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USPA EQUINE DRUGS AND MEDICATIONS RULES
1. PERMITTED DRUGS
The following classes of drugs are allowed to be administered to polo horses without penalty. 1. Antibiotics with the exception of penicillin procaine 2. Deformers 3. Hormonal therapies 4. Anti-Ulcer medications [USPA Comment: The USPA neither supports nor condones excessive dosages and / or introduction of non-therapeutic levels of the Permitted Drug and / or vitamins and minerals for performance enhancing purposes. See, e.g., Rule 5.2.e below. Owners and Players are urged to consult their veterinarians for proper dosage levels consistent with these Rules.]
2. RESTRICTED USE DRUGS
The following drugs are allowed at the following Allowable Blood and Urine
Levels and therefore do not require a USPA Medication Report Form 1
[USPA Comment: The Maximum Dosage and Latest Administration Hour Guidelines below are for informational purposes only, but are based on scientific evidence that a sampled horse will generally fall within normal testing ranges. However, each horse is different and therefore Owners, Players and other parties responsible under these Rules are advised to consult with a licensed Veterinarian before using these Restricted Drugs.
NOTE FURTHER that Restricted Levels in Blood indicated on the Rule 2.1 Chart below are INCLUDED in Rule 2.1 and therefore any horse testing in excess of those Allowable Levels will subject the responsible parties under these Rules to a charge of a Conduct Violation].
RESTRICTED MEDICATION ALLOWABLE BLOOD AND LEVELS and RESTRICTED MEDICATION DOSE AND TIME GUIDELINES
Oral, 2 doses each day, < 2.5 micrograms/ml
The maximum treatment time for any of the above permitted medications is 5
days, with the exceptions of diclofenac
, may be administered for
10 successive days and firocoxib
may be administered for 14 successive days.
[USPA Comment: Caution is urged when using compounded medications with varying administration routes not specified above. Only the above administration routes with non-compounded medications have been evaluated for the dose and time recommendations. ]
2.3.1 A horse may not be administered more than one permitted Non-Steroidal
Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAlD) during any one 7 day time period.
2.3.2 If an additional NSAID has been administered more than 12 hours prior
to competition for a therapeutic reason, and therefore falls under the Therapeutic Drug
Use provision (Rule 3), then a USPA Medication Report Form 1,
indicating the use of
the additional NSAID, must be filed and received by the USPA prior to the USPA event
in which the horse will next appear.
[USPA Comment: Whenever administering a NSAID, any additional NSAID should not be administered during the 7 days prior to the next competition in which the horse is competing.]
3. THERAPEUTIC DRUG USE
Any drug administered at least 12 hours
prior to the competition for a
medically and scientifically valid therapeutic purpose
must: (1) be administered by a Veterinarian
licensed in the specific State within the United States wherein the USPA event
occurs; and (2) requires that a USPA Medication Report Form 1
be submitted by the owner
or his or her representative to explain the presence of medications that may later appear on a
Drug Test Screen.
Notwithstanding the foregoing Rule 3.1, the following drugs may be
administered at the following dose and time limits and do require that a USPA Medication
Report Form 1
4. EMERGENCY TREATMENT EXCEPTION
Minor injuries occurring before a competition, such as scrapes or lacerations,
may be treated by a licensed Veterinarian. An Authorization of Emergency Treatment
Lacerations Form (USPA Medication Form 2
) must be filed with the USPA indicating all
medications used in such treatment.
In the event emergency treatment occurs immediately before or during the
horse appearing in competition, Form 2
must be submitted to the USPA, signed and dated by
the Treating Veterinarian, within 24 hours of that treatment.
[USPA Comment: The submission of Forms 1 or 2 is not intended to create a “free pass” to a positive test of samples taken from a horse. In assessing whether a violation of these Rules has occurred, the USPA will consider the entire factual and medical context surrounding the administration of the treatment reported in Form 1 or 2, including but not limited to the reason for the treatment and the necessity of the type and amount of drug or medication utilized.]
