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The Equity Gap
Pedro Chequer
UNAIDS ICPA for the Southern Cone
Buenos Aires, Argentina
The Equity Gaps in Latin American
Countries

GNP Growth - Average Per Year
1945-1980
1990-1999

To Reduce GAPS

Health Expenditure by Aggregation
Method, 1990-98
Unweighted Weighted Weighted
Average

Population GDP
Middle income 5.8
High income 6.8
Health Expenditure in Selected
Countries, Related to GDP
Total % of GDP 1990-98
Health Expenditure
per Capita
PPP $ 90-98
United States Switzerland
Proportion of Doctors per 1000 pop.
In Selected Countries
Latin America: Poverty and Indigence,
1980-1997
Source: ECLAC, Social Panorama of Latin America, 1998 (LC/G.2050-P), chapter 1, p. 18, Santiago, Chile, 1999. United Nations publication, sales No. a Estimate for 19 countries of the region.
b Perecentage of Households with incomes below the poverty line. Includes indigent households.
c Percentage of households with incomes below the indigent line.
ARV:Free Access to Treatment. Estimated
Coverage in Selected LA Counties at end
Percentage of Adults over 18 with no Regular
Doctor, 1997*; Non-Insured Ratios by Race**
Hispanic
Percentage of Adults 18 and Older without a Regular Doctor, 1997
Non-Insured ratios by race
* Source: Author´s tabulations of The Kaiser/Commonwealth 1997 ** Source: Hall, Collins, and Glied, 1999 Countries in the tropics lag behind those in temperate
zones in innovation, markets, and intellectual property
Different resources: Indicators of global science
Population
Publications Patents (EU) Patents (US)
Advanced Economies
Rest of the World
Sources: J. Sachs: UNESCO: The Economist, 14 August 1999 Brazil: AIDS Drugs Expenditure
1996-2000
Expenditure
(US$ million)
Source: Ministry of Health, 1999
Brazil: ARV Price Reduction
According to Source of Production
Multinationals
Multi + Government Companies
)
$

S
t (U
le
b
r ta
o
le
u

s
p
a
r c
e
t p
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o
C

Indinavir
Saquinavir
Lamivudi
Zalcitabi
Didanosine
Zidovudine(ZD
(ddi), 100 mg
V), 100 mg
Source: MOH
Savings of Economic Resources
With Antiretroviral Therapy
(1997/1999*)
admissions: 146,000
¾ Total savings: US$472 million
• Estimated cost savings with ganciclovir prescription: US$35 million
• Estimated cost savings with treatment of US$16 million
admissions: US$371 million
Source: Ministry of Health
Costs of ARV Purchases, Savings and
Final Costs to Brazilian Government
Brazil. 1997-1999
ARV EXPENDITURES
COST SAVINGS*
ACTUAL COSTS

Source: http://www99.mh-hannover.de/aktuelles/projekte/mmm/globaldialogue/docs/Chequer2.pdf

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