Zuhir pbl-iii (diabetes)

• The following is a collection of medical • It is to be used for educational purposes only.
• All materials belong to their respective owners
and the authors claims no rights over them.
1. Rapid acting2. Regular3. NPH (N)-slower and longer acting 4. Lente (L)- slower and longer acting 5. Ultralente- slowest and longest acting 6. Long acting basal-slowest and longest acting Insulin Pill
• The discovery of a new polymer that may allow development of an effective insulin pill was reported at a recent meeting of the American • When the polymer is used as a pill coating, it allows insulin to get into the bloodstream without being destroyed by the digestive system. So far it has only been tested in animals. • Some experts question whether insulin in pill form will prove useful, since dosing is so critical Insulin inhalers
• Although daily injections of insulin would still be needed, inhaled insulin is currently in clinical trials and may be headed for a fast track approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
• These inhalers are about the size of a flashlight • The sprayed insulin is inhaled into the mouth and coats the mouth, throat and tongue. The insulin passes quickly into the bloodstream.
• In the past year, three new formulations of insulin have become available which have been designed to offer the advantages of simpler regimens and better glucose control for people whose diabetes must be treated • All are human insulin analogs derived from • Glargine (from Aventis Co.) is a basal insulin,
offering a more continuous activity with much less of a peak than NPH insulin. It can be used with a very-rapid-acting insulin such as lispro or aspart, and should provide a flatter basal • Aspart (from Novo Nordisk) is a very-rapid-acting
insulin that can be injected 15 minutes prior to eating. Its fast action also allows more freedom in the timing of meals and the amount of food • Novelmix is a 75/25 lispro mixture is the first of
the analog mixtures available (from Eli Lilly); it contains Lilly's very-rapid-acting lispro and a novel human insulin analog called NPL. It is designed for those who need better control after meals and want to use an insulin pen.
Advances in Management
DPP-4 inhibitors include the oral drugs Januvia,
Onglyza, and Tradjenta. These protect a natural compound in the body -- GLP-1 -- from breaking down. • Incretin mimetics or GLP analogs include the injected
drugs Byetta and Victoza. They use the body's own signaling system to boost insulin after meals. • Other drugs includeSymilin, an injectable synthetic
hormone. It helps lower blood sugar after meals in • Combination drugs have made a huge difference.
• They join different medications in one pill -- often
metformin and a sulfonylurea, a meglitinide, a DPP4 inhibitor, a thiazolidinedione, or a thiazolidinedione in • This cuts down the number of pills a person has to • Combination drugs include Actoplus MET, Avandamet, Duetact, Glucovance, Metaglip, and PrandiMet. • There can be drawbacks. They tend to cost more than generic drugs. They can also make it harder to fine- • New types of insulin allow some people to take
just one injection of a long-acting insulin each day. That can be much easier than multiple injections of standard insulin, says Cypess. • Future medications. Other classes of medication
are in development. One type doesn't affect insulin, unlike most diabetes drugs. It blocks the body from reabsorbing glucose from urine, says Kalyani. While the FDA has not approved any drug from this class, it could in the future. Vaccine against Diabetes
• Researchers have produced a drug (essentially a peptide) that targets auto-immune diabetes.
• It interferes with the function of immune cells that attack the β-cells of the pancreas without
affect the rest of the immune system.
• It thereby offers the possibility of preventing type 1 diabetes in people at high risk and of halting its progress in people newly diagnosed • Results published in a recent issue of The Lancet showed that three injections of the compound given within six months of diagnosis of type 1 diabetes successfully arrested the progression of the disease in newly diagnosed patients. • After treatment, these patients produced insulin and required fewer insulin injections. They did not experience any harmful or major side effects.
• Studies are still underway to determine their Islet cell transplant
• A new islet cell transplant technique has shown • Called the 'Edmonton' technique, the transplants have resulted in seven patients becoming insulin free for up to 14 months after treatment. • Clinical trials are now underway at 10 national diabetes centers to see if the insulin reversal can • The Edmonton technique uses islet cells (cells from the pancreas) from two or more donor • Patients are required to take immuno- suppressive drugs for the rest of their life.
Differences between DM-I/II
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Source: http://limu.edu.ly/ar/images/new_images/Zuhir_PBL-III_Diabetes.pdf

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