Claude C Hopkins
Dear Friend, The book you are about to read contains marketing truths that can make your business explode with new customers and sales leads. For individuals, it offers tremendous insight into how people think and act – something very useful to know in your work or vocation. It uses no trickery, nor clever words, nor complex, expensive methods – its principles are very much common sense, but rarely applied… even by the largest of companies. If you faithfully read and meditate upon its principles, you will realise how deep Mr Hopkins’ thinking is. A master of psychology and the human nature, he outlines how a company should go about spending money on advertising – and maximizing and tracking every penny spent. Personally, I have used only a few of the ideas taught – and the results have been phenomenal, even mind-blowing. It is my hope to that you can gain as much as I have, like thousands of others have. Sincerely, Victor Voo
By Claude C Hopkins
The larger agencies also come into intimate
How advertising laws are established
contact with experts in every department ofbusiness. Their clients are usually dominating
The time has come when advertising has in
concerns. So they see the results of countless
some hands reached the status of a science. It
methods and policies. They become a clear-
is based on fixed principles and is reasonably
inghouse for every thing pertaining to mer-
exact. The causes and effects have been ana-
chandising. Nearly every selling question,
lysed until they are well understood. The cor-
which arises in business, is accurately an-
rect method of procedure have been proved
and established. We know what is most ef-
exist, advertising and merchandising become
Advertising, once a gamble, has thus be-
exact sciences. Every course is charted. The
come, under able direction, one of the safest
compass of accurate knowledge directs the
business ventures. Certainly no other enter-
shortest, safest, cheapest course to any desti-
prise with comparable possibilities need in-
We learn the principles and prove them by
Therefore this book deals, not with theo-
repeated tests. This is done through keyed
ries and opinions, but with well-proved prin-
advertising, by traced returns, largely by the
ciples and facts. It is written as a textbook for
students and a safe guide for advertisers.
many others, backward and forward, and rec-
Every statement has been weighed. The book
ord the results. When one method invariably
is confined to establish fundamentals. If we
enter any realms of uncertainty we shall care-
Mail order advertising is traced down to
The present status of advertising is due to
the fraction of a penny. The cost per reply
many reasons. Much national advertising has
and cost per dollar of sale show up with utter
known as advertising agencies. Some of these
agencies, in their hundreds of campaigns,
with another. Headlines, settings, sizes, ar-
have tested and compared the thousands of
guments and pictures are compared. To re-
duce the cost of results even one per cent
means much in some mail order advertising.
Such agencies employ a high grade of tal-
know what is best. Thus mail order advertis-
ent. None but able and experienced men can
ing first established many of our basic laws.
meet the requirements in national advertising.
In lines where direct returns are impossi-
Working in co-operation, learning from each
ble we compare one town with another.
other and from each new undertaking, some
Scores of methods may be compared in this
But the most common way is by use of the
leave their records and ideas behind them.
coupon. We offer a sample, a book, a free
These become a part of the organisation's
package, or something to induce direct re-
equipment, and a guide to all who follow.
plies. Thus we learn the amount of action
Thus, in the course of decades, such agencies
become storehouses of advertising experi-
But those figures are not final. One ad may
ences, proved principles, and methods.
bring too many worthless replies, another re-
plies that are valuable. So our final conclu-
bour; not a buoy showed a reef. The wrecks
sions are always based on cost per customer
were unrecorded, so countless ventures came
to grief on the same rocks and shoals.
These coupon plans are dealt with further
Advertising was then a gamble - a specu-
in the chapter on "Test Campaigns." Here we
lation of the rashest sort. One man's guess on
the proper course was as likely to be as good
as another's. There were no safe pilots, be-cause few sailed the same course twice.