5. PROHIBITED DRUGS AND SUBSTANCES
All other drug classes not specifically permitted herein these Rules are
prohibited, including stimulants, depressants, corticosteroids (other than Restricted Use of dexamethasone), and psychotropic drugs.
For the purpose of this Rule 5, a “Prohibited Drug or Substance” is:
Any stimulant, depressant, tranquilizer, local anesthetic, psychotropic
(mood and/or behavior altering) substance, or drug which might affect the performance of a horse (stimulants and/or depressants are defined as substances which stimulate or depress the cardiovascular, respiratory or central nervous systems), or any metabolite and/or analogue of any such substance or drug, except as expressly permitted by this Rule.
Any corticosterold present in the plasma of the horse other than
Any nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in excess of one present in the
plasma or urine of the horse (with the exception of salicylic acid (Aspirin)).
Any substance (or metabolite and/or analogue thereof) permitted by
this rule in excess of the maximum limit or other restrictions prescribed herein.
any of the foregoing Rules, the following drugs and
substances are specifically prohibited when introduced or applied as described:
Adenosine triphosphate (”ATP”) in any application and in dosage amount;
Selenium injections in any application and in dosage amount;
Magnesium sulfate given intravenously and in any dosage amount;
All vitamins and minerals, no matter how applied, when given in excessive dosage quantities for non-therapeutic reasons.
[USPA Comment: CAUTION AGAINST THE USE OF HERBAL/NATURAL PRODUCTS.
Owners and Players are hereby warned that the application and use of so-called “herbal” and
“natural” products in and to a horse may result in a positive drug screen test indicating the presence of Prohibited Drugs or Substances under these Rules. This testing result may in some cases be contrary to claims of safety or permitted use by those who manufacture and/or market such products. In this regard, owners should be should be skeptical of any claims by manufacturers or others that such products are "legal" or permissible for use at competitions recognized by the USPA or USEF. Owners, Riders, Players and others responsible under these Rules are further cautioned that the plant origin of any ingredient does not preclude its containing a pharmacologically potent and readily detectable prohibited substance, (e.g., cocaine, heroin and marijuana all are derived from plants). Further, Owners and Players are also warned that although the use of some of these products may not have resulted in positive drug tests in the past, this does not preclude their triggering a positive drug screen test in the future as the USEF Equine Drug Testing and Research Laboratory incorporates new methods into its battery of screening tests.
For these reasons, the USPA warns most strongly against the use of such products. The
ingredient labeling for such preparations is often not complete or accurate. Especially suspect are preparations that are claimed to “calm” or” relax” a horse, while at the same time being said to contain no prohibited substances. Such products, but are not limited to: valerian, kava kava, passionflower, skullcap, chamomile, vervain, lemon balm, leopard's bane, night shade, capsaicin, comfrey, devil's claw, hops, laurel, lavender, red poppy, and rawuolfia.
OWNERS, RIDERS, PLAYERS, OTHERS RESPONSIBLE UNDER THESE RULES
AND THEIR VETERINARIANS ARE THEREFORE CAUTIONED AGAINST THE USE OF MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS, TONICS, PASTES, POWDERS, AND PRODUCTS OF ANY KIND, INCLUDING THOSE USED TOPICALLY, THE INGREDIENTS AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF WHIGH ARE NOT SPECIFICALLY KNOWN, AS THEY MIGHT CONTAIN A PROHIBITED SUBSTANCE. THIS IS ESPECIALLY TRUE OF THOSE CONTAINING PLANT INGREDIENTS.
[USPA Comment: REGARDING APPROVED" OR "ENDORSED" PRODUCTS. The USPA does not endorse or sanction herbal, natural, or medicinal products of any kind.]
[USPA GUIDELINES FOR THE TIME PERIOD FOR PROHIBITED DRUG DISSIPATION.
