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IMPACT OF ADB ASSISTED TEACHER TRAINING PROJECT ON THE
QUALITY OF TEACHER
EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN
Teacher and teacher education have an important role in any education system, in both
developed and developing countries. Quality of teachers depends heavily on their capacity to use different methods and techniques in a particular context. If the teachers are knowledgeable, competent and committed, they can deliver well. A successful teacher is emotionally mature, user of modern teaching techniques, facilitator for the students and above all an instrument of character building. In 1990, the Asian Development Bank approved a Project Preparatory Technical Assistance to prepare a detailed proposal for a Teacher Training Project in Pakistan. It aimed at upgrading the quality of teacher training, increasing the number of trained female teachers in the rural areas, strengthening the relevance of training curriculum, methodology and materials, and promoting efficiency and effectiveness in policy making, management and resource generation of the teacher education sub sector. This study aimed to investigate the Impact of ADB assisted Teacher Training Project on the Quality of Teacher Education in Pakistan. The main objectives of the study were: (1) to assess the extent to which Teacher Training Project (TTP) objectives have been achieved; (2) to examine the impact of capacity expansion on the quantitative improvement of teacher education; (3) to investigate the impact of Teacher Training Project (TTP) on the qualitative improvement of human resource development in teacher education through In-Country Fellowship Programme; (4) to explore the outcomes of up gradation of management techniques under the Teacher Training Project; and (5) to find out the effectiveness of Training Outposts (TOs) and their input towards the improvement of training of teachers. The population of the study consisted of all the heads of Provincial Institutes of Teacher Education, Govt. Colleges of Education and, the Govt. Colleges of Elementary Education/ Regional Institute of Teacher Education, all teacher educators of Govt. Colleges of Education and, the Govt. Colleges of Elementary Education/ Regional Institute of Teacher Education, all the heads/ masters trainers and trainee teachers of Training Outposts,(4 PITEs, 16 GCEs, 90 GCETs and 66 TOs),all the experts/ consultants and officers of Teacher Training Project (TTP) and all the officers of the Technical Panel on Teacher Education (TPTE). A stratified random sampling technique was used for this study. The sample of the study consisted of 70 institutions and 509 respondents : (a) 34 heads of PITEs, GCEs and GCETs/RITEs; (b) 145 teacher educators (ICF Training receivers); (c) 150 teacher educators (ICF non-training receivers); (d) 30 educational managers (Training receivers through Overseas Fellowship); (e) 20 heads/ master trainers of Training Outposts (TOs); (f) 100 trainee teachers (Training receivers through TOs) from one TO i.e. Chakwal; (g) 30
experts/consultants and officers of Teacher Training Project and TPTE.After reviewing the
related literature and all the official documents of Teacher Training Project, the research
instruments for heads, teacher educators (ICF training receivers and non-training receivers),
educational managers (Overseas Fellowship), heads/master trainers and trainee teachers of TOs
were designed and used for data collection. Interview schedule for the experts/consultants and
officers of TTP and TPTE was also developed. The instruments were developed keeping in view
the various aspects of teacher education like office equipment, electronic media, furniture,
teacher training, curriculum, management, competency/attitude of teachers, teaching methods
and instructional material. Data were collected through personal visits, with the help of a
research assistant and by mail from different institutions. Data were tabulated, analyzed and
interpreted keeping in view the objectives of the study. For this purpose, Percentages, Mean, Chi
Square and t Test were used. The conclusions of the study are: Office equipment and furniture
were sufficiently provided and regarding utilization, furniture was maximum utilized, whereas
office equipment was to some extent, utilized in the institutions. Electronic media was
insufficiently provided, but it played a vital role in strengthening the teacher training in all the
four provinces. Construction of four PITEs, one/ two rooms in GCEs, GCETs/RITEs and TOs,
enhanced the enrolment and facilitated the prospective teachers. The teacher educators training
receivers were practicing project method and simulation method more than the non training
receivers. They were also consulting reference books / latest books. Teacher educators non
training receivers were adopting question answer and lecture method and largely following the
textbooks for teaching. The teacher educators training receivers possessed more skills to use
A.V. aids and modern technology during teaching as compared to the non training receivers.
