the College of Agricultural Engineering &Technology, OUAT, Bhubaneswar and its physiological cost like working heart rate (WHR),work pulse (WP), oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and energy expenditure rate (EER) andits discharge at an optimum suction head of 3.4m were evaluated with male and femaleoperators in the age group of 18 to 45 years in the Central Farm of OUAT, Bhubaneswar.
The mean value of WHR, WP, OCR while operating with Krishak Bandhu pump (KBP) wasobserved to be 118.2 beats min-1, 43.1 beats min-1 and 0.72 l min-1 for male and 115.1 beatsmin-1, 43.4 beats min-1 and 0.64 l min-1 for female operators respectively. But in case of PDPthe WHR, WP and OCR were recorded to be 115.1 beats min-1, 40.1 beats min-1 and 0.71 lmin-1 for male and 113.6 beats min-1, 41.6 beats min-1 and 0.62 l min-1 for female operatorsrespectively. The corresponding energy expenditure rate (EER) varied in the range of 14.2 to15.9 kJ min-1 for male and 12.1 to 14.4 kJ min-1 for female operators while operating withKBP. The EER was recorded to be in the range of 14.0 to 15.5 kJ min-1 for male and 12.3 to13.4 kJ min-1 for female operators in case of improved pedal operated diaphragm pump.
The average discharge was found to be 4273.4 lph and 3717.7 lph for male and femaleoperators respectively in case of pedal operated diaphragm pump which was higher in com-parison to KB pump.
Keywords: Physiological cost, Diaphragm pump, Working heart rate, Oxygen consumption
rate, Energy expenditure rate
Ergonomics for Everyone
International Ergonomics Conference
Humanizing Work and Work Environment
December 17-19, 2009
College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology M.A.U. Parbhani 431402, Maharashtra State, India.
The mean values of HR and oxygen uptake of the subjects for Bakpak (SP ), knapsack (SP ) & power sprayer (SP ) in the laboratory were 87.98, 96.52 & 100.38 beats/min and 0.398, 0.487 & 0.587 l/min respectively. The corresponding values of increase in heart rateover rest (Ä HR) and energy expenditure (EE) were 9.24, 19.43 & 25.42 beats/min and 8.31,10.17 & 12.25 kJ/min respectively. Whereas, the mean values of HR and oxygen uptake ofthe subjects for SP , SP & SP in the field were 93.82, 100.59 & 109.30 beats/min and 0.408, 0.524 & 0.62 l/min respectively. The corresponding values of Ä HR and EE were15.60, 21.87 & 27.60 beats/min and 8.52, 10.95 & 12.88 kJ/min respectively. The sprayingoperation with all the sprayers falls under moderate work based on heart rate data. Whereas,based on oxygen consumption it falls under light grade of work.
The workload in the spraying operation with was within the acceptable limits of the female workers based on HR and oxygen consumption data. Due to the noise and vibrations ofengine on back there is fear among the women workers for power sprayer. Hence it is noteasily accepted by women workers.
There is a need to collect the data on postural discomfort experienced by the female operators during spraying, awareness about power sprayer and make improvements in themounting of all sprayers on the operator’s back as per the anthropometric data to reduce thepostural discomfort.
Key Words: Oxygen uptake, energy expenditure, heart rate, postures
Ergonomics for Everyone
International Ergonomics Conference
Humanizing Work and Work Environment
December 17-19, 2009
Deepti Majumdar, M.S. Pal and D. Majumdar Defence Institute of Physiology & Allied Sciences (DIPAS) Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi -110054, INDIA Email: [email protected], [email protected] Abstract
Kinematic responses of load carried in hand, shoulder and back were investigated at comfortable walking speed (0.97 m.sec-1) on ten healthy male Indian infantry soldiers withmean (SD) age 23.3(2.6) yrs, height 172.0(3.8) cm and weight 64.3(7.4) kg. Gait data wascollected using six CCD cameras based 3D Motion Analysis System while the subjectswalked on a 12m level ground walkway with thirteen load conditions including no load (NL).