In a large agency coupon returns arewatched and recorded on hundreds of differ-
ent lines. In a single line they are sometimes
the only uncertainties pertain to people and to
recorded on thousands of separate ads. Thus
products, not to methods. It is hard to meas-
we test everything pertaining to advertising.
ure human idiosyncrasies, the preferences
We answer nearly every possible question by
and prejudices, the likes and dislikes that ex-
ist. We cannot say that an article will bepopular, but we know how to sell it in the
only to particular lines. But even those sup-ply basic principles for analogous undertak-
Ventures may fail, but the failures are not
disasters. Losses, when they occur, are buttrifling, and the causes are factors, which has
fundamentals for advertising in general. Theyare universally applied. No wise advertiser
will ever depart from those unvarying laws.
new conditions. It has multiplied in volume,in prestige and respect. The perils have in-
We propose in this book to deal with those
creased many folds. Just because the gamble
fundamentals, those universal principles. To
has become a science, the speculation is still
teach only established techniques. There is
that technique in advertising, as in all art, sci-ence and mechanics. And it is, as in all lines,
These facts should be recognised by all.
This is no proper field for sophistry or theory,or for any other will-o'-the-wisp. The blind
leading the blind is ridiculous. It is pitiful in a
the main trouble with advertising of the past.
field with such vast possibilities. Success is a
Each worker was a law to himself. All previ-
rarity, and maximum success an impossibil-
ous knowledge, all progress in the line, was a
ity, unless one is guided by laws as immuta-
closed book to him. It was like a man trying
to build a modern locomotive without firstascertaining what others had done. It was like
a Columbus starting out to find an undiscov-
those laws, and to tell you how to prove them
for yourself. After them come myriad varia-tions. No two advertising campaigns are ever
conducted on lines that are identical. Indi-
vagrant, changing breezes. They rarely ar-
viduality is an essential. Imitation is a re-
rived at their port. When they did - by acci-
proach. But those variable things, which de-
dent - it was by a long roundabout course.
pend on ingenuity, have no place in a text-book on advertising. This is for groundwork
Each early mariner in this sea mapped his
own separate course. There were no charts toguide him. Not a lighthouse marked a har-
Our hope is to foster advertising through abetter understanding. To place it on a busi-ness basis. To have it recognised as amongthe safest, surest ventures, which lead to largereturns.
Thousands of conspicuous successes showits possibilities. Their variety points out itsalmost unlimited scope. Yet thousands whoneed it - who can never attain their desertswithout it - still look upon its accomplish-ments as somewhat accidental.
That was so, but it is not so now. We hopethat this book will throw some new lights onthe subject.
reveal the hook. Any studied attempt to sell,
if apparent, creates corresponding resistance.
That is so in personal salesmanship as in
salesmanship-in-print. Fine talkers are rarely
learn even its rudiments one must start with
good salesmen. They inspire buyers with the
the right conception. Advertising is sales-
fear of over-influence. They create the suspi-
manship. Its principles are the principles of
cion that an effort is made to sell them on
salesmanship. Successes and failures in both
lines are due to like causes. Thus every ad-vertising question should be answered by the
speechmakers. They have few oratoricalgraces. They are plain and sincere men who
Let us emphasise that point. The only pur-
know their customers and know their lines.
pose if advertising is to make sales. It is
profitable or unprofitable according to itsactual sales.
Many of the ablest men in advertising aregraduate salesmen. The best we know have
It is not for general effect. It is not to keep
your name before the people. It is not pri-
know little of grammar, nothing of rhetoric,
Treat it as a salesman. Force it to justify
itself. Compare it with other salesmen. Figure
its cost and result. Accept no excuses which
advertising questions. Ask yourself, "Would
it help a salesman sell the goods?" "Would it
help me sell them if I met a buyer in person?"
The difference is only in degree. Adver-
tising is multiplied salesmanship. It may ap-
countless mistakes. But when one tries to
peal to thousands while the salesman talks to
show off, or does things merely to please
one. It involves a corresponding cost. Some
oneself, one is unlikely to strike a chord,
advertisement. Therefore every ad should bea super - salesman.
