Address: Stanford Medical Center Dept. Neurology and Neurological Sciences, 300 Pasteur Drive
Rm A347, Stanford, California 94305-5235; (650)736-2154, fax-(650)725-7459, [email protected]
Current position: Assistant Professor (UTL), Stanford University Department of Neurology and
Neurological Sciences, since July 1, 2000.
1985 A.B. Harvard College Department of Applied Mathematics
1986 M.S. Harvard University Department of Applied Mathematics
1993 M.D. Harvard Medical School Division of Health Sciences and Technology
1993 Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering and
Computer Science. Thesis: ”Theoretical Elements of Hierarchical Control in VertebrateMotor Systems”
1981 Westinghouse Science Talent Search 6th place winner.
1985 Highest departmental honors in Applied Mathematics, and Magna Cum Laude honors
1985 Hoopes Prize for undergraduate thesis.
1985 National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship.
1988 Medical Scientist Training Program Fellowship.
1990 National Defense Science and Engineering Fellowship.
1993-1994 Intern in Pediatrics, USC/Los Angeles County Medical Center, Los Angeles
1995 Resident in Pediatrics, USC/Los Angeles County Medical Center, Los Angeles
1995-1996 Part-time clinical fellow, Children’s Hospital Department of Neurology, Boston
1996-1999 Resident, Children’s Hospital Department of Neurology, Boston
1999-2000 Fellow, Movement Disorders Unit, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto
1993-1995 Research Staff, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with Jacob Barhen
1995-1996 Post-doctoral Research Fellow, MIT, with Emilio Bizzi
1995 Massachusetts Board of Registration in Medicine (80801)
1995 U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (BS4365462)
1994 Pediatric Advanced Life Support, Los Angeles County Hospital
1996 Advanced Cardiac Life Support, Massachusetts General Hospital
1996 Advanced Trauma Life Support, Massachusetts General Hospital
2000 National Board of Medical Examiners Certification in Neurology with Special Compe-
United Cerebral Palsy Research and Education Foundation,
8/1/07-7/31/09, “Reflex contributions to abnormal movement in dyskinetic cerebralpalsy.” Role: PI. The major goal of this project is to determine the contribution ofshort-latency and long-latency abnormal reflexes to disturbances of voluntary reachingin children with CP.
Child Health Research Program Pilot Grant active. Lucile Packard Children’s Hospi-
tal, 4/1/07-3/31/08, “Advanced Statistical Methods for Biofeedback in Children withDyskinetic Cerebral Palsy.” Role: PI. The major goal of this project is to performpreliminary clinical testing of a new biofeedback sensor and nonlinear signal processingalgorithm that I have developed.
R01 NS052236 active. NIH/NINDS, 7/15/06-4/15/11, “Failure of Motor Learning in Child-
hood Dystonia.” Role: PI. The major goal of this project is to investigate the sensoryand motor mechanisms that prevent children with dystonia from improving their per-formance through practice.
U13 NS043180 active. NIH/NINDS/NICHD, 9/1/02-8/31/07, “NIH task force on child-
hood motor disorders.” Role: PI. The major goal of this project is to fund ongoingmeetings of a task force to provide consensus definitions and propose candidate ratingscales for assessment of children with motor disorders.
Unrestricted Educational Grant active. Allergan, Inc., 3/1/2001-continuing, “NIH task
force on childhood motor disorders.” Role: PI. The major goal of this project is to fundongoing meetings of a task force to provide consensus definitions and propose candidaterating scales for assessment of children with motor disorders.
Investigator-initiated clinical research active. Carter Foundations, 8/1/01 - continu-
ing, “Working Group on Childhood Motor Disorders.” Role: PI. The major goal of thisproject is to investigate, in detail, the complete set of motor impairments that lead todisabilities in a small number of children with severe movement disorders.
R01 NS055039 pending. NIH/NINDS, 4/1/07-3/31/12, “Sensory-motor Information Pro-
cessing in Childhood Dystonia.” Role: PI. The major goal of this project is to investi-gate the relationship between motor performance and the information-theoretic conceptof channel capacity in children with secondary dystonia.
K23 NS41243 completed. NIH/NINDS, 6/1/01-5/31/06, “Arm kinematics in hyperkinetic
cerebral palsy.” Role: PI. The major goal of this project is to determine whether hy-perkinetic arm movements are due to noise in the motor system or to a limitation ofvoluntary movement.
