Journal 30(2) 2009.pmd

Occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in waste site of Ede south west Nigeria Institute of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria (Received: June 19, 2007; Revised received: November 30, 2007; Accepted: December 05, 2007) Abstract: Analysis of antibiotic resistant bacteria from composted waste site soil samples for two seasons were done, using prepareddiagnostic test agar and direct sensitivity tests. All major isolated bacteria were subjected to various antibiotics. Concurrent positive andnegative tests were simultaneously studied. Results show relatively high resistant and sensitive bacteria in both seasons. In wet seasons,the Bacillus cereus concentrations are considerably reduced than in the dry. In the dry seasons, Bacillus cereus was sensitive toErythromycin (ERY) and Tetracycline (TET) and slightly resistant to Ampicillin (AMP), Chloramphenicol (CHL), Cloxacillin (CXC) andwater (CNT). In the wet season, identified Pseudomonas aeruginosa was moderately resistant to Streptomycin (STR) and Tetracycline andremained resistant to Ampicillin, Cotrimoxazole (COT), Nitrofurantion (NIT) and water (CNT). The implications for human health arediscussed.
Key words: Antibiotic, Resistance, Heterotrophic, Sensitivity, BacteriaPDF of full length paper is available with author (*[email protected]) The proportion of time spend in-doors is greater for children Study area: The study area Ede in south west Nigeria was and healthy mothers (Simecox et al., 1995; Whitmore et al., 1994), chosen because of its relative by high population of about 145,000.
but in Nigeria it is contrary because of self employment. People The population figure has direct relationship with the volume of spread their wares on the common public sites. As a result children solid wastes generated (NEST, 1991) as a medium town with and adults get infected via air borne bacteria, food, dermal contact same characteristics as other medium cities in Nigeria. The geography and topography are described in Fig. 1. Compostedmunicipal soil, samples were collected in dry (Nov. 2004 - Feb.
The burden of improper disposal method has not been 2005) and wet seasons (June-Sept. 2005) from the general rigorously assessed in terms of mutagenicity, otherwise proper method common site located along “Awo Town junction” from four different of waste management might be altered if risks were adequately locations. Three of the sites were chosen as the relatively high- addressed and analyzed. Nigeria is a typical developing nation at a use study site while the fourth was chosen as the low-use site.
cross road because of growing population and consumption patternswhich invariably compound the problem of waste collection and disposal.
Total heterotrophic bacteria (TAB) count: Multiple portions of The magnitude of solid waste problem is worsening and the government soil samples were suspended in distilled deionized water. A 100 at various levels failed to address and seek modern waste management fold serial dilution of the mixture (1 ml) was plated in duplicate in a study that will correctly analyze the waste composition characteristics sterile nutrient agar medium. The culture plates were incubated and generation rate is lacking (Nwankwo, 1991).
aerobically at room temperature for 48 hr for isolation of aerobesand causative heterotrophic bacterial present in the samples (Kelly Indiscriminate dumping of wastes causes traffic obstruction, intrusion of microbes into the immediate environment and a numberof hazardous diseases. (Achudume and Olawale, 2007). Overall Antibiotics sensitivity assay: The incubation assay was used to prevalence and severity of exposure to mutagens may represent a measure antibiotic sensitivity of the isolated organisms. In general, risk index for public health Atasoylu et al. (2007). The used antibiotics 100µl of the isolated bacterial suspension (1x108) cells was placed syringes from various origins (agricultural, hospitals/clinics and in glass reaction tube. Using prepared diagnostic test (DST) agar, pharmaceutical industries) are dumped on waste sites and this has the selected bacteria were subjected to various antibiotics, Ampicilin implication for public health etc. This has implication for public health (AMP), Chloramphenicol (CHC), Cloxacillin (CXC), Erythromycin specifically mothers and children who holds potential health risk (ERY), Streptomycin (STR), Tetracycline (TET), Cotrimoxazole (Achudume and Olawale, 2007). The health implication of bacterial (COT) and Nitrofurantion (NIT) at recommended concentrations of sensitivity in waste sites is for sole purpose of hygienic assessment of 100 µl, 250 µl, 50 µl, 100 µl, 250 µl, 100 µl, 250 µl, 250 µl and 400 µl the local environment from a socio-demographic perspective.