Professional attitude was also developed in teacher educators training receivers. Set induction,
classroom management and personal skills were developed in the trainee teachers of TOs. The
objectives and the scheme of studies for Diploma in Education were well formulated. Textbooks
for Diploma in Education were poorly developed and the contents were to some extent relevant
and adequate. Diploma in Education was not a successful programme. Educational
managers/teachers were well trained through Overseas Fellowship training and management
techniques were also improved but after training they did not monitor the broad aims/ objectives
and teaching learning process in their institutions. The courses such as home food processing,
family planning, environment and adult literacy were not taught during the training in Training
Outposts. The Provincial Institutes of Teacher Education and Training Outposts were not
functioning according to the objectives formulated in Teacher Training Project and after
completion of the project Training Outposts were closed. The coordination was weak among the
Federal Coordination Unit, Provincial Implementation Units and Technical Panel on Teacher
Education. The recommendations of the study are: Electronic media should be provided in
sufficient quantity and short term training courses should be arranged for imparting training to
faculty in utilizing office equipment and electronic media. The teacher educator’s non-training
receivers should adopt modern teaching methods during their teaching. They should be trained to
use the new techniques of teaching. The Overseas Fellowship trainees should monitor all the
tasks and activities of their institutions. They should also provide the rigorous managerial
training to other managers. FCU, PIUs and TPTE should be revamped and strong coordination
through electronic media should be established among them for an objective output. PITEs and
TOs should be reactivated and in-service and pre-service training should be offered to teachers at
TEACHERS NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR AND ITS IMPACT ON
The observational study was conducted to see the impact of teachers’ nonverbal behavior on the academic achievement of learners. This also investigated the relationship of nonverbal communication of teachers working in different educational institutions. The main objectives of the study were to measure nonverbal behavior of teachers’ working in English medium Federal Government Cant Garrison schools, Army Public schools and Private schools, to compare the nonverbal behavior of tecahers’serving in above school systems, to compare nonverbal behavior of male and female teachers and to find out the relationship between teachers’ nonverbal behavior and academic achievement students. For this purpose 90 science teachers were randomly chosen from the above school systems through two phases cluster sampling technique. In order to measure the variable of teachers’ nonverbal behavior, an observation form with seven points rating scale (semantic differential) based on Galloways’categories of nonverbal communication was developed. The rating scale complemented verbal dimension of Flanders’intercation categories through nonverbal dimensions. The instrument was pre-tested at a teachers training institute. Design of the research was descriptive cum observational. The data was analyzed by using the statistical techniques such as mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean, population mean, t-test ,ANNOVA, Pearson ‘r’ probability error of obtained. The level of significance used in this study was 0.05. The main results of the study were that the nonverbal behavior of the teachers was found to be consistent with their verbal behavior. Male and female teachers did not differ in their nonverbal behavior. No difference was found between nonverbal behavior of teachers working in private, Fedral Government Cantt Garrison and Army public schools. Strong association was found between nonverbal behavior of teachers and academic achievement of their students. In the light of research findings and conclusions, it is recommended that a curriculum for human communication be developed for teacher training programmes, nonverbal teaching behavior should be given central place in important techniques of tecahing,both male and female teachers be made conscious of the intelligent use of their body language during teaching. For future research it is recommended that a variety of research studies be launched based on Galloway’s framework of nonverbal communication, one way mirror recording techniques could be used for gaining better results and the instrument developed for present study can be used by the supervisory staff of teacher education institutions. However, in the light of Flanders and Galloway ‘system an observation form be developed for training and observation of teachers during teaching practice.
