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MalariaMalaria is an illness caused by four species of parasitic protozoa (single-celled
organisms) that infect human red blood cells.
Malaria parasites are transmitted to humans via a mosquito host. The only mosquitos
that transmit malaria are those of the genus Anopheles. The malaria parasite replicates
in the gut of the female mosquito and is transferred to the human via the salivary
glands of the mosquito. The most severe type of malaria is caused by the species Plasmodium falciparum.
Plasmodium falciparum kills approximately 1-2% of those who are infected by it.
Falciparum malaria is a serious illness characterized by fever, headache, and weakness.
There may be complications of falciparum malaria e.g. cerebral malaria where the brain
becomes infected. Complications are very serious and often fatal. Falciparum malaria
is frequently resistant to drugs and is becoming more common in high elevation areas
of Africa, and in portions of Asia. The other species of malaria parasites cause an illness characterized by spells of chills,
fever and weakness. This illness usually lasts 10-14 days, and is self-limiting in nature;
it is rarely fatal. Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae can
relapse if it is not properly treated with medicine. Thus it is important that all cases of
malaria seek medical diagnosis and treatment.
Dengue fever (DF) is caused by one of four closely related virus serotypes. An infection
with one serotype gives immunity to only that serotype for life. Therefore a person can
DF is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito, usually Aedes aegypti.
The symptoms of DF include a high fever, headache and muscle and joint pain. In
some situations DF can progress to Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) which has
additional symptoms such as severe abdominal pain, bleeding or skin bruising and
Transmission and prevention of Malaria and Dengue Fever
“Most cases of malaria in travellers occur because of poor compliance with prophylactic
drug regimens, or use of inappropriate medicines or no chemoprophylaxis at all,
combined with poor prevention of mosquito bites.”
There are no available medicines to prevent Dengue Fever (chemoprophylaxis);
Mosquitoes that transmit malaria bite mainly at night (dusk until dawn).
Mosquitoes that transmit dengue bite during the day
Apply an insect repellent that contains the active ingredient DEET to clothing
and exposed skin. Do not apply to the face. Reapply every 3-4 hours,
Clothing should be light coloured and cover as much exposed skin as
possible. Insect repellents applied to clothing lasts longer than when applied
If possible, clothing should be treated with the insecticide permethrin to stop
insects from biting through the clothing.
Mosquito nets treated with insecticide (permethrin) to be used while sleeping
are very effective. The mesh should be no larger than 1.5mm and the net
should be checked for mosquitoes before being tucked into the mattress at
Mosquito coils may be useful in indoor or sheltered areas such as in a
Insecticide sprays should be used to kill any mosquitoes indoors.
Accommodation with screened doors, windows etc should be used whenever
Air conditioning is very effective at keeping mosquitoes away; other
protection is not necessary when air conditioning is used.
The use of anti-malarial medicine to prevent malaria occurring (chemoprophylaxis) is
The most up to date advice and chemoprophylaxis options may be obtained
Some anti-malarial drugs will need to be started up to several weeks before
Anti-malarial drugs only work if they are taken regularly, in strict accordance
with the instructions from your prescribing doctor.
Most anti-malarial drugs will need to be continued for a month after you arrive
Depending on the risk of malaria, your doctor will recommend the best options
for avoiding malaria. In low risk areas this may be mosquito bite prevention
Mosquitoes are resistant to certain anti-malarial drugs in some areas.
Occasionally mosquitoes may be resistant to multiple drugs.
Travellers who will be more than 24 hours from medical care are advised to
carry with them anti-malarial drugs, to be taken if they start to show symptoms
of malaria. Medical care will still need to be sought as soon as possible.
If you become ill with a fever one week or more after entering an area with a malaria
risk, or within three months of returning home you must seek immediate medical
treatment. Be sure to advise the treating doctor of the possibility of malaria.
Seeking prompt medical advice in cases of possible dengue fever is also essential. In
severe cases the patient may need to be monitored for quick detection of DHF if it
develops. It is important to use paracetamol to treat DF and never to use aspirin or
If you become ill or are injured while on overseas travel for work you need to notify the
ANU Occupational Health and Safety Branch as soon as possible. You may do this via
the online incident notification form, which may be found at:
This also includes any illness that is acquired while travelling for work but does not
manifest itself until after the traveller returns.
1. WHO Publication, International Travel and Health, situation as on 1 January 2005 -
2. Malaria Foundation International, Malaria FAQ’s -
3. Control of Communicable Diseases Manual. 17th Edition, 2000. James Chin, MD, MPH,
SUBSTITUTES APPENDIX A OF THE OMAC 1999 OLYMPIC MOVEMENT ANTI-DOPING CODE APPENDIX A PROHIBITED CLASSES OF SUBSTANCES AND PROHIBITED METHODS 1 January 2001 PROHIBITED CLASSES OF SUBSTANCES A. Stimulants Prohibited substances in class (A) include the following examples: amineptine, amiphenazole, amphetamines, bromantan, caffeine*, carphedon, cocaine, ephedrines**,
J. Phys. Chem. B 2004, 108, 17992-18002 Computational Study of γ -Butyrolactone and Li + / γ -butyrolactone in Gas and Liquid Phases Marco Masia* and Rossend Rey Departament de Fı ´ sica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Uni V ersitat Polite ´ cnica de Catalunya,Campus Nord B4-B5, Barcelona 08034, Spain Recei V ed: July 8, 2004; In Final Form: September 8, 2004 A comprehensive stu