Some argue for slogans, some like cleverconcepts. Would you use them in personal
A salesman's mistake may cost little. An
times that much. So be more cautious, more
don't rely on them for selling in print.
Some say, "Be very brief. People will read
for little." Would you say that to a salesman?
part of your trade. Mediocre advertising af-
With a prospect standing before him, would
Many think of advertising as ad writing.
words? That would be an unthinkable handi-
Literary qualifications have no more to do
with it than oratory has with salesmanship.
So in advertising. The only readers we get
are people whom our subject interests. No
briefly, clearly and convincingly, just as a
one reads ads for amusement, long or short.
salesman must. But fine writing is a distinct
Consider them as prospects standing before
disadvantage. So is unique literary style.
They take attention from the subject. They
Some advertising men go out in person and
lines. Yet they do not admire salesmen who
sell to people before they plan to write an ad.
talk in loud voices. People read all they care
One of the ablest of them has spent weeks on
to read in 8-point type. Our magazines and
one article, selling from house to house. In
newspapers are printed in that type. Folks are
this way they learn the reactions from differ-
accustomed to it. Anything larger is like loud
conversation. It gains no worth while atten-
learn what possible buyers want and the fac-
tion. It may not be offensive, but it is useless
tors, which don't appeal. It is quite custom-
and wasteful. It multiplies the cost of your
ary to interview hundreds of possible cus-
story. And to many it seems loud and blatant.
Others send out questionnaires to learn the
usual. They want ads distinctive in style or
attitude of the buyers. In some way all must
illustration. Would you want that in a sales-
learn how to strike responsive chords.
man? Do not men who act and dress in nor-
The maker of an advertised article knows
Some insist in dressy ads. That is all right
to a certain degree, but is quite important.
dealer's side. But this very knowledge often
Some poorly dressed men prove to be excel-
leads him astray in respect to customers. His
lent salesmen. Over dress in either is a fault.
interests are not in their interests.
The advertising man studies the consumer.
them by salesmen's standards, not by amuse-
He tries to place himself in the position of the
ment standards. Ads are not written to enter-
buyer. His success largely depends on doing
that to the exclusion of everything else.
seekers are little likely to be the people
This book will contain no more important
chapter than this one on salesmanship. The
reason for most of the non-successes in ad-
faults. Ad writers abandon their parts. They
vertising is trying to sell people what they do
forget they are salesmen and try to be per-
not want. But next to that comes lack of true
formers. Instead of sales, they seek applause.
ment, keep before you a typical buyer. Your
totally wrong conception. They are written to
subject, your headline has gained his or her
please the seller. The interests of the buyer
attention. Then in everything be guided by
are forgotten. One can never sell goods prof-
what you would do if you met the buyer face-
itable, in person or in print, when that attitude
to-face. If you are a normal man and a good
salesman you will then do your level best.
Don't think of people in the mass. Thatgives you a blurred view. Think of a typicalindividual, man or women, who is likely towant what you sell. Don't try to be amusing.
Money spending is a serious matter. Don'tboast, for all people resent it. Don't try toshow off. Do just what you think a goodsalesman should do with a half-sold personbefore him.
with a half-pound of coffee and says, "Ac-
cept this package and try it. I'll come back ina few days to ask you how you liked it."
Remember the people you address are self-
ish, as we all are. The care nothing about
for an order. He explains that he wants to
your interests or your profit. They seek serv-
send the women a fine kitchen utensil. It isn't
ice for themselves. Ignoring this fact is a
free, but if she likes the coffee he will credit
common mistake and a costly mistake in ad-
five cents on each pound she buys until she
vertising. Ads say in effect, "Buy my brand.
has paid for the article. Always some service.
Give me the trade you give to others. Let mehave the money." That is not a popular ap-
The maker of the electric sewing machine
motor found advertising difficult. So, ongood advice, he ceased soliciting a purchase.
