Microsoft word - daled minim shiur 1 - simon 645.1-3.doc
T H E Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M S H U L C H A N A R U C H P R O J E C T Hilchos Daled Minim Shiur 1 Written by R’ Aharon Schenkolewski
This shiur may not be reproduced in any form without permission of the copyright holder
164 Village Path, Lakewood NJ 08701 732.370.3344 Rechov Kahanaman 54, Bnei Brak, 03.616.6340 H I L C H O S D A L E D M I N I M 1 A lulav that the leaves separated from each other, but are not hanging down like the leaves of dried branches, is kosher even if they were not tied together. Nonetheless, the preferred way to perform the mitzvah is with a lulav that leaves are not separated at all. 2 If the leaves were nifritzu 1 in a way that they hang from the spine of the lulav like the leaves of dried branches (meaning the leaves do not go up together with the spine but are hanging down) it is pasul. All the more so if the leaves are nifritzu and got detached from the spine it is pasul even if one tied the leaves (onto the spine). Similarly, if the leaves (grew until they) are hard as wood and cannot be attached to the spine (even if the leaves are still attached) it is pasul. All this is if it is by most of the leaves, however if only a minority of leaves are such and the rest of the leaves remain and the lulav (the spine) is (completely) covered by leaves it is kosher. 3 The leaves of the lulav grow two each, attached to each other in the back. The back of each of the two leaves is called the teyomes. If the teyomes is split (in most of the leaves) it is pasul. If the leaves grew individually and do not have a teyomes or all of the leaves are double on one side (of the lulav) and the other side does not have leaves it is pasul. There are those that explain and say that if the uppermost leaf which is in the middle on the spine is split up to the spine it is called that the teyomes is split and it is pasul, this is our custom. However, l’chatchila for the preferred mitzvah the custom is to get a lulav that the upper leaf is not split as all, since there are those that are stringent even if it is split a small amount. If that leaf is not double from the beginning of its growth it is pasul.
1 We will explain this later in the shiur.
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M S H U L C H A N A R U C H P R O J E C T D A L E D M I N I M S H I U R 1 | ' ג -' א ף י ע ס ה " מ ר ת ן מ י ס ם י י ח ח ר ו א Introduction
The Tur and MishnaBrura begin by bringing the source for the laws of taking the daledminim (the four species). It is based on the pasuk in ParshasEmor ( מ
ץע ירפ ןושארה םויב םכל םתחקלו
The Chachamim extrapolate that the four species are the following.
1. רדה ץע ירפ is the esrog.
2. םירמת תפכ is the lulav.
3. תובע ץע ףנע are the hadasim.
4. לחנ יברע are the aravos.
The ShulchanAruch follows the order of the Mishna to explain the laws of each one.
The MishnaBrura in his introduction to this simon tells us that the general laws of each of the species are learned from each other. Therefore, although the word hadar meaning that the fruit should be beautiful is only mentioned by esrog it applies to the other species as well. The Lulav The lulav is the branch of the palm tree. The branches start out growing straight up like and arrow. As the braches continue growing the leaves spread out and get hard.
1. The הרדש (shedra) – this is the spine of the lulav from which the leaves grow out
from. The top of the spine is where the leaves no longer grow out.
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M S H U L C H A N A R U C H P R O J E C T D A L E D M I N I M S H I U R 1 | ' ג -' א ף י ע ס ה " מ ר ת ן מ י ס ם י י ח ח ר ו א
2. The םילע (alim) – the leaves that grow from the spine. These leaves grow
straight up and overlap each other. These leaves grow higher than the end of the spine.
Another important point about the leaves are that they grow double. Each leaf can be divided into two and is connected in the back.
The first din in this seif discusses nifridualav. This means that the leaves are spread out
S I M O N 6 4 5 : 1 The source Mishna Sukkah If the leaves get separated it is kosher. R’ Yehudah says you should tie them on
The halacha is like to TanaKamma (the first opinion) therefore the leaves do not have to be tied.