THE IMPACT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION PROJECT (TEP) II
FUNDED BY ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK ON THE IMPROVEMENT
OF THE QUALITY OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN
“The impact of Technical Education Project (TEP II) funded by Asian Development
Bank on the improvement of the quality of technical education in Pakistan”.
of this study was to find out the standard of upgraded Polytechnic institutes/ Colleges and how far the Project called Technical Education Project II was helpful to improve the efficacy of the middle level technical manpower in the country; to draw comparison of the achievement scores of the upgraded institutions before and after launching of the project through the results which were averaged out for each province and standard deviation was calculated ; to compare the opinion of the participants about local and overseas training which was collected through administering questionnaire and chi square was applied. The objective of this research was also to find out the trends of students’ enrolment in new technologies introduced under the project. For this purpose year wise students’ enrolment during 2000-2007 in new technologies was obtained on Performa developed for principals. The objective of the study was also to examine the opinion of trainee teachers on the new program called B.Ed (Tech) degree programme through questionnaires designed for them. It was found out that the students have been interested in newly introduced technologies.
The analysis pin pointed the reasons how and why B.Ed
(Tech) 3 years degree course, did not make a success and the desired results could not be achieved. The result showed that no incentive after such a degree was available to the teachers in their career. The non- accreditation of their degree (B.Ed Tech) was another vital set back in favor of the closure of the program of B.Ed Tech.Results revealed that construction of buildings such as libraries; laboratories and provision of equipment in selected institutions were accomplished according to the approved project (PC 1). Selected upgraded institutions in the provinces of KPK and Punjab showed good achievement in results after up gradation. Results also revealed significant difference of opinion among the participants of the local and overseas training.Data analysis brought forward the fact that improved facilities and teachers training had a good impact on the students’ academic performance.
COMPARATIVE OF THE CAUSAL ATTRIBUTIONS OF MAINSTREAM
AND RELIGIOUS SCHOOL STUDENTS AND THEIR EFFECT ON A
Motivation is an inner state of mind that arouses a behavior and directs it towards a described goal. It accounts for why people engage in particular behaviors. Motivation is closely associated with attributions, that is, explanation of causes of behavior. The attribution theory of academic motivation advanced by Weiner (1986) described the perceived causes of success and failure, the characteristics of causal thinking and subsequent emotional experiences in relation to achievement behavior. Attributions according to Weiner (1986), take three forms. These are internal and external, stable or unstable, and controllable and uncontrollable. The main causal attributions given by pupils to explain their success and failure are effort, ability, luck, task difficulty, study skills, personality, health, teacher attitudes etc.Internal, controllable and unstable attributions are named as high and productive attributions that affect academic achievement positively. On the other hand external, uncontrollable and stable attributions are low and attribution theory students’ future behavior and performance depend mainly upon how they interpret their prior success and failure. The same event of success and failure is interpreted differently by different students, leading to difference in their academic performance. The purpose of the present study was to separate students with high causal attributions and low causal attributions of mainstream and religious sectors and to find out the effect of these causal attributions on students’ subsequent academic achievement. It was hypothesized that there was significant difference between the mean achievement scores of students with high, productive causal attribution sand students with low nonproductive causal attributions both in mainstream sector religious sector. Sample of the study was 490 students of grade X from Rawalpindi and Islamabad districts, out of these 490 students 260 belonged to mainstream schools and 230 came from religious schools. The multistage cluster sampling technique was used. In order to measure the causal attributions of the sample, five points rating scale consisting of 30 items was developed. Students achievement scores were taken from respective gazzetes.The design of the study was causal comparative, where students ‘causal attribution pattern was independent variable and their academic achievement was the dependent variable. The statistical techniques of frequency distribution, mean, standard deviation, median, quartile deviation and t-test were used. The main conclusion drawn from the data analysis was that there was significant difference between the academic achievement of intrinsically motivated students with high causal attributions and that of extrinsically motivated students with low causal attributions thus confirming Weiner attribution theory. It was also found that the attribution patterns of female students were higher than those of male students.