R13 NS055614 completed. NIH/NINDS, 4/1/06-3/31/07, “Neural Control of Abnormal
Movement.” Role: PI. The major goal of this project is to support the organizationof a satellite meeting to the Neural Control of Movement society meeting in order toencourage participation of clinicians and clinical investigators and collaboration betweenclinical and basic science investigators.
Investigator-initiated clinical research completed. Elan Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 4/1/02-
3/30/05, “Does Myobloc improve functional hand use in young children with a hyper-tonic upper extremity.” Role: PI. The major goal of this project is to test whether aserious of three escalating does injections of Myobloc in the biceps and brachioradialisof children age 2-6 years old with restriction of arm movement due to increased tone inthe arm flexor muscles can improve functional reaching.
R21 NS045638 completed. NIH/NINDS, 4/1/03-3/31/05, “Childhood motor impairment
and assisted communication.” Role: PI. The major goal of this project is to investigatethe relationship between measures of upper-extremity motor function and the design ofoptimal communication interfaces for children with motor disorders.
Investigator-initiated clinical research completed. United Cerebral Palsy Foundation,
2/1/02-1/31/05, “Cerebral Hypertonia of Central origin
ticholinergic Treatment Effects.” Role: PI. The major goal of this project is to testwhether there is an improvement in upper-extremity function in children with dysto-nia treated with an escalating dose of oral trihexyphenidyl. This is a multi-center trialperformed as lead site of the Childhood Motor Study Group.
Pfizer Pharmaceuticals Group, 7/1/01-6/30/02, “A
Virtual-reality Training Environment for the Treatment of Pediatric Dystonia.” Role:
PI. The major goal of this project is to develop the hardware and software for an in-teractive environment that can be used to test the ability to retrain arm movements inchildren with upper extremity dystonia and improve their quality of reaching.
1993-1994 Intern in Pediatrics, USC/Los Angeles County Medical Center, Los Angeles.
1993-1994 Research Staff, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena.
1995 Resident in Pediatrics, USC/Los Angeles County Medical Center, Los Angeles.
1995-1996 Clinical fellow, Children’s Hospital Department of Neurology, Boston.
1995-1996 Postdoctoral Research Assistant, MIT, Boston.
1996-1999 Resident, Children’s Hospital Department of Neurology, Boston.
1999-2000 Clinical Fellow, Movement Disorders Unit, Toronto Western Hospital.
7/1/2005-6/30/2007 Assistant Professor of Child Neurology (UTL), Dept. Neurology and
Neurological Sciences, Stanford University.
• Childhood Motor Study Group (CMSG), co-director and principal investigator
• NIH Taskforce on Childhood Motor Disorders, principal investigator
• Child Neurology Society - Movement Disorders Special Interest Group
• Dystonia Medical Research Foundation - Scientific Advisory Board
• Neural Control of Movement Society - Executive Committee, Secretary
• Journal of Motor Behavior - Consulting Editor
• NENS220, “Computational Neuroscience”, co-instructor with John Huguenard
• ME281, “Biomechanics of Movement”, co-instructor with Scott Delp, 2002.
• NSADA program for teaching translational research in Child Neurology, co-director
• BioDesign program ”Bootcamp” director, 2003-2004.
• NENS299 “Computational Neural Networks”, 2003
• resident and medical student teaching
1995 “Neuroscience and Neural Networks”, workshop at Neural Information Processing Sys-
1998 “Computational Motor Control”, satellite to NCM meeting. co-organizer.
2000 “Computational Motor Control”, satellite to NCM meeting. co-organizer.
2000 “Diagnosis of Hypertonia in Children”, symposium, Toronto. co-organizer.
2001-2006 “Taskforce on Childhood Motor Disorders”. organizer and PI.
2006 “Neural Control of Abnormal Movement”, satellite to NCM meeting. co-organizer.
1. Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation Study Group (MRS) ad hoc 2006
2. Function, Integration, and Rehabilitation Sciences Subcommittee (FIRS) standing 2006-
3. Child Neurology Foundation ad hoc 2004
4. Dystonia Medical Research Foundation standing 2005-2008
1. Neuroscience Institute at Stanford, Director of working group on child motor disorders,
2. NSADA Planning and Direction, 2003-2006.
3. Cerner Clinical Information System, MD design team, 2004.
5. Down Syndrome Clinic planning meetings, 2004.
6. Biodesign Planning Committee, 2000-2001.
7. Neuroscience faculty search committee, 2001.
2. J. Neurology, Neurosurgery, Psychiatry
Computational Neuroscience and Neural Networks
4. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Primary Research Goal: To understand and prevent adverse effects of childhood brain disorders
Computational Neuroscience and Neural Networks:
1. The mathematical description of dystonia and abnormal human movement
2. Mathematical models of abnormal basal ganglia function
3. Neural Network models of normal and disordered human motor learning
4. Neural Network control algorithms for robotics, and failure of control
5. Factors that enhance or prevent motor learning
6. Contribution of disordered sensory processing to dystonia
7. Information representation in neural population codes
8. Maximum-likelihood methods for interpreting bioelectric signals
Clinical Research in Childhood Movement Disorders:
1. Tools for quantification and diagnosis of dystonia in children
2. Quantification of ataxia, apraxia, and deficits of selective motor control
3. Role of botulinum toxin in the modification of learned motor patterns
4. Effect of early treatment of dystonia on motor developmental outcome
5. Feedback retraining of multiple-muscle patterned movement
6. Virtual-reality environments for motor retraining
7. Optimization of assisted communication interfaces for children with motor disorders
1995 McDonnell-Pew Postdoctoral Fellowship.
1996-1998 von Meyer Travelling Fellowship.
2000 Dystonia Medical Research Foundation New Millenium Award.
2003 United Cerebral Palsy Leaves of Hope Award.
2003 William M. Hume Faculty Scholar Award.
2004 Biodesign program teaching award.
Selected Invited Papers and Addresses (30):
1. “Failure of Motor Learning,” invited lecture at MIT, May 2007.
2. “Pediatric Movement Disorders,” invited lecture at the Movement Disorder Society,
3. “New perspectives on pediatric dystonia”, invited lecture, UCLA, March 2006.
4. “Diagnostic and Assessment measures of Ataxia-Telangiectasia”, invited lecture at an
NINDS-sponsored ataxia-telangiectasia clinical research workshop, March 2006.
5. “Movement disorders in degenerative and storage diseases”, invited lecture at the Neu-
rotrophic factors workshop of Children’s Neurobiological Solutions, March 2006.
6. “Dystonia in children with cerebral palsy”, invited lecture at the Rehabilitation Institute
7. “Medication and Rehabilitation”, invited lecture at the Dystonia Medical Research Foun-
dation research meeting, September 2005.
8. “Dystonia, spasticity, and rigidity”, invited lecture at U. Pittsburgh Medical Center,
9. “Dystonia, spasticity, and rigidity”, invited lecture at the Rehabilitation Institute of
10. “Dystonia, hypertonia, and co-contraction in children: It’s not what we think”, invited
lecture at Northwestern University, August 2005.
11. “Pediatric Movement Disorders,” invited lecturer at the Movement Disorder Society,
12. “Movement disorders in cerebral palsy,” invited lecturer at the American Academy of
13. “Failure of motor learning”, invited lecture at the Redwood Neuroscience Institute,
14. “US Taskforce on childhood motor disorders”, invited lecture at the SPASM conference,
15. “Dystonia, spasticity, and rigidity - why are they important in cerebral palsy and how do
we measure them?” course director and lecturer at the American Academy of CerebralPalsy and Developmental Medicine, September 2004.
16. “New insights into the etiology of cerebral palsy”, invited lecture at the American
Academy of Pediatrics, October 2004.
17. “Tics, twitches, and Tourette syndrome”, invited lecture at the American Academy of
18. “Acquired/Secondary movement disorders in childhood”, invited lecture at the Move-
19. “Stiffness, spasticity, and dystonia: diagnosis and management of hypertonia in chil-
dren”, Brown University invited lecture, May 2004.
20. “Tools used to measure rigidity”, invited lecture at the Kinetics Foundation, May 2004.
21. “New perspectives on pediatric dystonia”, invited lecture at Oregon Health Sciences
22. “Stiffness, spasticity, and dystonia: diagnosis and management of hypertonia in chil-
dren”, invited lecture at Oregon Health Sciences University, April 2004.