Load carried were rifle(R,4.2kg) in hand(RH) and on shoulder(RS), light machine gun(LMG,6.8kg) in hand(LMGH) and on shoulder(LMGS), haversack(HS, 4.4kg) and R(HSR,8.6 kg) inhand(HSRH) and on shoulder(HSRS), HS and LMG(HSLMG,11.2kg) in hand(HSLMGH) andon shoulder(HSLMGS), backpack(BP,10.7kg) and R(BPR,14.9kg) in hand(BPRH) and onshoulder(BPRS) and BP and LMG(BPLMG, 17.5kg) in hand(BPLMGH) and onshoulder(BPLMGS). Spatial, temporal parameters and joint angular changes at gait eventsof initial foot strike(FS1), midstance(MST), terminal stance(TS) and toe-off(TO) for ankle,knee, hip, pelvis and trunk joints and the ranges of motion (ROM) in sagittal plane wererecorded.
Data was subjected to One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni post-hoc test for comparing different load conditions. Midstance showed significant changeswhen load was carried in hand, either singly or in combination.Trunk forward lean anglesshowed significant changes in all conditions. Ankle, knee, hip and pelvic angles did not showany significant change.
Result showed that trunk remained more extended with upright posture maintaining cen- ter of gravity at natural position while walking with load on shoulders than in hand. The in-creased forward inclination while carrying load in hand and back may be explained as due todesign artefact of the existing BP or may be attributed to some intrinsic adaptive phenom-enon in the individual to counterbalance the load on back.
Keywords: Load carriage, mode of carriage, kinematics, ROM
Ergonomics for Everyone
International Ergonomics Conference
Humanizing Work and Work Environment
December 17-19, 2009
Tirthankar Ghosh and Somnath Gangopadhyay Ergonomics Laboratory, Department of Physiology, University of Calcutta, India Abstract
Gold smiths use metal blow pipe to heat the gold bead. Repeated prolonged nature of these procedures creates some health problems among the goldsmiths. In order to reducethese risks, effective interventions for reducing the stress are needed. The objective of thecurrent study was to investigate alternative air pipe as an intervention for goldsmiths to con-tinue their work.
For this current study 100 male goldsmiths were selected form the Davangere District of Karnataka. The study was included questionnaire study on MSD and respiratory symptoms,Pulmonary Function Test, Measurement of peak expiratory flow rate and electromyographyof three major facial muscles (Buccinators Right, Buccinators Left and Orbicularis Oris). Anew ergonomic intervention was introduced to the goldsmiths with their active suggestions.
Subjects were interviewed at the end of each week to ascertain intervention acceptance.
A large number of goldsmiths complained of respiratory symptoms in this industry. Re- duced lung volumes and peak expiratory flow rates of goldsmiths was found, presumablyfrom heavy pressure generated by using blow pipe. This work habit also increases the fa-tigue of facial muscles, at the end of the day. In this study an ergonomic intervention wareprovided in three primary types. Finally one type of hand air pipe was selected by the analysisof subject’s preference.
This way in this current study we eliminate the hazards manual Blowing Pipe activities of the goldsmiths. By introducing this mechanical hand air pipe, it can reduce or can give reliefthe goldsmiths from various occupational hazards.
Key words: Goldsmith; respiratory symptoms; muscle fatigue; ergonomic intervention
Ergonomics for Everyone
International Ergonomics Conference
Humanizing Work and Work Environment
December 17-19, 2009
Tirthankar Chatterjee, MS Pal, D Bhattacharyya, Deepti Majumdar and D Majumdar, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences Abstract
Carrying moderate to heavy load is a common phenomenon in any industrial setup and military operations. In Indian Army, soldiers normally carry 21.3 kg in different load carriageensembles (LCe) such as backpack (10.7 kg, BP), haversack (4.4 kg, HS), and web (2.1 kg,Wb) distributed in different parts of the body and rifle (4.1 kg) in hand. This load distribution isunequal, may involve excess energy expenditure, mostly uncomfortable, and restricting thenormal movement of the hand carrying rifle. A new BP has been developed with two cham-bers which can accommodate existing BP content in the upper chamber and HS and Wbitems in the lower chamber. The rifle can be placed on sides of the new BP leaving the handsfree. Physiological evaluation of carrying 21.3 kg in the existing LCe and in the new BP wascarried out on a group of army soldiers to understand the efficacy of the new BP vis- á- visthe existing one.
