Coenzyme q-10 - drugs & vitamins - drug library - drugdigest
Coenzyme Q-10Other Names:
Co Q 10, Ubiquinol, Q 10, Ubidecarenone, Ubiquinone, Vitamin Q
Who is this for?
Coenzyme Q-10 is used extensively in Japan, and its use is more common in Europe and western Asia than it is in theUnited States. However, specific coenzyme Q-10 products have been given orphan drug status in the United States.
An orphan drug has received FDA approval because it shows effectiveness for treating severe or rare diseases thatusually have few other treatment options. In the United States, designated coenzyme Q-10 products are used to treatHuntington’s disease, childhood heart failure, and rare, inherited defects in mitochondria, which are tiny structureswithin body cells. Huntington’s disease (also called Huntington’s chorea) is an hereditary condition that involvesincreasing loss of muscle control and decreasing mental function. Generally not apparent until adulthood, Huntington’sdisease may be passed to children before parents realize they have it. Because mitochondria are responsible forenergy production by each cell, many of them are found in cells that use lots of energy – such as muscle cells. Cellsthat use little energy have few mitochondria. If the mitochondria do not function properly, progressively worseningsymptoms that may include muscle weakness, nerve damage, seizures, stroke-like episodes, and eventually deathmay result. Although coenzyme Q-10 seems to be an effective treatment to prevent, delay, or decrease the symptomsof inherited mitochondrial defects in some individuals, it may take 6 months or longer to produce a noticeable response.
In other countries, coenzyme Q-10 is used widely to treat heart conditions – particularly heart failure (HF), but alsoangina, heart rhythm disorders, and high blood pressure. Heart failure was formerly called congestive heart failure(CHF). In Japan, coenzyme Q-10 has been prescribed for treating HF since 1974. In several published studies ofindividuals with HF, taking coenzyme Q-10 has generally reduced symptoms such as shortness of breath, sleepproblems, and swelling that are associated with HF. It is believed that coenzyme Q-10 may increase energy productionin the heart muscle, which may cause the heart to beat with more force. However, results from other human studiescontradict these findings, with little or no improvement seen in the actual pumping action of the heart or in theindividual’s ability to perform everyday tasks. The best overall results occurred for individuals who took coenzyme Q-10along with other prescription drugs for HF. Even though coenzyme Q-10 may not affect heart function, it does appear topromote relaxation in both arteries and veins. Therefore, taking it may help relieve angina and reduce high bloodpressure. It cannot replace prescription medications, however, and it may interfere with medications that your doctorprescribes. Before taking coenzyme Q-10 for HF or any serious condition, talk to your health care provider.
Based on results from several studies, coenzyme Q-10 appears to be safe for treating heart diseases in individuals with diabetes; but whether it affects blood sugar levels is not known conclusively. Results from some studies may show a slight decrease in blood sugar levels when coenzyme Q-10 is taken by individuals with diabetes, but other studies have found no effects on insulin production or utilization. Coenzyme Q-10 may be slightly effective for individuals with an inherited type of diabetes known as maternally inherited diabetes mellitus and deafness (MIDD).
Low levels of natural coenzyme Q-10 have been observed in individuals with muscle-wasting diseases (conditions thatresult in decreased muscle size and efficiency). Therefore, coenzyme Q-10 is being studied as a possible treatment forconditions, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), that affect muscle function. Coenzyme Q-10’s possibleenergy-enhancing effects may prevent the deterioration of muscle activity. Additionally, in animal and human studies,increasing amounts of coenzyme Q-10 also seemed to increase levels of a neurotransmitter known as dopamine.
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that carry messages from nerve cells to other cells. Individuals with PD generally havelow dopamine in levels, so raising dopamine may relieve their PD symptoms. Additionally, coenzyme Q-10 may reduceother factors, such as inflammation and damage by oxygen free radicals, that may cause or worsen PD. Studies areless conclusive, however, for coenzyme Q-10’s possible effectiveness for other muscle-wasting conditions such asHuntington’s disease and muscular dystrophy. While these and similar conditions may have a connection to lowcoenzyme Q-10 levels, it is not known if the lowered levels of coenzyme Q-10 are a cause or a result of the conditions.
Much more research is needed in these areas.
As an antioxidant, coenzyme Q-10 may also have potential as an anticancer and immune-stimulating agent.