23. “Hypertonia in childhood,” educational lecture at the American Academy of Neurology,
24. “Botulinum toxin and the types of hypertonia”, invited lecture at an Allergan-sponsored
symposium on current uses of botulinum toxin, August 2003.
25. “Botulinum toxin type B”, invited lecture at an Allergan-sponsored symposium on cur-
rent uses of botulinum toxin, August 2003.
26. “Hypertonia in childhood,” educational lecture at the Child Neurology Society, October
27. “Spasticity and other Hypertonias,” World Congress on Disabilities, invited lecture,
28. “Is pediatric dystonia a disorder of plasticity?”
Neurology and Gatsby Computational Sciences unit of the Queen Square NeurologicalInstitute, December 2000.
29. “Interdisciplinary conference on childhood motor disorders”, conference co-chairman and
30. “Neural Control of Movement”, Satellite conference co-chairman and invited speaker,
1992 American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP)
1995 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)
1995 Massachusetts Medical Association (MMA)
1995 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
1995 Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
1998 American Physiological Society (APS)
2002 American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM)
Peer-reviewed articles (41 published, 7 in press)
1. Sanger T. D., 2007, The use of surface electromyography in the diagnosis of childhood
hypertonia: a pilot study, J. Child Neurology, in press.
2. van Doornik J., Kukke S., McGill K., Rose J. A., Sherman-Levine S., Sanger T. D.,
2007, Oral baclofen increases maximal voluntary activation of ankle plantar flexors inchildren with spasticity due to cerebral palsy, J. Child Neurology, in press.
3. Sanger T. D., 2007, Bayesian filtering of myoelectric signals, J. Neurophys, 97:1839-
4. Sanger T. D., Henderson J., Lerner-Durham J., 2006, Optimizing assisted communi-
cation devices for children with motor impairments using a model of information rateand channel capacity, IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering, in press.
5. Sanger T. D., Bastian A., Brunstrom J., Damiano D., Delgado M., Dure, L., Gaebler
-Spira D., Hoon A., Mink J. W., Sherman-Levine S., Welty L. J., and the child motorstudy group, 2006, Prospective open-label clinical trial of trihexyphenidyl in childrenwith secondary dystonia due to cerebral palsy, J. Child Neurology in press.
6. Sanger T. D., Kukke S. N., Sherman-Levine, S., 2006, Botulinum toxin B improves
speed of reaching in children with cerebral palsy and arm dystonia: An open-label dose-escalation pilot study, J. Child Neurology, in press.
7. Ben-Pazi, H, Kukke S. N., Sanger T. D., 2006, Poor penmanship in children correlates
with abnormal rhythmic tapping: A broad functional temporal impairment, J. ChildNeurology, in press.
8. Sanger T. D., Kukke S. N., 2006, Abnormalities of tactile sensory function in children
with dystonic and diplegic cerebral palsy, J Child Neurol, in press.
9. Malfait N., Sanger T. D., 2006, Does dystonia always include co-contraction? A study
of unconstrained reaching in children with primary and secondary dystonia, Exp BrainRes, 176(2):206-216.
10. Sanger T. D., 2006, Arm trajectories in dyskinetic cerebral palsy have increased ran-
dom variability, J. Child Neurol., 21:551-557.
11. Ishihara A. K., van Doornik J., Sanger T. D., 2006, Failure Modes in Feedback Error
Learning, IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence, (full-length refereedpaper) pp.669-676.
12. Ishihara A. K., van Doornik J., Sanger T. D., 2006, Feedback Error Learning with
Basis Function Networks, IEEE Int. Symp. Intelligent Control, (full-length refereedpaper).
13. Espay A. J., Hung S. W., Sanger T. D., Lang A. E., 2005, A writing device improves
writing in primary writing tremor, Neurology, 64(9):1648-1650. (cited by 2)
14. Sanger T. D., Kaiser J., Placek B., 2005, Reaching movements in childhood dystonia
contain signal-dependent noise, J. Child Neurol., 20:489-496. (cited by 1)
15. Enns G. M., Barkovich A. J., van Kuilenburg A.B.P., Manning M., Sanger T. D.,
Witt D.R., van Gennip A. H., 2004, Head imaging abnormalities in dihydropyrimidinedehydrogenase deficiency, J. Inherit. Metab. Dis., 27:513-522.