ACADEMIC DECISION MAKING PRACTICES IN HIGH
SCHOOLS OF PUNJAB AND KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA:
A COMPARATIVE STUDY
The study was designed to explore the current academic decision making practices in
high schools of public sector in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The research objectives were developed (i) To explore current academic decision making practices in public high schools of Punjab ; (ii) To find out current academic decision making practices in public high schools of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; (iii) To compare current academic decision making practices in public high schools of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; (iv) To examine similarities and dissimilarities regarding academic decision making practices in public high schools of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Hypotheses were developed: H0 There may not have any significant difference in academic decision making practices in public high schools of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.H1 There may be a significant difference in academic decision making practices in public high schools of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa . HO There may not have differences regarding academic decision making practices in public high schools of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. H1 There may be differences regarding academic decision making practices in public high schools of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.Two research instruments were self designed: semi structured interview guide was designed for data collection from school heads whereas close ended questionnaire was developed for data collection from the school teachers. The research instruments were found to be reliable and valid. The semi structured interview guide covered same broader areas which were covered in questionnaire so that comparison could be made. Survey method was used to collect data from respondents. The study was descriptive in nature which compared location wise academic decision making practices in high schools of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The population of the study consisted of 663 heads masters/mistresses of public high schools from three districts of Punjab and 10, 953 male and female teachers of public high schools from three districts of Punjab .311 head masters/mistresses of public high schools from three districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and 3,997 male and female teachers from three districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa . A sample of 192 respondents, including 48 head masters and 48 head mistresses and 96 teachers (48 male and 48 female) of public high schools were selected on the basis of simple random sampling technique from three districts of Punjab and three districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The data was analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) two- dimensional chi square was applied to find out difference of opinion of the head masters/mistresses of both provinces. Sample independent t test was applied to find opinion of teachers of both provinces.
It appears from the data, that academic decision making practices in Punjab and Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa are almost the same. This includes decision making practices regarding overall management of school, student supervision, teacher supervision, role of School Council/PTA, demonstration of lessons and experiments, and community participation. The head masters/mistresses being over all management incharges of the schools have to plan the objectives for the academic year and design the strategy to achieve the objectives. It was found that head masters/mistresses supervised students, organized and coordinated (internal and external) examinations. They are responsible to make decisions for developing skills, interest and aptitudes among students in classroom activities. Head masters/mistresses have to supervise the teachers and provide them professional guidance. Academic decision making practices are used regarding supervision of curricular, co-curricular activities, evaluation and assessment of student achievement, assessing the performance of teachers as well as students. Head masters/mistresses have to make decisions regarding community participation in problem solving at school.
A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USE OF
TRANSMITTER KNOWLEDGE AND INDUCTIVE INQUIRY MODELS
ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
The study was designed to explore the comparative effectiveness of transmitter of knowledge model and inductive inquiry model on students’ academic achievement. The main objectives of the study were to expose each of the two experimental groups to the transmitter of knowledge model and inductive inquiry model respectively and to compare the effectiveness of these models in the teaching of Pakistan Studies. The pretest posttest control group experimental design was chosen for the experiment. It was hypothesized that there would be significant difference between mean achievement scores of the two experimental groups and a control group on the posttest. The population of the study consisted of all the students of 10th class studying in the Government High Schools located in Rawalpindi city. The sample of the study consisted of 90 students of 10th class studying in Govt. High School DAV College Road, Rawalpindi. They were divided into three groups; each group consisted of 30 students. These groups were formed through matching on the basis of their pretest scores. One of these groups was randomly chosen as control group and other two as experimental groups. The independent variable in the study was model of teaching and the dependent variable was the academic achievement of students. The dependent variable was measured through a self constructed 50-item achievement test that was used both as a pretest as well as a posttest. The experimental groups were exposed to the treatment of teaching models while the control group was provided with conventional teaching. The material used for teaching the experimental groups consisted of the lesson plans prepared in the light of each teaching model according to Hunter’s seven planning steps. After the treatment of eight weeks duration, the obtained data was analyzed by using the statistical techniques such as mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, simple analysis of variance Scheffe test and Tuckey’s test in order to find out whether the difference in the mean achievement score of the comparison groups was statistically significant. The level of significance used in the study was .05. The main results of the study confirmed the research hypotheses. It was, therefore, concluded that students taught through inductive inquiry model showed superior achievement than those students taught through transmitter of knowledge model and through conventional teaching. The study results are in line with previous studies conducted by Schaffer’s (1989) Farrell and Hesketh’s (2000) but the results do not support the results of Nagata (1995), Rose and Fong (1997), Kalia (2005), Nina Panjunan (2007), Patrick and Elizabeth (2008). Though results of present study need further confirmation, it is recommended that inductive inquiry model may tentatively be used by teachers of social studies while teaching the subject to secondary classes. Therefore, in future studies a blend of models may be used because there is no single model which is exclusively best for teaching all the subjects at all levels to all students.