Antioxidants are thought to protect body cells from damage caused by a chemical process called oxidation. Oxygenfree radicals, natural chemicals that may also suppress immune function, are produced during oxidation. In one study,coenzyme Q-10 levels were found to be low in women who have cancer of the cervix or who have conditions that maylead to cervical cancer. As shown in case reports of women with breast cancer, supplementing prescription cancertreatments with coenzyme Q-10 may have helped to slow or stop the cancer from growing. In some cases, the spreadof cancer to other parts of the body appeared to be prevented. Separate studies of people living with AIDS, may show
that the numbers of certain white blood cells reached levels that are more normal when coenzyme Q-10 was taken. Ingeneral, white blood cells, especially the kind known as T cells, are responsible for attacking abnormal substances –such as cancer cells. This apparent strengthening of the immune system may help prevent and treat AIDS and otherinfectious diseases. The antioxidant effects of coenzyme Q-10 may also protect the liver from some of the damagecaused by certain drugs or chemicals or by chronic alcohol abuse. Some additional evidence from recent studies mayalso show that coenzyme Q-10 has potential to prevent or lessen the severity of migraine headaches. All thesepossible effects need further study to prove or disprove them.
Coenzyme Q-10 has also been used, both topically and orally, to treat periodontal (gum) disease. Increasing levels of coenzyme Q-10, which are usually low in individuals with gum disease, appeared to improve symptoms such as looseness and inflammation of the teeth in small studies of individuals with gum disease related to low coenzyme Q-10 levels. These studies were conducted nearly 30 years ago, though, and more recent research has failed to show a definite effect on periodontal disease from coenzyme Q-10 supplementation.
When should I be careful taking it?
Individuals with diabetes should avoid using large amounts of coenzyme Q-10 because it can lower blood sugar levels, potentially resulting in hypoglycemia (blood sugar that is too low). Symptoms of low blood sugar include shakiness, sweating, confusion, distorted speech, and loss of muscle control. If not corrected, low blood sugar can lead to unconsciousness and even death.
Results from a recent small study done in Italy suggest that coenzyme Q-10 may pass from a mother to her infant in breast milk, but not in blood before birth. Very little other information is available on how coenzyme Q-10 might affect a developing fetus, an infant, or a small child. Therefore, its use is not recommended during pregnancy, while breast-feeding, or during early childhood.
What side effects should I watch for?
No serious side effects have been associated with taking coenzyme Q-10, although some individuals have reported minor gastrointestinal disturbances such as diarrhea, indigestion, and nausea while taking it.
What interactions should I watch for?
Due to its possible blood sugar-lowering effects, coenzyme Q-10 may interfere with insulin and oral drugs for diabetes, such as:
ActosAmarylAvandiaglipizide (Glucotrol XL)glyburide (Glynase)Glysetmetformin (Glucophage)PrandinPrecose
Due to its potential ability to lower blood pressure, coenzyme Q-10 may increase the effects of drugs that also lower blood pressure. Some blood pressure-lowering drugs are:
ACE inhibitors such as captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, and MonoprilBeta blockers such as atenolol, metoprolol, and propranololCalcium channel blockers such as nifedipine, Norvasc, and verapamilDiuretics such as Dyazide, furosemide, and hydrochlorothiazide
Because coenzyme Q-10 is similar in structure to vitamin K, which increases the blood's ability to clot, coenzyme Q-10 may interfere with anti-clotting medications such as warfarin or heparin.
Coenzyme Q-10 may increase the effects of dopamine, so taking it may also increase the effectiveness of drugs that increase dopamine. Dopamine-enhancing drugs often are used to treat Parkinson's disease. They include:
bromocriptine (Parlodel)cabergoline (Dostinex)
levodopa (Dopar, Sinemet)pergolide (Permax)pramipexole (Mirapex)ropinirole (Requip)
Taking certain cholesterol-lowering drugs known as HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors or statins, seems to lower coenzyme Q-10 levels in the body. The consequences of this effect are not completely understood, but this interaction may account in part for severe muscle deterioration that is rarely associated with taking statins. Statins thought to affect coenzyme Q-10 include:
lovastatin (Mevacor)pravastatin (Pravachol)Zocor
Propranolol (Inderal), a drug often used to treat hypertension, and doxorubicin (Adriamycin, Doxil, Rubex), an anticancer drug; may also limit or block the energy-producing activity of coenzyme Q-10.