16. Sanger T. D., 2004, Severe resting clonus caused by thyrotoxicosis in a 16-year-old girl
with hereditary spastic paraparesis, Movement Disorders,19(6): 712-713.
17. Sanger T. D., 2004, Failure of motor learning for large initial errors, Neural Computa-
18. Sanger T. D., 2003, Childhood-onset generalized dystonia can be modeled by increased
gain in the indirect basal ganglia pathway. J. Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr, 74:1509-1515. (cited by 3)
19. Sanger T. D., Lang A. E., 2003, Case studies in pediatric movement disorders, Move-
ment Disorders, special supplement (CD-ROM).
20. Thelen D. D., Riewald S. A., Asakawa D. S., Sanger T. D., Delp S. L., 2003,
Abnormal coupling of knee and hip moments during maximal exertions in persons withcerebral palsy. Muscle Nerve 27(4):486-493. (cited by 3)
21. Sanger T. D., 2002, Decoding neural spike trains: calculating the probability that
a spike train and an external signal are related, J. Neurophysiology, 87(3):1659-1663. (cited by 3)
22. Sanger T. D., Pascual-Leone A., Tarsy D. M., Schlaug G., 2002, Nonlinear sensory
cortex response to simultaneous tactile stimuli in Writer’s Cramp, Movement Disorders,17(1):105-111. (cited by 17)
23. Sanger T. D., Tarsy D. M., Pascual-Leone A., 2001, Abnormalities of spatial and
temporal sensory discrimination in writer’s cramp, Movement Disorders, 16(1):94-99. (cited by 41)
24. Sanger T. D., Garg R. R., Chen R., 2001, Interactions between two different inhibitory
systems in human motor cortex revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation, J. Phys-iology, 530(pt 2):307-317. (cited by 85)
25. Sanger T. D., 2000, Human arm movements described by a linear superposition of
principal components, J. Neuroscience, 20(3):1066-1072. (cited by 13)
26. Sanger T. D., Merzenich M. M., 2000, Computational model of the role of sensory dis-
organization in focal task-specific dystonia, J. Neurophysiology, 84(5):2458-2464. (citedby 20)
27. Bara-Jimenez W., Shelton P., Sanger T. D., Hallett M., 2000, Sensory discrimination
capabilities in patients with focal hand dystonia, Annals of Neurology, 47(3):377-380. (cited by 38)
28. So G. M., Thiele E. A., Sanger T. D., Schmid R., Riviello J. J. Jr., 1998,
Electroencephalogram and clinical focalities in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, J. Child Neu-rology, 13(11):541–545.
29. Sanger T. D., 1998, Probability density methods for smooth function-approximation
and learning in populations of tuned spiking neurons, Neural Computation, 10:1567-1586. (cited by 6)
30. Sanger T. D., 1996, Probability density estimation for the interpretation of neural
population codes, J. Neurophysiology, 76(4):2790–2793. (cited by 42)
31. Sanger T. D., Jain K. D., 1996, MERRF syndrome with overwhelming lactic acidosis,
Pediatric Neurology, 14(1):57–61. (cited by 3)
32. Sanger T. D., 1995, Eleven-year-old girl with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and
nephrotic syndrome, Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 14(12):1107–1108.
33. Sanger T. D., 1994, Theoretical considerations for the analysis of population coding
in motor cortex, Neural Computation, 6(1):12–21. (cited by 46) Reprinted in L. Abbottand T. Sejnowski, ed.s, Neural codes and distributed representations, MIT Press, 1999,pp. 45–53.
34. Sanger T. D., 1994, Optimal unsupervised motor learning for dimensionality reduction
of nonlinear control systems, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, 5(6):965–973.
35. Sanger T. D., 1994, Neural network learning control of robot manipulators using grad-
ually increasing task difficulty, IEEE Trans. Robotics and Automation, 10(3):323–333. (cited by 22)
36. Sanger T. D., 1994, Optimal unsupervised motor learning predicts the internal rep-
resentation of barn owl head movements, Advances in Neural Information ProcessingSystems, J. D. Cowan, G. Tesauro, J. Alspector, ed.s, Morgan Kaufmann, p. 614-621.