FELLOWSHIP PROGRAMS OF HEC ,PAKISTAN AND UGC,INDIA FOR
AFFECTING QUALITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION:A COMPARATIVE
The higher education is important enough to play a leading role in all fields of economic
development of the manpower of a country. By providing the quality education we can produce quality products. The objectives of the research study were; (a)To analyze the purpose of the fellowship programs of HEC of Pakistan and UGC of India.(b)To compare the eligibility criteria of fellowship programs of UGC of India and HEC of Pakistan.(c)To investigate the placement and administration of fellowship programs of HEC of Pakistan and UGC of India.(d)To find out the monitoring and evaluation system of fellowship programs of HEC of Pakistan and UGC of India.(e)To assess quality improvement resulting from fellowship programs of HEC of Pakistan and UGC of India. The Sample of the study was two Scholarships schemes. 142 faculty members of Education Departments and 135 awardees of HEC, Pakistan, 109 faculty members of Education Departments and 89 awardees of UGC, India, were purposively selected as sample of the study; two sets of questionnaire on five point (Likert scale) questionnaires were developed for quantitative analysis. Collection of data was done by personal visits in Pakistan and data from India was collected by post, through emails and assistance of students of Bangladesh. Data was analyzed by using the two-way chi-square. Conclusions of the study showed that placement and administration procedure was almost the same except a little difference. This difference was observed in factors such as fellowship in accordance with the development and manpower needs of the society. Areas of specialization need to be identified for the researchers, so that chances of development could be prevailed. It was recommended that universities should specify the areas of specialization at the time of admission and proposed model should be applied for affecting quality in higher education.
A STUDY OF HIGHER SECONDARY SCIENCE EDUCATION CURRICULUM IN
PAKISTAN IN THE LIGHT OF CONSTRUCTIVISM
Constructivism is the one of most influential learning theories in science education areas, which is heavily criticized by the critics too (Solomon, 1994 & Scerri 2003). The research was conducted to investigate the science education curriculum at higher secondary level in Pakistan in the light of constructivism. The researcher studied the four elements of the existing curriculum, i.e. objectives, content, teaching methodology, and evaluation in the light of constructivism. The objectives of the study are: (i) to assess the process of curriculum development in higher secondary science education in Pakistan; (ii) to study the existing curriculum of higher secondary science education in Pakistan from a constructivist’s perspective; (iii) to find out the difference of opinion between teachers and students regarding biology curricula in providing constructivists learning opportunities (iv) to highlight the strength and weakness of the existing higher secondary science education curriculum in Pakistan; (v) and to identify future needs for higher secondary science education curriculum in Pakistan. This study was designed to answer or partially answer all of the following questions: (i) To what extent does the psychological form of constructivism as a learning theory prevail in the existing higher secondary science education curriculum in Pakistan? (ii) To what extent does the opinion of teachers and students differ with each other regarding their perception about higher secondary science education curriculum in a constructivist perspective? Multistage sampling was used. At first stage five districts were selected as sample from province Punjab. Twenty higher secondary school and colleges were selected from each district. Then forty teachers and two hundred students were randomly selected from each district. Fifty experts were selected as sample of the study. Three questionnaires (for teachers, students and experts respectively) were developed. The questionnaires were primarily structured and had four open-ended items.