Because coenzyme Q-10 may decrease blood sugar levels, taking it with other blood sugar-lowering herbal products may result in hypoglycemia -- blood sugar that is too low. Herbals that may reduce blood sugar include:
EleutheroFenugreekGinger (in high amounts)KudzuPanax Ginseng
Some interactions between herbal products and medications can be more severe than others. The best way for you to avoid harmful interactions is to tell your doctor and/or pharmacist what medications you are currently taking, including any over-the-counter products, vitamins, and herbals. For specific information on how coenzyme Q-10 interacts with drugs, other herbals, and foods and the severity of those interactions, please use our Drug Interactions Checker to check for possible interactions.
Should I take it?
Coenzyme Q-10 is a natural body chemical that was identified in the late 1950s. Small amounts of it are obtained fromeating meat and seafood, but the majority of the body’s supply is made within the body. Although nearly all body cellsmake it, coenzyme Q-10 concentrates in the muscles and in the heart, kidneys, liver, and pancreas. About half of thebody’s stores of coenzyme Q-10 are found in the mitochondria of the cells. Mitochondria are parts of body cells thatconvert dietary carbohydrates into energy. While coenzyme Q-10 is involved in strengthening body membranes, itsmain function is to carry electrons that are needed in the energy generation process. Various types of coenzyme Q arefound in most living organisms, including bacteria, but only humans produce coenzyme Q-10 naturally. Commercialcoenzyme Q-10 supplements are made by a fermentation process that includes beets, sugar cane, and specific yeasts.
Normal production of coenzyme Q-10 by humans is highest at about 20 years of age and then it declines gradually. Deficiencies of coenzyme Q-10 are rare, but they result in serious symptoms that include fatigue, muscle weakness, and seizures. Smoking cigarettes reduces the amounts of coenzyme Q-10 in the body, and taking certain drugs such as doxorubicin, some beta-blockers, or certain statins may also lower coenzyme Q-10 levels. Low levels of coenzyme Q-10 are associated with conditions ranging from AIDS and some cancers to periodontal disease. Generally, the extent of coenzyme Q-10 deficiency seems to correlate to the severity of the condition. That is, conditions affected by coenzyme Q-10 levels seem to worsen as coenzyme Q-10 decreases.
Athletes sometimes take supplemental coenzyme Q-10 in the belief that it may increase their ability to perform extended exercise, but study evidence has failed to support this belief.
Dosage and Administration
Coenzyme Q-10 supplements are available in a number of oral dosage forms, including capsules and tablets made from dried, powdered coenzyme Q-10. However, only a small percentage of oral coenzyme Q-10 supplements are thought to be absorbed from the intestines, with large percentages eliminated in the bile. Because coenzyme Q-10 dissolves in fats, soft gelatin capsules that contain coenzyme Q-10 in soy bean oil may be absorbed more easily and more completely than dried, powdered forms of coenzyme Q-10 by the body. Taking coenzyme Q-10 with a meal that includes fats may increase its absorption, as well. For topical application, usually a soft gelatin capsule of coenzyme Q-10 is opened and the contents applied to the gums with a cotton swab.
Oral dosage recommendations for coenzyme Q-10 supplementation range from 100 mg per day to 3,000 mg (0.1 gram to 3 grams) per day or more, depending on the condition being treated. For HF, a common oral dose is 100 mg per day, taken as two or three doses. If you decide to take coenzyme Q-10, follow the directions on the package that you purchase.
Coenzyme Q-10 is a natural body chemical that is essential for the production of energy by cells. Low levels of it have been associated with a number of diseases. Coenzyme Q-10 supplementation is used to treat genetic coenzyme Q-10 deficiencies, heart conditions, and periodontal disease. It may be useful in delaying the progression of Parkinson's disease and other conditions that affect muscle function. Its antioxidant and immune stimulating effects may give it anti-AIDS, anticancer, and liver protectant properties.
Blood sugar levels may be lowered by taking coenzyme Q-10, so individuals with diabetes may want to avoid it. Not enough is known about its possible effects to recommend coenzyme Q-10 supplementation for pregnant or breast-feeding women.
Mild occasional gastrointestinal disturbances are the only side effects that have been reported from taking coenzyme Q-10.
The risk of low blood sugar may increase if coenzyme Q-10 is taken with drugs or herbals that treat diabetes. Coenzyme Q-10 may increase the effects of drugs that lower blood pressure. Because it may increase amounts of dopamine in the body, coenzyme Q-10 may increase the effectiveness of drugs that raise dopamine levels. Doxorubicin, propranolol, and some statins may decrease body levels of coenzyme Q-10.