37. Sanger T. D., 1994, Two iterative algorithms for computing the singular value de-
composition from input/output samples, Advances in Neural Information ProcessingSystems, J. D. Cowan, G. Tesauro, J. Alspector, ed.s, Morgan Kaufmann, p. 144-151. (cited by 4)
38. Dornay M., Sanger T. D., 1993, Equilibrium point control of a monkey arm simulator
by a fast learning artificial neural network, Biological Cybernetics, 68(6):499–508. (citedby 5)
39. Sanger T. D., 1993, A practice strategy for robot learning control Advances in Neural
Information Processing Systems, S. J. Hanson, J. D. Cowan, C. L. Giles, ed.s, MorganKaufmann, p. 335-341. (cited by 2)
40. Sanger T. D., Sutton R. S., Matheus C. J., 1992, Iterative construction of sparse
polynomial approximations Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, J. E. Moody, S. J. Hanson, R. P. Lippmann, ed.s, Morgan Kaufmann, p. 1064-1071. (citedby 5)
41. Sanger T. D., 1991, A tree-structured algorithm for reducing computation in networks
with separable basis functions, Neural Computation, 3(1):67–78. (cited by 41)
42. Sanger T. D., 1991, Optimal hidden units for two-layer nonlinear feedforward neu-
ral networks, International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence,5(4):545–561, (cited by 4) Also appears in C. H. Chen, ed., Neural Networks in PatternRecognition and Their Applications, World Scientific, 1991, pp. 43-59.
43. Sanger T. D., 1991, A tree-structured adaptive network for function approximation in
high dimensional spaces, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, 2(2):285–293. (cited by 40)
44. Sanger T. D., 1991, Basis-function trees as a generalization of local variable selec-
tion methods for function approximation Advances in Neural Information ProcessingSystems, R. P. Lippmann, J. E. Moody, d. S. Touretzky, ed.s, Morgan Kaufmann, p. 700-706. (cited by 5)
45. Sanger T. D., 1990, Analysis of the two-dimensional receptive fields learned by the gen-
eralized Hebbian algorithm in response to random input, Biological Cybernetics, 63:221–228. (cited by 11)
46. Sanger T. D., 1989, Optimal unsupervised learning in a single-layer linear feedforward
neural network, Neural Networks, 2:459–473. (cited by 345)
47. Sanger T. D., 1988, Stereo disparity computation using Gabor filters, Biological Cy-
48. Salama G., Sanger T. D., Cohen L. B., 1981, Optical recordings of action-potential
propagation in intact heart, Biological Bulletin, 161(2):316.
1. Sanger T. D., Taskforce on childhood motor disorders, 2006, Definition and classifica-
tion of negative motor signs in childhood, Pediatrics, 118(5):2159-2167.
2. Sanger T. D., Taskforce on childhood motor disorders, 2003, Classification and defi-
nition of disorders causing hypertonia in childhood, Pediatrics, 111:e89-e97. (cited by43)
1. Sanger T. D., 2006, Hyperkinetic movement disorders in childhood, Continuum, in
2. Sanger T. D., Mink J. W., 2006, Movement disorders, Pediatric Neurology: Principles
and Practice, 4th edition, Swaiman K. F., Ashwal, S., Ferriero D. M. ed.s, Mosby,Philadelphia, 1271-1311.
3. Sanger T. D., 2006, Tic disorders and Tourette syndrome, Continuum, in press
4. Sanger T. D., 2005, Hypertonia in children: how and when to treat, Curr Treat Options
5. Sanger T. D., 2004, Toward a definition of childhood dystonia, Curr Opin Pediatrics,
6. Hahn J. S., Sanger T. D., 2004, Neonatal movement disorders, NeoReviews, 5:321-326.
7. Sanger T. D., 2003, Pediatric movement disorders, Curr Opin Neurol, 16(4):529-535.
8. Sanger T. D., 2003, Neural population codes, Curr Opin Neurobio, 13(2):238-249.
9. Sanger T. D., 2003, Pathophysiology of pediatric movement disorders, J Child Neu-
10. Sanger T. D., 1997, A probability interpretation of neural population coding for move-
ment, In Morasso P., Sanguineti V., ed.s, Self-Organization, Computational Maps andMotor Control, Elsevier, North Holland.