Data was collected, analyzed and interpreted in the light of the objectives of the study. It was done with Chi-square and percentages. The findings of the study indicate that the existing curriculum helped students to interact with learning. However, the teachers and students are not familiar with the objective of higher secondary biology curriculum. It is concluded that construction of understanding occurs in the brain of the learners, but the teachers and curriculum can assist them to construct a more and valid understanding. Teachers felt that they are helping the students and teaching constructivically, but a teacher centered classroom mostly prevailed while implementing the curriculum. Text books offer little scope for constructivist thoughts. Evaluation and assessment patterns in Pakistan only test rote memorization. Understanding and other thinking skills are not assessed, and there is no scope for the learner to act as a self-assessor
as constructivists demands. While teachers do employ various teaching strategies, there is a tendency to remain in a very limited range of teaching approaches. There is little evidence of the teacher acting as a facilitator, guide or mentor to enhance learning. It is recommended that as in constructivism perspection learners are seeking understanding, they construct their own understanding of the science offered to them. Higher secondary biology curriculum seems to give some importance to learners, but it should be more focused on the natural process of the learner’s abilities to enhance learning. Students use previous knowledge, curriculum planners, and textbook writers, and teachers have to care about the previous ideas of learners.
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PEDAGOGICAL AND ASSESSMENT PRACTICES OF
ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY AND VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY OF PAKISTAN
The study was designed to Compare Pedagogical and Assessment Practices of Allama Iqbal OPEN University and Virtual University of Pakistan. The objectives of the study were :1) to investigate the Pedagogical and Assessment Practices of Allama Iqbal Open University and Virtual University of Pakistan for the students of Bachlor and Masters level,ii) to compare the Pedagogical and Assessment Practices of Allama Iqbal Open University and Virtual University of Pakistan for the students of Bachelor and Master level; iii) to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of Pedagogical and Assessment Practices of Allama Iqbal Open University and Virtual University of Pakistan for the students of Bachelors and Master level;iv) and to suggest measures for the improvement of Pedagogical and Assessment Practices of Allama Iqbal Open University and Virtual University of Pakistan. Population of the study was comprised of 3290 students of Allama Iqbal Open University, 1700 students Virtual University of Pakistan,159 Tutors of Allama Iqbal Open University and 36 Virtual University of Pakistan. Convenience sampling technique was used to collect the data from the respodents, 50 students of each program of AIOU and 25 students of each program of VU were included in the sample on the basis of convenience sampling technique. Questionnaires and Interviews were used as instruments of the study. Survey study method was used for data collection; mean was used to analyze the data. Findings of the study indicate that there was various pedagogical and assessment practices used for teaching in both distance universities, such as correspondence or self learning material, which included textbook, supplementary study material, study guide, Compact Discs and Digital Videos Discs of the lesson. Lecture through media, television, radio network and multimedia approach were also used in both universities,Fcae to face teaching in tutorial classes were used only in Allama Iqbal Open University. Group training workshop and group assignments were not arranged in Virtual University of Pakistan. Online teaching was used only in Virtual University of Pakistan. Virtual learning environmental system which included; client server architecture, software package, learning management system and Graded Discussion Boards were used only in Virtual University of Pakistan.