Andrich J, Saft C, Gerlach M, Schneider B, Arz A, Kuhn W, Muller T. Coenzyme Q10 serum levels in Huntington's disease. Journal of Neural Transmitters. 2004;(68 Suppl):111-116.
Anon. List of Orphan Products Designated Year to Date 2004. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. No date given. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/orphan/designat/designytd.rtf. Accessed September 13, 2004.
Anon: Ubiquinone. In: DerMarderosian A, Beutler JA, eds. Facts and Comparisons: The Review of Natural Products. St. Louis, MO, Facts and Comparisons. August 1997.
Ashton E, Liew D, Krum H. Should patients with chronic heart failure be treated with "statins"? Heart Failure Monitor. 2003;3(3):828-6.
Baggio E, Gandini R, Plauncher AC, et al. Italian multicenter study on the safety and efficacy of coenzyme Q10 as adjunctive therapy in heart failure. CoQ10 Drug Surveillance Investigators. Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 1994;15(Suppl):S287-S294.
Baker SK, Tarnopolsky MA. Targeting cellular energy production in neurological disorders. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. 2003;12(10):1655-1679.
Balercia G, Mosca F, Mantero F, Boscaro M, Mancini A, Ricciardo-Lamonica G, Littarru G. Coenzyme Q(10) supplementation in infertile men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia: an open, uncontrolled pilot study. Fertility and Sterility. 2004;81(1):93-98.
Beal MF. Mitochondria, oxidative damage, and inflammation in Parkinson's disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2003;991:120-131.
Beal MF, Shults CW. Effects of Coenzyme Q10 in Huntington's disease and early Parkinson's disease. Biofactors. 2003 ;18(1-4):153-161.
Bertelli A, Cerrati A, Giovannini L, Mian M, Spaggiari P, Bertelli AA. Protective action of L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 against hepatic triglyceride infiltration induced by hyperbaric oxygen and ethanol. Drugs under experimental and clinical
Bianchi A, Salomone S, Caraci F, Pizza V, Bernardini R, D'Amato CC. Role of magnesium, coenzyme q(10), riboflavin, and vitamin b(12) in migraine prophylaxis. Vitamins and Hormones. 2004;69:297-312.
Bleske BE, Willis RA, Anthony M, et al. The effect of pravastatin and atorvastatin on coenzyme Q10. American Heart Journal. 2001;142(2):E2.
Boitier E, Degoul F, Desguerre I, et al. A case of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy associated with a muscle coenzyme Q10 deficiency. Journal of Neurological Science. 1998;156(1):41-46.
Bonetti A, Solito F, Carmosino G, Bargossi AM, Fiorella PL. Effect of ubidecarenone oral treatment on aerobic power in middle-aged trained subjects. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 2000;40(1):51-57.
Bresolin N, Doriguzzi C, Ponzetto C, et al. Ubidecarenone in the treatment of mitochondrial myopathies: a multi-center double-blind trial. Journal of Neurological Science. 1990;100(1-2):70-78.
Burke BE, Neuenschwander R, Olson RD. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 in isolated systolic hypertension. Southern Medical Journal. 2001;94(11):1112-1117.
Chagan L, Ioselovich A, Asherova L, Cheng JW. Use of alternative pharmacotherapy in management of cardiovascular diseases. American Journal of Managed Care. 2002;8(3):270-288.
Chen RS, Huang CC, Chu NS. Coenzyme Q10 treatment in mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. Short-term double-blind, crossover study. European Neurology. 1997;37(4):212-218.
Choy KJ, Deng YM, Hou JY, Wu B, Lau A, Witting PK, Stocker R. Coenzyme Q(10) supplementation inhibits aortic lipid oxidation but fails to attenuate intimal thickening in balloon-injured New Zealand white rabbits. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2003;35(3):300-309.
Compagnoni G, Giuffre B, Lista G, Mosca F, Marini A. CoQ(10) Plasmatic Levels in Breast-Fed Infants Compared to Formula-Fed Infants. Biology of the Neonate. 2004;86(3):165-169.
Couzin J. Huntington's disease. Unorthodox clinical trials meld science and care. Science. 2004 May7;304(5672):816-817.
Crane FL. Biochemical functions of coenzyme Q10. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2001;20(6):591-598.
De Pinieux G, Chariot P, Ammi-Said M, et al. Lipid-lowering drugs and mitochondrial function: Effects of HMG-CoA Reductase inhibitors on serum ubiquinone and blood lactate/pyruvate ratio. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1996;42(3):333-337.