He offered to send to any home, through any
useless. Often they do not quote a price. They
dealer, a motor for one week's use. With it
do not say that dealers handle the product.
would come a man to show her how to oper-
The ads are based entirely on service.
ate it. "Let us help you for a week without
They offer wanted information. They site ad-
cost or obligation," said the ad. Such an offer
vantages to users. Perhaps they offer a sam-
was resistless and about nine in ten of the tri-
ple, or to buy the first package, or to send
something on approval, so the customer may
prove the claims without any cost or risks.
send out boxes to anyone and say, "Smoke
ten, then keep them or return them, as you
nature. The writers know how people are led
machines, kitchen cabinets, vacuum sweep-
ers, etc, send out their products without any
prepayment. They say, "Use them a week,
doesn't say, "Buy my article." He pictures
then do as you wish." Practically all mer-
the customer's side of his service until the
chandise sold by mail is sent subject to re-
These are all common principles of sales-
who sells brushes from house to house. He is
manship. The most ignorant peddler applies
enormously successful in a line, which would
them. Yet the salesman-in-print very often
seem very difficult. And it would be for his
forgets them. He talks about his interest. He
blazons a name, as though that was of im-portance. His phrase is, "Drive people to the
stores," and that is his attitude in everything
say, "I was sent here to give you a brush. I
have samples here and I want you to takeyour choice."
People can be coaxed but not driven.
Whatever they do they do to please them-
The housewife is all smiles and attention.
selves. Many fewer mistakes would be made
In picking out one brush she sees several she
in advertising if these facts were never for-
wants. She is also anxious to reciprocate the
gift. So the salesman gets an order.
Another concern sells coffee etc, by wag-ons in some 500 cities. The man drops in
ued, you know that it pays. It is therefore
Mail order advertising - what it teaches
good advertising as applied to that line.
The probability is that the ad has resulted
he severest test of an advertising man is in
from many traced comparisons. It is therefore
selling goods by mail. But that is a school
the best advertising, not theoretical. It will
from which he must graduate before he can
not deceive you. The lessons it teaches are
hope for success. Their cost and result are
principles which wise men apply to all ad-
immediately apparent. False theories melt
away like snowflakes in the sun. The adver-tising is profitable or it is not, clearly on the
face of returns. Figures, which do not lie, tell
small type. It is usually set in smaller type
than ordinary print. That economy of space isuniversal. So it proves conclusively that
This puts men on their mettle. All guess-
work is eliminated. Every mistake is con-spicuous. One quickly loses his conceit by
learning how often his judgment errs - often
space by doubling the size of your type. The
ad may still be profitable. But traced returnshave proved that you are paying a double
There one learns that advertising must be
done on a scientific basis to have any fairchance of success. And he learns that every
In mail order advertising there is no waste
wasted dollar adds to the cost of results.
of space. Every line is utilised. Borders arerarely used. Remember that when you are
tempted to leave valuable space unoccupied.
under a master who can't be fooled. Then,and only then, is he apt to apply the same
In mail order advertising there is no pa-
principles and keys to all advertising.
laver. There is no boasting, save of super-service. There is no useless talk. There is no
A man was selling a five-dollar article.
attempt at entertainment. There is nothing to
The replies from his ad cost him 85 cents.
Another man submitted an ad, which hethought better. The replies cost $14.20 each.
Mail order advertising usually contains a
Another man submitted an ad, which for two
coupon. That is there to get some action out
years brought replies at an average of 41
of the converts partly made. It is there to cut
out as a reminder of something the reader hasdecided to do.
Consider the difference, on 250,000 re-plies per year. Think how valuable was the
Mail order advertisers know that readers
man who cut the cost in two. Think what it
forget. They are reading a magazine of inter-
would have meant to continue that $14.20 ad
est. They may be absorbed in a story. A large
percentage of people who read an ad and de-cide to act will forget that decision in five
Yet there are thousands of advertisers who
minutes. The mail order advertisers knows
that waste from tests, and he does not pro-
guess. And they are doing what that man did
pose to accept it. So he inserts that reminder
- paying for sales from 2 to 35 times what
to be cut out, and it turns up when the reader
A study of mail order advertising reveals
In mail order advertising the pictures are
many things worth learning. It is a prime
always to the point. They are salesmen in
subject for study. In the first place, if contin-
themselves. They earn the space they occupy.