PLANNING ELEMENTARY TEACHING EDUCATION IN PUNJAB FOR
THE PERIOD UP TO 2015-PROJECTED TEACHER DEMAND
The study was designed to analyze the demographic and enrolment data regarding elementary education in Punjab and to project demand of elementary teachers in Punjab up to the year 2015. The study aimed at estimating the year wise demand of school teachers for classes I to VIII for efficient planning of elementary teacher education in Punjab for the year 2015. For this purpose, projected population data were obtained from National Institute of Population Studies Islamabad fir the period up to 2015 and five year population age groups were split into year wise age group. In this way probable age groups of classes I to VIII for each of the year 2006 to 2015 were obtained. The education statistics on elementary education were obtained from the Bureau of Education Punjab and Academy of Education Planning and Management Islamabad in order to observe the past trend of the statistics and make decisions for projecting future demand of elementary teachers in Punjab. The education policies were also studied to set the targets for projecting future requirements both in the enrolments for classes I to VIII and projecting demand of elementary teachers up to 2015. The target of bringing 100% of 05 year old children to class I by 2015 was set. Similarly year wise pupil teacher ratios of primary and middle classes in Punjab during the year up to 2006 were calculated and, on the basis of this analysis, pupil teacher ratios of 40:1 and 25:1 for primary and middle classes respectively were decided to be used during the projection period. It was found that the year wise demand for additional teachers for classes I to VIII was 17518 in 2009 and 25814 in 2014. It was recommended to manage the supply of elementary teachers accordingly and to manage quality teacher training by matching the demand and supply of teachers in the years to come.
EFFECTIVENESS OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION
TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN MATHEMATICS AT SECONDARY LEVEL
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) compared to the traditional method of teaching in the subject of mathematics at secondary level in Pakistan. It was an experimental study of six weeks duration, and “post-test equivalent group design” was used for the statistical analysis of the research at 0.05 levels of significance. To conduct the research, the population considered was all male and female students studying mathematics at secondary level from six hundred and thirty seven schools affiliated with the Federal board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (FBI&SE).Three schools having co-education, computer laboratories with adequate faculties of networking and affiliated with FBI#SE at SSC level were randomly selected at the sample schools from public, garrison, and private sectors. A sample of sixty students, having equal number of male and female students studying mathematics in class IX, was selected from every sample school. The total number of sample students was one hundred and eighty. Students of every sample school were divided into equal groups, i.e, experimental group and control group. Both the groups were equated on the basis of their scores by pair random sampling from the previous examination of class VIII in the subject of mathematics. Every group contained thirty students, which further divided into equal numbers of male and female students, which further divided into equal numbers of male and female students. The students of experimental group exposed to the teaching through ICT, whereas the students of control group were taught through traditional method of teaching in the subject of mathematics. The effectiveness of ICT in mathematics at secondary level against traditional method of teaching was measured through five objectives: (1) To determine the effectiveness of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the academic achievement of the students (ii) To investigate the effect of ICT in the academic achievement of male and female students.(iii) To examine the effect of ICT in the academic achievement of low achievers (iv) To find out the effect of ICT in the academic achievement of high achievers.(v) To compare the effect of ICT students of public, private and garrison sectors. The units taught to both the groups were Sets, Algebric Expressions, and Logarithems, chosen from the prescribed syllabi for class IX by FBI&SE.In order to achieve the objectives of the study, nineteen null hypotheses were formulated and tested. For statistical analysis, t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were applied. While compiling the results of students on post-test for individual school/sectors, implementation of ICT was found effective as compared to traditional method of teaching for females students and for average ability students in mathematics at secondary level. For slow learners it was found effective for the students as a whole and for the students of public sector but least effective for the students of garrison and private sectors against traditional method of teaching, in mathematics in contrast to traditional method of teaching at secondary level. For the high ability students,ICT as a teaching strategy was least effective against traditional method of teaching in overall and in individual cases as
well. Effectiveness of ICT in the comparison of sectors was more for private sector as compared to garrison sector and least for public sector in mathematic at secondary level. On the basis of the findings of this study ,various recommendations were made:(i) ICT might be introduced as a separate discipline in the curriculum of Pakistan from the primary level.(ii) For students to become more familiar with the use of ICT ,the libraries in the educational institutions might be converted to online libraries.(iii) To educate students in the field of technology ,the vital role of teachers might become more effective by giving them in-service and before-service training for using technology.
ANALYSIS OF DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN SKILLS ACQUIRED
DURING TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAMMES (B.ED & M.ED) AND
SKILLS REQUIRED IN ACTUAL CLASS ROOM. PHD THESIS,
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD.