Eriksson JG, Forsen TJ, Mortensen SA, Rohde M. The effect of coenzyme Q10 administration on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biofactors. 1999;9(2-4):315-318.
Ernster L, Dallner G. Biochemical, physiological and medical aspects of ubiquinone function. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1995;1271(1):195-204.
Feigin A, Kieburtz K, Como P, et al. Assessment of coenzyme Q10 tolerability in Huntington's disease. Movement Disorders. 1996;11(3):321-323.
Folkers K, Drzewoski J, Richardson PC, Ellis J, Shizukuishi S, Baker L Bioenergetics in clinical medicine. XVI. Reduction of hypertension in patients by therapy with coenzyme Q10. Research Communications in Chemistry, Pathology and Pharmacology. 1981;31(1):129-140.
Folkers K, Hanioka T, Xia LJ, McRee JT Jr, Langsjoen P. Coenzyme Q10 increases T4/T8 ratios of lymphocytes in ordinary subjects and relevance to patients having the AIDS related complex. Biochemistry and Biophysics Research Communications. 1991;176(2):786-791.
Folkers K, Langsjoen P, Nara Y, et al. Biochemical deficiencies of coenzyme Q10 in HIV-infection and exploratory treatment. Biochemistry and Biophysics Research Communications. 1988;153(2):888-896.
Folkers K, Langsjoen P, Willis R, et al. Lovastatin decreases coenzyme Q levels in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA). 1990;87:8931-8934.
Folkers K, Simonsen R. Two successful double-blind trials with coenzyme Q10 (vitamin Q10) on muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies. Biochemie et Biophysica Acta. 1995;1271(1):281-286.
Folkers K, Watanabe T. Bioenergetics in clinical medicine XIV. Studies on an apparent deficiency of coenzyme Q-10 in patients with cardiovascular and related diseases. Journal of Medicine. 1978;9(1):67-79.
Folkers K, Watanabe T. Bioenergetics in clinical medicine-X. Survey of the adjunctive use of coenzyme Q with oral therapy in treating periodontal disease. Journal of Medicine. 1977;8(5):333-348.
Fuke C, Krikorian SA, Couris RR. Coenzyme Q10: A Review of essential functions and clinical trials. US Pharmacist. 2000;25:28-41.
Gavagan T. Cardiovascular disease. Primary Care. 2002;29(2):323-338 and vi.
Geromel V, Darin N, Chretien D, et al. Coenzyme Q(10) and idebenone in the therapy of respiratory chain diseases: rationale and comparative benefits. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. 2002;77(1-2):21-30.
Ghirlanda G, Oradei A, Manto A, et al. Evidence of plasma CoQ10-lowering effect by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: A double blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1993;33(3):226-229.
Gonzalez-Polo RA, Soler G, Rodriguezmartin A, Moran JM, Fuentes JM. Protection against MPP(+) neurotoxicity in cerebellar granule cells by antioxidants. Cellular Biology International. 2004;28(5):373-380.
Hanaki Y, Sugiyama S, Ozawa T, Ohno M. Coenzyme Q10 and coronary artery disease. Clinical Investigation. 1993;71(8 Suppl):S112-S115.
Hanioka T, Tanaka M, Ojima M, Shizukuishi S, Folkers K. Effect of topical application of coenzyme Q10 on adult periodontitis. Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 1994;15(Suppl):S241-S248.
Hansen IL, Iwamoto Y, Kishi T, Folkers K, Thompson LE. Bioenergetics in clinical medicine. IX. Gingival and leucocytic deficiencies of coenzyme Q10 in patients with periodontal disease. Research Communications in Chemistry, Pathology and Pharmacology. 1976;14(4):729-738.
Hargreaves IP. Ubiquinone: cholesterol's reclusive cousin. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. 2003;40(Pt 3):207-218.
Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy. 2000;57:1221-1230.
Henriksen JE, Andersen CB, Hother-Nielsen O, Vaag A, Mortensen SA, Beck-Nielsen H. Impact of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10) treatment on glycaemic control, insulin requirement and well-being in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Medicine. 1999;16(4):312-318.
Hodgson JM, Watts GF, Playford DA, Burke V, Croft KD. Coenzyme Q10 improves blood pressure and glycaemic control: a controlled trial in subjects with type 2 diabetes. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002;56(11):1137-1142.
Hofman-Bang C, Rehnqvist N, Swedberg K, Wiklund I, Astrom H. Coenzyme Q10 as an adjunctive in the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure. The Q10 Study Group. Journal of Cardiac Failure. 1995;1(2):101-107.
