R&D Performance and Gatekeepers Nobuo TAKAHASHI Kenichi KUWASHIMA Masaki TAMADA
(Graduate School of Economics, University of Tokyo)
(Graduate School of Business Sciences, University of Tsukuba)
There is a difference between Japanese pharmaceutical companies and Merck in the
research and development style. The difference between both can be simplified down to
the existence of the gatekeeper managers. The innovation research was based on the
implicit premise that the gatekeeper had some merit. Then it was not clarified how the
organizational performance changed when the gatekeeper existed. As a result of our
agent-based simulation, it is proven that gatekeeper managers observed in Merck
contribute to the start-up speed of the projects and the idea quantity. In the actual
research and development process, the phenomena linked with our simulation results are
observed. From this new viewpoint, we try to analyze the case of Merck whether the
start-up speed becomes the competitive advantage in research and development or not.
(e.g., Allen et al., 1979; Katz & Tshman, 1979)
(e.g., Macdonald & Williams, 1993; Klobas & Mc Gill, 1995;
Keller & Holland, 1983; Ebadi & Utterback, 1984; Zenger & Lawrence, 1989)
(path length): L (amount of effective idea)
Worldwide Strategic & Capital Planning
Values & Visions: A Merck Century,
Allen, Thomas J. (1977) Managing the Flow of Technology: Technology Transfer and the Dissemination of Technological Information within the R&D Organization. MIT
Allen, Thomas J, Michael L. Tushman and Denis Lee (1979) "Technology transfer as a
function of position on research, development, and technical service continuum, "
Academy of Management Journal, 22, 694-708.
Clark, Kim B. & Takahiro Fujimoto (1991) Product Development Performance: Strategy, organization, and management in the world auto industry, Harvard Business
Ebadi, Yar M. & James M. Utterback (1984) "The effects of communication on
technological innovation," Management Science, 30(5), 572-585.
Epstein, Joshua M. & Robert Axtell (1996) Growing Artificial Societies: Social Science from the Bottom up. Brookings Institution Press, Washington, D.C. (
Gaylord, Richard J. & Louis J. D’Andria (1998) Simulating Society: A Mathematica Toolkit for Modeling Socioeconomic Behavior. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Gaylord, Richard J. & Paul R. Wellin (1995) Computer Simulations with MATHEMATICA: Explorations in Complex Physical and Biological Systems.
Katz, Ralph & Michael L. Tushman (1979) "Communication patterns, project
performances, and task characteristics," Organizational behavior and human
Katz, Ralph & Michael L. Tushman (1981) "An investigation into the managerial roles
and career paths of gatekeepers and project supervisions in a major R&D facility, "
Keller, Robert T. & Winford E. Holland (1983) "Communicators and innovators in
research and development orga nizations," Academy of Management Journal, 26(4),
Klobas, Jane E. & Tanya McGill (1995) "Identification of Technological gatekeepers in
the information technology profession, " Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 46(8), pp.581-589.
Mcdonald, Stuart & Christine Williams (1993) "Beyond the boundary: An information
perspective on the role of gatekeeper in the organization," Journal of Product Innovation Management, 10, 417-427.
Myers, Sumner & Donald G. Marquis (1969) Successful Industrial Innovations: A Study of Factors Underlying Innovation in Selected Firms. National Science Foundation.
Resnick, Mitchel (1997) Turtles, Termites, and Traffic Jams: Explorations in Massively Parallel Microworlds. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.
Thomas, Charles R., Jr. & Fred Seibel (1999) "Adaptive cargo at Southwest Airlines,"
The 4th Annual Colloquium on the Application of Complex Adaptive Systems to
Business (Ernst & Young), July 25-27, 1999, The Cambridge Center Marriott,
Thomas, Chuck R., Jr. & Fred Seibel (2000) "Adaptive cargo routing at Southwest
Airlines," Embracing Complexity: A Summary of 1999 Colloquium on the Application of ComplexAdaptive Systems to Business. Ernst & Young, Cambridge,
Tushman, Michael L. & Ralph Katz (1980) "External communication and project
performance: an investigation into the role of gatekeeper," Management Science,
Zenger, Todd R. & Barbara S. Lawrence (1989) "Organizational demography: The
differential effects of age and tenure distributions on technical communication, "
Academy of Management Journal, 32, 353-376.
1100 Graham Road Cir cle • Stow • Ohio • 44224-2992 Mosquito Protection Fact Sheet Most authorities recommend repellents containing N, N-diethylmetatoluamide (DEET) as an active ingredient. DEET repels mosquitoes, ticks, and other arthropods when applied to the skin or clothing. In general, the more DEET a repellent contains, the longer time it can protect against mosquito bites.