However, if they are separated to the point that they cannot be tied together the lulav is passul.
The source for this is the Gemora 32A.
If it is like charus it is passul, if it is similar to charus it is kosher. Rashi explains that charus means that the leaves of the lulav fall off during the rainy season and the shedra becomes hard like wood.
The BaisYosef explains that Rashi does not mean that the leaves actually fall off, as this is not the nature of a lulav. Rather Rashi means that the leaves spread out until they become so hard that it is impossible to attach the leaves to the shedra. Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M S H U L C H A N A R U C H P R O J E C T D A L E D M I N I M S H I U R 1 | ' ג -' א ף י ע ס ה " מ ר ת ן מ י ס ם י י ח ח ר ו א The Preferred Mitzvah However, the BaisYosef brings from the MagidMishna that the preferred mitzvah is that the leaves are not separated.
The Taz (1) explains that the MagidMishna learns that when the Mishna says that it is kosher that is only b’diavad, but preferably one should get a lulav that’s leaves are not separated.
The Taz (2) understands that the MagidMishna is speaking about where the leaves are hanging down. However, if the leaves are straight up even if they are not flush with the rest of the lulav one may use the lulav even for the preferred mitzvah.
However, the MishnaBrura (3) brings from the MamarMordechai and Bikurei Yaakov that one should l’chatchila (preferably) get a lulav that’s leaves are lying on one another. Nifrtzu Alav
There is a machlokesRishonim what is the definition of nifritzualav.
S I M O N 6 4 5 : 2 The source Mishna Sukkah If the leaves are n’fritzu it is pasul. Gemora Sukkah 32a Rav Papa said nifritzu means that it is made like a chufia (broom).
There are three ways to explain this gemora:
Rashi on the mishna explains that nifritzualav means that the leaves are detached from the shedra of the lulav but are tied together to the lulav.
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M S H U L C H A N A R U C H P R O J E C T D A L E D M I N I M S H I U R 1 | ' ג -' א ף י ע ס ה " מ ר ת ן מ י ס ם י י ח ח ר ו א 2.Tosefos Tosefos says that if the leaves are detached from the shedra it is called hutzi not chufia. Therefore, Tosefos learn that nifritzualav means that each (or at least a majority) of the leaves get separated into two.
3.The Rif and Rambam
The Rif and Rambam learn that nifritzualav means that the leaves are hanging down. L’halacha The Mechaber brings the opinion of the Rif and Rambam, however all of the opinions are correct and therefore pasul. Nechlak Hatiyomes
There are two issues in this seif.
S I M O N 6 4 5 : 3 How many leaves are needed? The Source The source for the first issue is the Gemora 32a: Gemora Sukkah Rava said “a lulav that finishes in one leaf is called blemished and is pasul”.
There are three ways to explain this Gemora:
Rashi learns that this means that all the leaves are on one side of the shedra and there are no leaves on the other side of the shedra.
2.Rambam Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M S H U L C H A N A R U C H P R O J E C T D A L E D M I N I M S H I U R 1 | ' ג -' א ף י ע ס ה " מ ר ת ן מ י ס ם י י ח ח ר ו א 3.Rosh in the name of Rav Sar Shalom
The Mechaber brings all three opinions l’halacha. In our seif he brings the first two opinions and in seif 4 he brings the third opinion. The Teyomes is split The Source The source for this din is the Gemora 32a: Gemora Sukkah Rav Papa asked “If the teyomes is split what is the din?”
The Gemora tries to bring an answer:
Come and hear: R’ Yochanan [R Mason] said in the name of R’ Shimon ben Levi “If the teyomes was removed it is passul”. The Gemora says that the same din should be if the teyomes is split.
The Gemora says that we cannot learn one from the other:
No, if the teyomes is removed it is different since it is missing.
The Gemora then brings another opinion:
Some say: R’ Yochanan [R Mason] said in the name of R’ Shimon ben Levi “If the teyomes is split it is as if it was removed and it is passul”.