This research has been designed to cover the following objectives (1) To find out the perceptions of teachers, head of schools and teacher trainers about essential classroom skills acquired by the trainee teachers.(2)To identify the essential classroom skills being stressed during the teacher training program.(3)To determine if there are discrepancies between skills being developed during the teacher training program and skills actually being used in the classroom.(4) To identify the problems in acquiring and implementing the essential classroom skills by the trainees teachers.(5) To determine if there are discrepancies between the perceptions of heads, teachers, teacher trainers and researcher’s classroom observations. Technique of multistage sampling was used. At first two Provinces Punjab and K.P.K was chosen. Then five Districts were randomly chosen from the two provinces. Ten percent Govt. Secondary Schools and ten percent heads of Govt. Secondary Schools were chosen from each District. Two hundred and fifty teachers were selected as sample of convenience. Ten percent teachers were chosen from the sampled teachers for classroom observation so hundred teachers were selected for this purpose. An equal number of teacher trainers were taken from each District. Three questionnaires were designed to get the responses of the teachers, heads, and teacher trainers about the skills acquired during the teacher training program B.Ed & M.Ed and skills required in actual classroom. A checklist was constructed to carry out classroom observation of the teachers teaching in the classroom and to see the difference of skills required and skills acquired. Data collected through research instruments was analyzed by using mean score, t-test, ANOVA and Tukey test. It was concluded that majority of the teachers prepared the lesson objectives before going to their classes. Majority of the teachers lacked the skill of identifying misbehaviors. The teachers were trained in the traditional methods. The teacher training programs were heavily loaded with theoretical information and the teachers were unable to use modern methodologies. It was recommended that the teacher training institutions be equipped with the latest technologies to equip the teachers with latest techniques and teaching methodologies. The teachers may be provided appropriate training in the area of classroom management and evaluation.
CORRELATION OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE WITH
DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS, ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
AND CULTURAL ADJUSTMENT OF THE STUDENTS OF IIUI
This research was designed to examine the relationship of emotional intelligence with demographic characteristics, academic achievement and cultural adjustment of the university students. The study posits that emotional intelligence is a significant predictor of academic achievement as well as cultural adjustment and that demographic characteristics play a mediating role in these relationships. Cultural adjustment was also considered a significant predictor of academic achievement of sojourner students that can mediate the impact of emotional intelligence on academic achievement. Emotional intelligence was also considered to be a mediating factor in the relationship of cultural adjustment and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 615 students studying in International Islamic University Islamabad. BarOn EQi was used to measure emotional intelligence and Cultural Adjustment Scale was used to measure adjustment level of the students. Academic achievement was taken in terms of students’ CGPA after completing the first semester in the university. Data was collected during Fall 2008 when the participants were enrolled in their first semester in the university.SPSS 12 was used for data analysis and various statistical measures including correlation, regression, ANOVA and t
-test, were applied to make inference from the observed data. The results of the study supported the proposed hypotheses and revealed significant relationships among the major variables of the study. Emotional intelligence was found to be a significant predictor of academic achievement as well as cultural adjustment, and cultural adjustment was found to be a significant predictor of academic achievement. The mediating role of some demographic characteristics was also confirmed. In the light of the findings of the study, it was concluded that both emotional intelligence and cultural adjustment are important factors that can affect the academic achievement of university students. Some implications for education include training of university students in emotional skills in order to prepare them better for practical life and providing international students the opportunities to interact with the host community so that they can better understand the new cultural and social environment.
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Covariant Policy Search J. Andrew Bagnell and Jeff Schneider Abstract Inspired by the work of [Amari and Nagaoka, 2000],Kakade proposed a “natural gradient” algorithm. In particu-We investigate the problem of non-covariant behav-lar, [Kakade, 2002] proposed a scheme for generating a met-ior of policy gradient reinforcement learning algo-ric on parameter space that has interesting