11. Sanger T. D., 1990a, A theoretical analysis of population coding in motor cortex,
In Antognetti P., Milutinovic V., ed.s, Neural Networks: Concepts, Applications, andImplementations, volume 2, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
Selected Abstracts and Technical Reports (21)
1. Sanger T. D., 2006 Recursive Bayesian Estimation of Surface EMG, Society for Neu-
2. Chu V., Sanger T. D., 2006 Signal dependent noise during isometric force contraction
in childhood hypertonic dystonia, Society for Neuroscience
3. Van Doornik J., Ishihara A., Sanger T. D., 2006 Uniform Boundedness of Feedback
Error Learning for a Class of Stochastic Nonlinear Systems, International Conferenceon Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, Singapore
4. Ishihara A., Van Doornik J., Sanger T. D., 2006 Feedback Error Learning with Basis
Function Networks IEEE Control Systems Society
5. Ishihara A., Van Doornik J., Sanger T. D., 2006 Estimation of motor learning rate in
humans based on a feedback-error learning model, Neural Control of Movement Society
6. Sanger T. D., child motor study group, 2005 Childhood hypertonia of cerebral ori-
gin - an open-label trial of anticholinergic treatment effects (CHOCOLATE), AmericanAcademy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine
7. Kukke S., Sanger T. D., 2005 Failure of motor learning, Neural Control of Movement
8. Malfait N., Sanger T. D., 2005 Is bradykinesia in cerebral palsy due to co-contraction?
9. Sanger T. D., 2004 Optimal sensory processing may cause sub-optimal motor perfor-
10. Sanger T. D., 2004 When the best strategy is wrong: Optimal allocation of cortex may
cause focal dystonia, American Neurological Association
11. Sanger T. D., 2004 Children with arm dystonia and cerebral palsy have a deficit of
tactile sensory discrimination, Movement Disorders Society
12. Sanger T. D., 2004 Reaching movements in childhood dystonia: Consistent errors or
13. Sanger T. D., 2004 Explaining childhood-onset dystonia: Is there a role for the indirect
14. Kukke S., Sanger T. D., 2004 Humans adapt to exogenous signal-dependent noise
15. Sanger T. D., 2002, The speed-accuracy tradeoff in children is related to motor plan-
ning rather than movement execution, Society for Neuroscience.
16. Sanger T. D., 2002, Evaluation of childhood hypertonia using the Prochazka rigidity
analyzer, Movement Disorders Society.
17. Sanger T. D., Taskforce on childhood motor disorders, 2002, Classification and defini-
tion of disorders causing hypertonia in childhood, Proceedings of the annual meeting ofthe American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine.
18. Sanger T. D., Pascual-Leone A., Tarsy D. M., Schlaug G., 2001, Nonlinear sensory
cortex response to simultaneous tactile stimuli in Writer’s Cramp, Society for Neuro-science.
19. Sanger T. D., Garg R. R., Chen R., 2001, Interactions between two different inhibitory
systems in human motor cortex revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation, Societyfor Neuroscience.
20. Sanger T. D., 2000, Decoding neural spike trains: Calculating the probability that a
spike rate and a surface potential are related, Society for Neuroscience.
21. Sanger T. D., Tarsy D. M., Pascual-Leone A. P., Schlaug G. M., 2000, fMRI evidence of
sensory receptive fields spanning multiple fingers in writer’s cramp, American Academyof Neurology Annual Meeting Abstracts Neurology 54(supp 3):A199-A200.
Arch Virol (2007)DOI 10.1007/s00705-007-0974-5Printed in the NetherlandsAntiviral activity of arbidol against influenza A virus, respiratory syncytialvirus, rhinovirus, coxsackie virus and adenovirus in vitro and in vivoL. Shi, H. Xiong, J. He, H. Deng, Q. Li, Q. Zhong, W. Hou, L. Cheng, H. Xiao, and Z. YangState Key Laboratory of Virology, Institute of Medical Virology, Wuhan University, Wuh
Acetaminophen (Tylenol) Acetaminophen reduces fever and relieves pain. Typical uses include fevers, immunizations, teething, earaches, bruises, headaches, etc. Please notify us prior to using Tylenol for babies under 2 months of age. Acetaminophen is available in the following forms: Infant drops (80mg/0.8 ml) Children's liquid (160mg/5ml) Chewable tablets (80mg) Junior