respectively (Stern et al., 1989; Silkowski et al., 1992). For direct Therefore the primary objective of the present study was to assess sensitivity tests, the total volume of the reaction tube was brought up the occurrence of antibiotic resistance bacteria in waste site located to 600 µl with potassium phosphate buffer. The required numbers of wells were filled up with appropriate previously prepared antibacterial Journal of Environmental Biology March, 2009 Table - 1: Mean and standard deviation of antibiotic patterns of isolated and type culture of heterotrophic bacteria (HTB) in dry season All experiments were in triplicate. NCIB - National collection of industrial bacteria, R - Resistant, S - Sensitive, SR - Slightly resistant Table - 2: Mean and standard deviation of antibiotic sensitivity patterns of isolated and type culture of heterotrophic bacteria (HTB) in wet season All experiments were in triplicate. NCIB - National collection of industrial bacteria, R - Resistant, S - Sensitive, SR - Slightly resistant solution. Concurrent positive controls consisted of potassium to Erythromycin (ERY), moderately resistant to Streptomycin (STR) phosphate buffer in nutrient agar medium. While concurrent negative and resistant to Ampicilin (AMP), Chloramphenicol (CHL), test consisted of dimehyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent or isolates Cloxacillin (CXC) and water (CNT), while its typed culture NCIB mixed with the solvent in a range of microlitre amounts. All broth 4349 was sensitive Erythromycin (ERY), moderately resistant to culture of each test organism was done in triplicate.
Streptomycin (STR) and Tetracyclin (TET) and showed resistance toAmpicillin (AMP), Choramphenicol (CHL), Cloxacillin (CXC) and water The culture media efficiency test was carried out with standard (CNT). Klebsiella penumoniae was sensitive to Ampicillin, Tetracyclin strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIB 950, Bacillus cereus NCIB and Nitrofurantoin, moderately resistant to Streptomycin and resistant 6349, and Klebsiella pneumoniae NCIB 418. These components to Cotrimoxazole and water. The type culture NCIB 418 was moderately were incubated at 37oC for 48 hr. The relative susceptibility of test resistant to Ampicillin, Streptomycin, sensitive to Tetracyclin and organism was recorded. The means and their SD in the results were Nitrofurantoin and resistant to Cotrimoxazole and water (Table1).
subjected to the test of significance by student’s t-test.
Composted waste soil contained large fraction of detectable level of antibiotic resistant bacteria particularly in wet season.
Summary statistics for two groups of isolated heterotrophic Antibiotic products, and other toxic wastes are discharged in various bacteria for dry and wet seasons are given in Table 1 and 2 amount in the environment as a result of the increasing and often respectively. Soils from high-use and low-use dumping sites were indiscriminate use of antibiotics in homes, animals farming and clinics analysed for antibiotic resistance bacteria using standard culture (Karlowsky et al., 2003). The main receptacles for these pollutants techniques. Analyses of the samples show relatively high number of are the waste dumps and the common sites.
resistant bacteria in both seasons. The concentrations of bacteriarecovered in wet season samples were more than in dry season Table 1 and 2 show different species of specific resistant samples. The results indicate both antibiotic sensitive and resistant bacteria. Generally these bacteria are normally found below infection patterns of isolated and type culture of heterotrophic bacteria in levels in the environment, but when their concentration increases varying seasons. Besides, the sensitivity ranking and significant they can infect innocent persons working in nearby areas. These interspecies were found in the type culture.
bacteria from garbage and trash causes several problems in humanbeings like of respiratory, cardiovascular and immune systems A chart consistent for screening sensitivity, resistance and disorders and cancer in lungs liver and other vital organs of monitoring phase of the study guides each assessment. In dry season vulnerable persons (Kelly et al., 1999).