The following Guideline information is for horses competing in USPA events in
the United States. This information does not apply to any horse competing outside the United States or under any drug testing program using a laboratory other than the USEF Equine Drug Testing and Research Laboratory. This information is current at the time of writing; however, the USEF Laboratory does systematically refine existing drug tests to be more sensitive and develops new tests. Improved testing procedures may be implemented at any time without prior notice. The time periods indicated are intended to be only informative Guidelines for the dissipation from the horse’s system of Prohibited Drugs or Medications, but may become obsolete as new and more sensitive procedures are implemented. Owners and Players are therefore warned that reliance on these Guidelines therefore will not serve as a defense to a violation of the USPA Drugs and Medications Rules in the event of a positive test. Although these Guidelines provided apply to many horses, they cannot account for normal variation in metabolism of drugs by individual horses. Owners and Players should consult drug manufacturers and knowledgeable veterinarians for more specific advice for the administration of any drug or medication, its duration and dissipation.
This Guideline information is therefore presented with the assumption that any
and all drugs and medications are used for a therapeutic purpose in the diagnosis and treatment of illness or injury and that any dose administered is a conservative and therapeutic dose consistent with the manufacturer's recommendations.
long-acting tranquilizers and psychotropics, e.g., fluphenazine and reserpine
shorter-acting tranquilizers and sedatives, e.g., acepromazine, detomidine, and xylazine
Procaine penicillin is a special case
local anesthetics other than procaine, e.g.,
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, e.g.,
* These are only Guidelines and do not address a complete list of potential prohibited drugs.]
[USPA Comment: THE VETERINARIAN'S RESPONSIBILITIES
When dealing with illness or injury in a horse competing at a USPA recognized event, the
veterinarian should prescribe or administer whatever substance is indicated as medically necessary for therapeutic purposes. Whenever prescribing or administering a substance prohibited or restricted by these Rules, the Veterinarian should advise the Owner, Player and others responsible under these Rules, of the possible interaction of that treatment with these USPA Drugs and Medications Rules. No Veterinarian should be party to the administration of a drug or medication to a horse or pony in excessive dosages and / or for non-therapeutic purposes of to affect the performance of the horse. The USPA considers such conduct unethical and likely to encourage further unethical conduct amongst Owners, Players and other parties responsible under these Rules. Therefore such conduct is contrary to USPA Rules and undermines the fairness of competition at USPA events.]
6. PARTIES RESPONSIBLE UNDER THESE RULES.
The Owner and Player of the horse, as well as all parties defined in Rule 6.2.
and the subparts thereof are accountable for the condition of the horse and compliance with these Rules. In the absence of substantial evidence to the contrary, all of those parties are also responsible and accountable under the disciplinary and penalty provisions of the USPA Rules and or By-Laws. They are additionally responsible for guarding each horse at and sufficiently prior to a USPA event, so as to prevent the administration by anyone of, or its exposure to, any Prohibited or Restricted Drug or Substance. The parties responsible under these Rules are presumed to be aware of all the provisions of these Rules and all other rules and regulations of the USPA and the penalty provisions of those rules and regulations. A violation of these Rules shall be considered a Conduct Violation under applicable USPA Rules and/or By-Laws.
responsible for a violation of these Rules in addition to any
other party, and is hereby defined as any adult or adults who has or shares the responsibility for the care, training, custody, control, condition or performance of the horse or has or shares the responsibility for payment thereof. This could be one person or several individuals. In the event a corporate entity is the Owner or the Owner is otherwise not responsible under these Rules, then the primary Sponsor of the team for whom the horse competed shall stand in place of the Owner as a person who may be charged with any violation of these Rules. In the event the Owner is a minor (under age 18 years at the time of alleged violation) who is also a Member of the USPA, then the parent of the child, if a Member of the USPA along with the minor, shall be responsible under these Rules. The Sponsor of the team for whom the minor’s horse competed shall also stand responsible along with the child and parent.
6.2.2. “Sponsor” is hereby defined consistent with USPA Outdoor Rule 1.f. and Interpretation1.f. and as defined in 6.2.1.
