International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd Ed.(ICHD-II) 1. The definition of dose and duration will vary with the medication.
2. Time for resolution will vary with the medication but may be months.
Headache can be due to a direct pharmacological effect of medication, such as vasoconstriction pro-ducing malignant hypertension and headache, or to a secondary effect such as drug-induced intracranial hypertension.
The latter is a recognized complication of long-term use of anabolic steroids, amiodarone, lithium carbonate, nalidixic acid, thyroid hormone replacement, tetracycline or minocycline.
8.3.1 Exogenous hormone-induced headache
A. Headache or migraine fulfilling criteria C and D C. Headache or migraine develops or markedly worsens within 3 months of commencing exogenous hor- D. Headache or migraine resolves or reverts to its previous pattern within 3 months after total disontinuation Regular use of exogenous hormones, typically for contraception or hormone replacement therapy, can be associated with increase in frequency or new development of headache or migraine. When a woman also expe- riences headache or migraine associated with exogenous oestrogen-withdrawal, both codes 8.3.1 Exogenous hormone-induced headache and 8.4.3 Oestrogen-withdrawal headache should be used.
8.4 Headache attributed to substance withdrawal
8.4.1 Caffeine-withdrawal headache
A. Bilateral and/or pulsating headache fulfilling criteria C and D 200 mg/day for >2 weeks, which is interrupted or delayed C. Headache develops within 24 hours after last caffeine intake and is relieved within 1 hour by 100 mg D. Headache resolves within 7 days after total caffeine withdrawal 8.4.2 Opioid-withdrawal headache
A. Bilateral and/or pulsating headache fulfilling criteria C and D B. Opioid intake daily for >3 months, which is interrupted C. Headache develops within 24 hours after last opioid intake D. Headache resolves within 7 days after total opioid withdrawal 8.4.3 Oestrogen-withdrawal headache
A. Headache or migraine fulfilling criteria C and D C. Headache or migraine develops within 5 days after last use of oestrogen D. Headache or migraine resolves within 3 days Oestrogen-withdrawal following cessation of a course of exogenous oestrogens (such as during the pill-free interval of combined oral contraceptives or following a course of replacement or supplementary oestrogen) can 8.4.4 Headache attributed to withdrawal from chronic use of other substances
A. Bilateral and/or pulsating headache fulfilling cri-teria C and D B. Daily intake of a substance other than those described above for >3 months, which is interrupted C. Headache develops in close temporal relation to withdrawal of the substance D. Headache resolves within 3 months after with-drawal It has been suggested, but without sufficient evi-dence, that withdrawal of the following substances may cause headache: Corticosteroids, tricyclic anti-depressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
8.1 Headache induced by acute substance use or exposure
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5) Askmark H, Lundberg PO, Olsson S. Drug related headache. Headache 1989;29:441-4.
6) Atkins FM. A critical evaluation of clinical trials in adverse reactions to foods in adults. J Allergy Clin 7) Beck HG, Schulze WH, Suter GM. Carbon monoxide a domestic hazard. JAMA 1940;115:1.
8) Bonnet GF, Nepveux P. Migraine due to tyramine. Sem Hop 1971;47:24415.
9) Brewerton TD, Murphy DL, Lesem MD, Brandt HA, Jimerson DC. Headache responses following m- chlorophenylpiper-azine in bulimics and controls. Headache 1992;32:217-22.
10) Catalano G, Catalano MC, Rodriguez R. Dystonia associated with crack cocaine use. South Med J 1997; 11) Cleophas TJ, Niemeyer MG, vanderWall EE, vanderMeulen J. Nitrate-induced headache in patients with stable angina pectoris: Beneficial effect of starting on a low dose. Angiology 1996;47:679-85.
12) Council of Scientific Affairs. Aspartame: Review of safety issues. JAMA 1985;254:400-2.
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Source: http://www.headache.or.kr/world/file/ICHD2_04_04_04.pdf

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