The Huntington Study Group. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 and remacemide in Huntington's disease. Neurology. 2001;57:397-404.
Iwamoto Y, Nakamura R, Folkers K, Morrison RF. Study of periodontal disease and coenzyme Q. Research Communications in Chemistry, Pathology and Pharmacology. 1975;11(2):265-271.
Jeejeebhoy F, Keith M, Freeman M, et al. Nutritional supplementation with MyoVive repletes essential cardiac myocyte nutrients and reduces left ventricular size in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. American Heart Journal. 2002;143(6):1092-1100.
Jellin JM, Gregory P, Batz F, Hitchens K, et al, eds. Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 3rd Edition. Stockton CA: Therapeutic Research Facility, 2000.
Jolliet P, Simon N, Barre J, et al. Plasma coenzyme Q10 concentrations in breast cancer: prognosis and therapeutic consequences. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 1998;36(9):506-509.
Kamikawa T, Kobayashi A, Yamashita T, Hayashi H, Yamazaki N. Effects of coenzyme Q10 on exercise tolerance in chronic stable angina pectoris. American Journal of Cardiology. 1985;56(4):247-251.
Khatta M, Alexander BS, Krichten CM, et al. The effect of coenzyme Q10 in patients with congestive heart failure. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2000;132(8):636-640.
Kishi H, Kishi T, Folkers K. Bioenergetics in clinical medicine. III. Inhibition of coenzyme Q10 enzymes by clinically used anti-hypertensive drugs. Research Communications in Chemistry, Pathology and Pharmacology.
Kishi T, Kishi H, Watanabe T, Folkers K. Bioenergetics in clinical medicine. XI. Studies on coenzyme Q and diabetes mellitus. Journal of Medicine. 1976;7(3-4):307-321.
Kishi T, Watanabe T, Folkers K. Bioenergetics in clinical medicine. XV. Inhibition of coenzyme Q10 enzymes by clinically used adrenergic blockers of B-receptors. Research Communications in Chemistry, Pathology and Pharmacology. 1977;17(1):157-164.
Kishi T, Watanabe T, Folkers K. Bioenergetics in clinical medicine: prevention by forms of coenzyme Q of the inhibition by Adriamycin of coenzyme Q10-enzymes in mitochondria of the myocardium. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (U S A). 1976;73(12):4653-4656.
Krum H, McMurray JJ. Statins and chronic heart failure: do we need a large-scale outcome trial? Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2002;39(10):1567-1573.
Lakomkin VL, Konovalova GG, Kalenikova EI, et al. Protection of Rat Myocardium by Coenzyme Q during Oxidative Stress Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide. Biochemistry (Moscow). 2004;69(5):520-526.
Langsjoen PH, Langsjoen A, Willis R, Folkers K. Treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with coenzyme Q10. Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 1997;18(Suppl):S145-S151.
Langsjoen PH, Langsjoen AM. Overview of the use of CoQ10 in cardiovascular disease. Biofactors. 1999;9(2-4):273-284.
Lee CK, Pugh TD, Klopp RG, Edwards J, Allison DB, Weindruch R, Prolla TA. The impact of alpha-lipoic acid, coenzyme Q10 and caloric restriction on life span and gene expression patterns in mice.
Lockwood K, Moesgaard S, Folkers K. Partial and complete regression of breast cancer in patients in relation to dosage of coenzyme Q10. Biochemistry and Biophysics Research Communications. 1994;199(3):1504-1508.
Lockwood K, Moesgaard S, Yamamoto T, Folkers K. Progress on therapy of breast cancer with vitamin Q10 and the regression of metastases. Biochemistry and Biophysics Research Communications. 1995;212(1):172-177.
Lonnrot K, Porsti I, Alho H, Wu X, Hervonen A, Tolvanen JP. Control of arterial tone after long-term coenzyme Q10 supplementation in senescent rats. British Journal of Pharmacology. 1998;124(7):1500-1506.
Malm C, Svensson M, Ekblom B, Sjodin B. Effects of ubiquinone-10 supplementation and high intensity training on physical performance in humans. Acta Physiologica Scandinavia. 1997;161(3):379-384.
Marriage B, Clandinin MT, Glerum DM. Nutritional cofactor treatment in mitochondrial disorders. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2003;103(8):1029-1038.
Miyake Y, Shouzu A, Nishikawa M, et al. Effect of treatment with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors on serum coenzyme Q10 in diabetic patients. Arzneimittelforschung. 1999;49(4):324-329.