Bacillus cereus was sensitive to Erythromycin (ERY) and Tetracyclin(TET), moderately resistance to Streptomycin (STR) and resistant Most investigations on antibiotic resistance in the ecological to Ampicillin (AMP), Chloramphenicol (CHL), Cloxacillin (CXC) habitat are concerned with bacteria of fecal origin, because they are and water (CNT), while its typed culture NCIB 6349 was sensitive used as pollution indicators and may be associated with infectious Journal of Environmental Biology March, 2009 Antibiotic resistant bacteria in waste site diseases. However, in many dumping sites, fecal bacteria are of little Besser, R.: Diagnosis and Management of Acute Pharyngitis in Children. 6th numerical significance. Thus, if the environmental pool of resistant Annual Conference of Centre for Disease Control (CPC) April 27,Atlanta, Ga (2005).
bacteria is measured, bacteria other than those of fecal origin must Gresser, M.R., K. McCarroll, H. Teppler and G.L. Woods. Efficacy of ertapanem also be considered. Many other studies are interested in whole in the treatment of serious infections caused by enterobacteriaceae: bacteria population (Enterobacteriacaeae) because they are more Analysis of pooled clinical trial data. J. Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, commonly associated with hospital – acquired infections (Gresser et Karlowsky, A.J., E.M. Jones, C. Thornberry, R.I. Friedland and D.F. Sahm: al., 2003; Karlowsky et al., 2003; Murray, 2005). In recent times, Trends in Antimicrobial Susceptibilities among Enterobacteriaceae studies have immerged that dealt with global antibiotic resistance.
isolated from Hospitalized Patients in the United States from 1998 to The frequencies of these cells are able to grow on antibiotic- Kelly, T.R., P.M. Walker and K.D. Smicikla: Survival of cultural bacteria during co-composting of institutional, agricultural and municipal solid In Ede common site the specificity of interaction may have wastes. Environ. Practice, 1, 162-167 (1999).
Murray, R.J.: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus been subjected to various protein sequences given rise to a very aureus infection. Autrt. Prescr., 28, 155 (2005).
high ratio of mutations that completely disrupt the specific function of N E S T: N i g e r i a E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t u d y A c t i o n Te a m . N i g e r i a n cells resulting in antibiotic resistance. In recent times, studies have Threatened Environment. A National Profile. Nest Publication, immerged that dealt with global antibiotic resistant bacteria. In real Nwankwo, C.C.: Solid Waste management generation review and a life, this is exactly what happens. This has implication for human glance at the Nigerian situations. J. Mining and Geology, 27, 219-222 health, and spread of antibiotic resistant strains for mothers and children who for no fault of their own seek economic redress in and Stern, A.H., A.M. Abdurrahman and A.K.Goodman: Potential exposure around the common site. Knowledge of the microbial diversity in levels and health effects of neighborhood exposure to a municipalincinerator bottom ash landfill. Arch. Environ. Hlth., 44, 40-48 waste sites should therefore provide a rational basis for development of an effective controlling waste sites programme.
Silkowski, M.A. S.R. Smith and M.J. Plewa: Analysis of the genotoxicity of municipal solid waste incinerator ash. Sci. Total Environ., 111, 109-124 Simecox, N.J., R.A. Fenske, S.A. Wolz, I.C. Lee and D.A. Kalman: Achudume, A.C. and J.T. Olawale. Microbial pathogens of public health Pesticides in household dust and soil: Exposure pathways for significance in waste dumps and common sites. J. Environ. Biol., 28, children of agricultural families. Environ. Hlth. Pers., 103, 1126-1134 Atasoylu, G., E.D. Evci, E. Kaya, F. Ergin, D. Tikir and E. Beser. The Whitemore, R.W., D.E. Immersman, A.E. Cammann, R.G. Bon and J.L.
household garbage in the western coast region of Turkey and its Lewis: Non-occupational exposure to pesticides for residents of two relationship with the socio-economic characteristics. J. Environ. Biol.,28, 225-229 (2007).
US cities. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 26, 47-59 (1994).
Journal of Environmental Biology March, 2009


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