The size is gauged by their importance. The
But this occurs only when the larger space
picture of a dress one is trying to sell may
is utilised as well as the small space. Set half-
page copy in a page space and you double the
cost in returns. We have seen many a testprove that.
Pictures in ordinary advertising may teachlittle. They probably result in whims. But
pictures in mail order advertising may form
pany - a typical mail order ad. These have
half the cost of selling. And you may be sure
been running for many years. The ads are un-
that everything about them has been decided
changing. Mr. Mead told the writer that not
for $10,000 would he change a single word inhis ads.
Before you use useless pictures, merely todecorate or interest, look over some mail or-
der ads. Mark what their verdict is.
the other. And the ads you see today are thefinal results of all those experiments. Note
A man advertised an incubator to be sold
the picture he uses, the headlines, the econ-
omy of space, the small type. Those ads are
brought excellent returns. But he conceived
as near perfect for their purpose as an ad can
the idea that a striking picture would increase
those returns. So he increased his space 50per cent to add a row of chickens in silhou-
So with any other mail order ad which has
long continued. Every feature, every wordand picture teaches advertising at its best.
It did make a striking ad, but his cost per
reply was increased by exactly that 50 per
are unattractive, crowded, and hard to read -
cent. The new ad, costing one-half more for
anything you will. But the test of results has
every insertion, brought not one added sale.
lines have yet discovered. And they certainly
were practical people. They were looking for
attractive offers, not for pictures.
Mail order advertising is the court of last
resort. You may get the same instruction, if
paigns where a whim of that kind costs half
you will, by keying other ads. But mail order
ads are models. They are selling goods prof-
return. And it may go on year after year.
itably in a difficult way. It is far harder to getmail order than to send buyers to the stores. It
is hard to sell goods, which can't be seen.
story if the purpose is to make an immediate
Ads, which do that, are excellent examples of
sale. You see no limitations there on the
We cannot often follow all the principle of
The motto there is, "The more you tell the
mail order advertising, though we know we
more you sell." And it has never failed to
should. The advertiser forces a compromise.
Perhaps pride in our ads has an influence. But
Sometimes the advertiser uses small ads,
every departure from those principles adds to
sometimes-large ads. None are too small to
our selling cost. Therefore it is always a
tell a reasonable story. But an ad twice larger
question of what we are willing to pay for our
brings twice the returns. A four-times-larger
ad brings four times the returns, and usuallysome in addition.
We can at least know what we pay. Wecan make keyed comparisons, one ad withanother. Whenever we do, we invariably findthat the nearer we get to proved mail ordercopy the more customers we get for ourmoney.
This is another important chapter. Think itover. What real difference is there betweeninducing a customer to order by mail or orderfrom his dealer? Why should the methods ofsalesmanship differ?
They should not! When they do, it is forone of two reasons. Either the advertiser doesnot know what the mail order advertiserknows. Or he is advertising blindly. Or he isdeliberately sacrificing a percentage of hisreturns to gratify some desire.
There is some apology for that, just asthere is for fine offices and buildings. Mostof us can afford to do something for prideand opinion. But let us know what we aredoing. Let us know the cost of our pride.