Morisco C, Trimarco B, Condorelli M. Effect of coenzyme Q10 therapy in patients with congestive heart failure: A long-term, multicenter, randomized study. Clinical Investigations. 1993;71(8 Suppl):S134-S136.
Mortensen SA, Leth A, Agner E, Rohde M. Dose-related decrease of serum coenzyme Q10 during treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 1997;18(Suppl):S137-S144.
Muller T, Buttner T, Gholipour AF, Kuhn W. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation provides mild symptomatic benefit in patients with Parkinson's disease. Neuroscience Letters. 2003;341(3):201-204.
Munkholm H, Hansen HH, Rasmussen K. Coenzyme Q10 treatment in serious heart failure. Biofactors. 1999;9(2-4):285-289.
Musumeci O, Naini A, Slonim AE, et al. Familial cerebellar ataxia with muscle coenzyme Q10 deficiency. Neurology. 2001;56(7):849-855.
Palan PR, Mikhail MS, Shaban DW, Romney SL. Plasma concentrations of coenzyme Q10 and tocopherols in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2003;12(4):321-326.
Palan PR, Shaban DW, Martino T, Mikhail MS. Lipid-soluble antioxidants and pregnancy: maternal serum levels of
coenzyme q(10), alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. Gynecologic andObstetric Investigations. 2004;58(1):8-13.
Permanetter B, Rossy W, Klein G, Weingartner F, Seidl KF, Blomer H. Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10) in the long-term treatment of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. European Heart Journal. 1992;13(11):1528-1533.
Portakal O, Ozkaya O, Erden Inal M, Bozan B, Kosan M, Sayek I. Coenzyme Q10 concentrations and antioxidant status in tissues of breast cancer patients. Clinical Biochemistry. 2000;33(4):279-284.
Quiles JL, Ochoa JJ, Huertas JR, Mataix J. Coenzyme Q supplementation protects from age-related DNA double-strand breaks and increases lifespan in rats fed on a PUFA-rich diet. Experimental Gerontology. 2004;39(2):189-194.
Reichenbach J, Schubert R, Schwan C, Muller K, Bohles HJ, Zielen S. Antioxidative capacity in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Journal of Clinical Immunology. 2000;20(3):221-226.
Rotig A, Appelkvist EL, Geromel V, et al. Quinone-responsive multiple respiratory-chain dysfunction due to widespread coenzyme Q10 deficiency. Lancet. 2000;356(9227):391-395.
Rozen TD, Oshinsky ML, Gebeline CA, et al. Open label trial of coenzyme Q10 as a migraine preventive. Cephalalgia. 2002;22(2):137-141.
Rundek T, Naini A, Sacco R, Coates K, DiMauro S. Atorvastatin decreases the coenzyme Q10 level in the blood of patients at risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Archives of Neurology. 2004;61(6):889-892.
Sacher HL, Sacher ML, Landau SW, et al. The clinical and hemodynamic effects of coenzyme Q10 in congestive cardiomyopathy. American Journal of Therapeutics. 1997;4(2-3):66-72.
Sarter B. Coenzyme Q10 and cardiovascular disease: a review. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 2002;16(4):9-20.
Satish RR, Weisel RD, Verma S. Coenzyme Q10 and congestive heart failure: what is the verdict? Canadian Journal of Cardiology. 2002;18(10):1054-1058.
Scaglia F. MELAS syndrome. E-Medicine. Last updated July 2, 2002. Available at: http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic1406.htm. Accessed December 11, 2003.
Shults CW. Coenzyme Q10 in neurodegenerative diseases. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2003;10(19):1917-1921.
Shults CW, Beal MF, Fontaine D, Nakano K, Haas RH. Absorption, tolerability, and effects on mitochondrial activity of oral coenzyme Q10 in parkinsonian [sic] patients. Neurology. 1998;50(3):793-795.
Shults CW, Flint Beal M, Song D, Fontaine D. Pilot trial of high dosages of coenzyme Q(10) in patients with Parkinson's disease. Experimental Neurology. 2004;188(2):491-494.
Shults CW, Oakes D, Kieburtz K, et al. Effects of coenzyme Q10 in early Parkinson disease: evidence of slowing of the functional decline. Archives of Neurology. 2002;59(10):1541-1550.
Singh RB, Niaz MA, Rastogi SS, Shukla PK, Thakur AS. Effect of hydrosoluble coenzyme Q10 on blood pressures and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease. Journal of Human Hypertension. 1999;13(3):203-208.