There are two basic ways to explain this Gemora, with variations in each one of the two.
1.A Double Teyomes Rashi The two uppermost leaves (which are each double) are split until the leaves below it. The Geonim Tosefos (BabaKama 96a) brings in the name of the Geonim that the upper two leaves have to be attached. Tosefos says that this is very uncommon and there are not even one in 500 that are like this. Therefore, Tosefos brings the R”Y that says that it means that there are two upper leaves each of which are double (as are all leaves of the lulav) and if these two double leaves are separated the lulav it passul. Tosefos concludes that this Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M S H U L C H A N A R U C H P R O J E C T D A L E D M I N I M S H I U R 1 | ' ג -' א ף י ע ס ה " מ ר ת ן מ י ס ם י י ח ח ר ו א
is not common at all and the Gemora is just asking about those cases that we see such a thing.
There are two ways to understand the machlokes between the Geonim and the R’Y.
1. The BaisYosef explains that the Geonim are also taking about two double
leaves on top of lulav. The Geonim hold that the two double leaves have to be attached and Tosefos holds that they just have to be next to each other. The BaisYosef says that although Tosefos says that it is not common to be attached by us it is very common that the leaves are attached by a red substance in the front of the lulav.2
2. The Taz (4) disagrees with the BaisYosef. He says that if both the Geonim and Tosefos are speaking about the same type of lulav why does Tosefos ask on the Geonim that it is not found even 1 in 500 and on the R”Y that it is not found at all? It sounds like there are two different things. Furthermore, why does Tosefos wait until he brings the R”Y to say that we are speaking about two double leaves if even the Geonim are speaking about such a case?
Therefore, the Taz learns differently. He agrees that both the Geonim and the R”Y are referring to two double upper leaves. The difference is that the Geonim are referring to two upper leaves that are just next to each other but do not come from the same source. According to the Geonim these two leaves must be attached. On this Tosefos says that less than 1 in 500 are attached.
The R’Y is referring to a case where the two upper leaves come from the same source. The leaf starts growing as one leaf and then splits into two like twins. On this Tosefos says that it is not common at all.
2.The Leaves are split The Rambam and Rif The leaves which are naturally double are split. This is only pasul if most of each leaf it split and if most of the leaves are split. The Trumas Hadeshen If the upper most leaf called the teyomes is split it is pasul but only if it is split until the shedra.
2 This is called “kora” and is the brownish flax like substance in the front of lulav.
Y E S H I V A P I R C H E I S H O S H A N I M S H U L C H A N A R U C H P R O J E C T D A L E D M I N I M S H I U R 1 | ' ג -' א ף י ע ס ה " מ ר ת ן מ י ס ם י י ח ח ר ו א The Ran Even if the teyomes is split a little bit it should not be used. L’halacha The ShulchanAruch learns like the second way. The Mechaber is posek like the Rambam and Rif and the Rama is posek like the TrumasHadeshen but says that l’chatchila one should follow the Ran. The amount of the split The Taz holds that if the teyomes is split up to a tefach (8 – 10 cm) the lulav is kosher even l’chatchila. The BiurHagra holds that unless it is split rov (most of the leaf) it is kosher l’chatchila. However, the ChayeeAdam holds that even if it is split a mashehu (a tiny bit) it should not be used l’chatchila.
The MishnaBrura (19) is posek that m’dina (according to the main din) so long as the teyomes is not mostly split it is kosher. However, if possible it is better to get a lulav that the teyomes is not split at all. Review Questions
1. From where is each of the four minim learned?
2. What are the two parts of the lulav?
3. What is the din if the leaves are separated?
5. What does וילע וצרפנ mean? What is the halacha?
6. What does אצוה דחב קלס mean?
7. What are the two ways to explain תמויתה הקלחנ?
8. What is the machlokes between the Gemonim and the R”Y?
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