6.2.3. “Player” is defined as the person riding the horse in a USPA event and
can be one and the same person as the Owner. The Player is responsible for a violation of these Rules in addition to any other party.
6.2.4. “Substantial evidence” means affirmative evidence of such a clear and definite nature as to reasonably establish a fact. It is not the same burden of proof as that required in a court of law.
6.2.5. “USPA event” and “USPA competition” shall mean any polo game, match, tournament or exhibition played or conducted at a USPA Member Club.
The Owners of leased or borrowed horses are also held responsible for any
violations of these Rules by the party leasing or borrowing the horses.
At any given USPA event, the USPA may designate a licensed veterinarian of
that State of the United States (the “Sampling Veterinarian”) to take samples from one or more horses competing or performing at that event.
The sampling veterinarian shall, at any time after conclusion of the USPA event,
inform the Owner or Player that a given horse is to be subject to blood sampling. Upon such notice by the testing veterinarian, the Owner or Player must ensure that the horse does not leave field side until the sample has been taken.
An Owner or Player or his or her designated representative must accompany
the Sampling Veterinarian and observe the sample being removed from the horse. The Owner, Player or his or her designated representative shall then acknowledge in writing on the USPA Field Testing Form that the given sample was taken from the given horse.
[USPA Comment: Failure or refusal by an Owner or Player to comply with Rule 7.4 creates an irrebutable presumption that the sample was correctly taken from the Owner’s or Player’s horse.]
Two samples shall be taken from each horse by the Sampling Veterinarian:
Both shall be securely labeled with the date and location of the competition, breed, sex and approximate age of the horse, but only with a code designating the owner and horse’s name, which code shall be known only to the USEF but not to the USEF testing laboratory.
Both samples shall be immediately transferred to the USEF testing laboratory
for testing consistent with these Rules. Only Sample A shall be tested initially. Sample B shall be preserved for further testing as permitted under these Rules.
The presence of a positive test for a Prohibited Drug or Substance presumes
8,1,1 It shall not be a defense to a violation of these Rules nor to any Conduct Violation of USPA rules that the veterinarian that initially
administered the Prohibited Drug or Substance failed to render proper advice or provided improper advice about compliance with these Rules.
8,1,2 A presumption of a violation may be rebutted by substantial evidence that the horse sampled was not owned by, ridden or played by the Owner or Player charged with the violation or by substantial evidence that the test results are faulty or the otherwise the result of error.
8.1.3 The Owner, Player or other responsible party under these Rule charged with a violation of these Rules may request that Sample B be tested by the USEF Laboratory to confirm the results of the testing of Sample A.
8.1.4 A Conduct Violation triggered by a violation of these Rules shall proceed under the Disciplinary provisions of USPA By-Law 11.B. which apply to violations of these Drugs and Medications Rules.
[USPA Comment: The parties responsible under these Rules are cautioned that they are ultimately responsible for every substance that enters into their horse’s system.]
The USPA has provided herein certain GUIDELINES and COMMENTS with these Rules. Then GUIDELINES and COMMENTS are provided to assist the Owner, Player, other responsible parties as well as the Veterinarian with the interpretation and application of these Rules. However, these GUIDELINES and COMMENTS are neither intended to nor should be construed as rules by themselves nor as defenses to any finding of a violation of these Rules.
For further information regarding these Rules, please contact the USPA by phone: 859-608-4766, by email: email@example.com, or by facsimile: 561-642-2274.
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Case report: maggot therapy in an acute burn Author(s) Contents Daniel Thornton Dept of Reconstructive Plastic and Burns SurgeryNorthern General Hospital, Herries Road, Sheffield S5 7AU Miles Berry MS, FRCS LAT Registrar David Ralston MD, FRCS(Plast) Consultant Published: August 2002 Last updated: August 2002 Revision: 1.0 Keywords: maggot therapy; acute burn; infection.