Sobreira C, Hirano M, Shanske S, et al. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with coenzyme Q10 deficiency. Neurology 1997;48:1238-43.
Soja AM, Mortensen SA. Treatment of congestive heart failure with coenzyme Q10 illuminated by meta-analyses of clinical trials. Molecular Aspects of Med icine.1997;18(Suppl):S159-S168.
Suzuki S, Hinokio Y, Ohtomo M, et al. The effects of coenzyme Q10 treatment on maternally inherited diabetes mellitus and deafness, and mitochondrial DNA 3243 (A to G) mutation. Diabetologia. 1998;41(5):584-588.
Tran MT, Mitchell TM, Kennedy DT, Giles JT. Role of coenzyme Q10 in chronic heart failure, angina, and hypertension. Pharmacotherapy. 2001;21(7):797-806.
Walker FO, Raymond LA. Targeting energy metabolism in Huntington's disease. Lancet. 2004 Jul24;364(9431):312-313.
Watson PS, Scalia GM, Galbraith A, et al. Lack of effect of coenzyme Q on left ventricular function in patients with congestive heart failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1999;33(6):1549-1552.
Watts GF, Castelluccio C, Rice-Evans C, Taub NA, Baum H, Quinn PJ. Plasma coenzyme Q (ubiquinone) concentrations in patients treated with simvastatin. Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1993;46(11):1055-1057.
Watts TL. Coenzyme Q10 and periodontal treatment: is there any beneficial effect? British Dental Journal. 1995;178(6):209-213.
Weis M, Mortensen SA, Rassing MR, et al. Bioavailability of four oral coenzyme Q10 formulations in healthy volunteers. Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 1994;15(Suppl):S273-S280.
Weston SB, Zhou S, Weatherby RP, Robson SJ. Does exogenous coenzyme Q10 affect aerobic capacity in endurance athletes? International Journal of Sport Nutrition. 1997;7(3):197-206.
Wilkinson EG, Arnold RM, Folkers K. Bioenergetics in clinical medicine. VI. Adjunctive treatment of periodontal disease with coenzyme Q10. Research Communications in Chemistry, Pathology and Pharmacology. 1976;14(4):715-719.
Wilkinson EG, Arnold RM, Folkers K, et al. Bioenergetics in clinical medicine. II. Adjunctive treatment with coenzyme Q in periodontal therapy. Research Communications in Chemistry, Pathology and Pharmacology 1975;12(1):111-123.
Yamagami T, Shibata N, Folkers K. Bioenergetics in clinical medicine. VIII. Adminstration [sic] of coenzyme Q10 to patients with essential hypertension. Research Communications in Chemistry, Pathology and Pharmacology. 1976;14(4):721-727.
Yamagami T, Shibata N, Folkers K. Bioenergetics in clinical medicine. Studies on coenzyme Q10 and essential hypertension. Research Communications in Chemistry, Pathology and Pharmacology. 1975;11(2):273-288.
The above information is not intended to replace the advice of your physician, pharmacist, or other healthcare
professional. It is not meant to indicate that the use of the product is safe, appropriate, or effective for you.
In general, herbal products are not subject to review or approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). They are not required to be standardized, meaning that the amounts of active ingredients or contaminants they contain may vary between brands or between different batches of the same brand. Not all of the risks, side effects, or interactions associated with the use of herbal products are known because few reliable studies of their use in humans have been done.
This information is provided for your education only. Please share this information with your healthcare provider and be sure that you talk to your doctor and pharmacist about all the prescription and non-prescription medicines you take before you begin to use any herbal product.
McNeil Consumer Healthcare Announces Voluntary Recall of Certain OTC Infants’ and Children’s Products Fort Washington, PA (April 30, 2010) –McNeil Consumer Healthcare, Division of McNEIL-PPC, Inc., in consultation with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), is voluntarily recalling all lots that have not yet expired of certain over-the-counter (OTC) Children’s and Infant
OH 1197 Thomas, John R., (1918-2008). Oral History Interview, 2008. User Copy: 2 sound cassette (ca. 70 min.), analog, 1 7/8 ips, mono. Master Copy: 2 sound cassette (ca. 70 min.), analog, 1 7/8 ips, mono. Abstract: John Thomas, a Beloit, Wisconsin native, discusses his World War II and Korean War service as a chaplain in the Navy. Thomas touches on junior ROTC in high school, his the