Six physically fit soldiers with Mean ± SD age 29.83 ± 2.86 yrs, height 165.5 ± 3.15 cm and weight 63.5 ± 5.47 kg, carried 21.3 kg load in new BP and in existing LCe at 4.5 speedat level ground and at 5% gradient on a treadmill in controlled laboratory environment. Pulmo-nary ventilation (VE), heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2) and energy expenditure(EE) of the volunteers were recorded breath by breath by using K4b2 system (Cosmed Sr.lItaly). They also expressed their level of comfort in a 14 point scale (Borg, 1985). Student’spaired‘t’ test (two-tailed) was used to compare the results of existing LCe with that of new BP.
Responses of cardiorespiratory parameters were less with new BP than existing distrib- uted LCe. But the changes were not significant. All the subjects expressed their increasedcomfort with the new compact BP system than the other one. The study needs to be con-ducted on a large population group to validate the effectivity of new BP system.
Keywords: Cardiorespiratory parameters, load carriage, compact mode, distributed mode.
Ergonomics for Everyone
International Ergonomics Conference
Humanizing Work and Work Environment
December 17-19, 2009
The present study focused on technological empowerment of hill farm women to reduce drudgery
by developing a gender sensitive ergonomically designed technology kit for drudgery reduc-
tion in household, agriculture and live stock care operations and to ascertain the impact of
drudgery reducing technologies on health status and output of hill farm women. Locale: The
study was conducted in two hilly states of India viz. Uttrakhand (10 villages and 500 represen-
tative samples) and Himachal Pradesh (35 villages and 1500 representative samples).
Ergonomic Assessment: The assessment of traditional as well as improved prototypes of
tools used for identified drudgery prone tasks in different work sphere were studied on ergo-
nomic parameters viz. total cardiac cost of work (Heart Rate Monitor); energy expended (For-
mulae) Rated perceived exertion of tasks (Borg’s scale), biomechanical profile (Grip, leg and
back dynamometer); body postures (Flexi curve); musculo-skeletal problems (body map); out-
put of operation and area covered (in meters).
In addition, measuring tapes, weighing balance, scale drawing, line drawings, sketches and
video filming techniques were also used for appropriate designing and development of tools.
Result Highlights: Maximum drudgery prone tasks were identified as weeding, cutting/uproot-
ing, transplanting, harvesting and clod breaking in agricultural tasks; cutting and collecting
fodder, dung collection and milking under livestock care; tea plucking under tea related allied
tasks and bringing fodder, mopping and plastering under household tasks. Physical fitness of
majority of respondents from both the states was found to be good followed by high average.
Musculo-skeletal problems described by respondents due to use of traditional tool were severe
low back pain, moderate pain in head, shoulders and severe pain in lower legs. Heart rate
values were more than acceptable limits for the tasks performed with the traditional tools as
compared to the improved tools viz. clod breaking (T-124 bpm, I-120.3 bpm), uprooting (125
bpm), fodder picking (T-1116 bpm, I-104 bpm), Tea leaves collection in kilta (T-101bpm, I-95.5
bpm); Tea leaves picking - (Finger blades T-101bpm, I-96 bpm) and plastering (109 bpm).
Similar trend was observed for other operations under study. Significant increase was observed
for area covered under operation (Clod breaker T-208; I-302.45 and output of
operation (Cutting T-15.75 kg, I- 25.23 kg.; Uprooting T-9.88 kg and I-11.3 kg). Significant
reduction was observed in body pains, fatigue and discomfort of the worker while working with
the improved tools as compared to the existing tool. Farm women were highly satisfied with the
use of improved technology kit and it is recommended to be multiplied and disseminated at
large scale.
Key words: ergonomics, intervension, tea leaves picking, discomfort


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