Then, if our advertising fails to bring us thewanted returns, let us go back to our model -a good mail order ad - and eliminate some ofour waste.
city. That article would be of intense interest
to that woman and her friends. But neithershe nor her friends would ever read it if the
The difference between advertising and per-
headline was "Egyptian Psychology."
sonal salesmanship lies largely in personal
So in advertising it is commonly said that
contact. The salesman is there to demand at-
people do not read advertisements. That is
tention. He cannot be ignored. The adver-
silly of course. We who spend millions in
advertising and watch the returns marvel at
But the salesman wastes much of his time
the readers we get. Again and again we see
on prospects whom he can never hope to in-
20 per cent of all the readers of a newspaper
terest. He cannot pick them out. The adver-
tisement is read only by interested people
who, by their own volition, study what we
ment. They don't read ads which, at a glance,
seem to offer nothing interesting. A double-
The purpose of the headline is to pick out
page ad on a women's dresses will not gain a
people you can interest. You wish to talk to
glance from a man. Nor will a shaving cream
someone in a crowd, so the first thing you
say is, "Hey there, Bill Jones" to get the right
are hurried. The average person worth culti-
vating has too much to read. They skip three-
have will interest certain people only and for
fourths of the reading matter, which they pay
certain reasons. You care only for those peo-
to get. They are not going to read your busi-
ple, so create a headline, which will hail
ness talk unless you make it worth their while
concept will attract many times as many. But
may listen politely at a dinner table to boasts
they may consist of mostly impossible sub-
and personalities, life history, etc. But in
jects for what you have to offer. And the
print they choose their own companions, their
people you are after may never realise that
the ad refers to something they may want.
benefited. They want economy, beauty, laborsaving, good things to eat and wear. There
may be products, which interest them more
than anything else in the magazine, but they
per. One is interested in financial news, one
will never know it unless the headline or
in political, one in society, one in cookery,
one in sports, etc. There are whole pages inany newspaper, which we may never scan at
The writer of this chapter spends far more
all. Yet other people might turn directly to
time on headlines that on writing. He often
spends hours on a single headline. Oftenscores of headlines are discarded before the
right one is selected. For the entire return
headlines, and we don't want those headlines
from an ad depends on attracting the right
misleading. The writing of headlines is one
sort of readers. The best of salesmanship has
of the greatest journalistic arts. They either
no chance whatever unless we get a hearing.
The vast difference in headlines is shown
Suppose a newspaper article stated that a
by keyed returns, which this book advocates.
certain woman was the most beautiful in the
The identical ad run with various headlines
differs tremendously in its returns. It is not
Sportiest of Sport Bodies," might out pull the
uncommon for a change in headlines to mul-
tiply returns by five or ten times over.
This is enough to suggest the importance
of headlines. Anyone who keys ads will be
what sort of appeal pays best. That differs in
amazed at the difference. The appeals we like
best will rarely prove best, because we do notknow enough people to average up their de-
sires. So we learn on each line by experi-
on nearly two thousand headlines used on a
single product. The story in these ads arenearly identical. But the returns vary enor-
But back of all lies fixed principles. You
mously, due to the headlines. So with every
are presenting an ad to millions. Among them
keyed return in our record appears the head-
is a percentage, small or large, whom you
hope to interest. Go after that percentage andtry to strike the chord that responds. If you
are advertising corsets, men and children
the most widespread appeal. The product has
don't interest you. If you are advertising ci-
many uses. It fosters beauty. It prevents dis-
gars, you have no use for non-smokers. Ra-
ease. It aids daintiness and cleanliness. We
zors won't attract women; rouge will not in-
learn to exactness which quality most of our
Don't think that those millions will read
That does not mean we neglect the others.
your ads to find out if your product interests.
One sort of appeal may bring half the returns
They will decide by a glance - by your head-
of another, yet be important enough to be
line or your pictures. Address the people you
profitable. We overlook no field that pays,
but we know what proportion of our adsshould, in the headline, attract any certainclass.
For this same reason we employ a vastvariety of ads. If we are using twenty maga-zines we may use twenty separate ads. Thisbecause circulation’s overlap, and because aconsiderable percentage of people are at-tracted by each of several forms of approach.
We wish to reach them all.
On soap, for instance, the headline "KeepClean" might attract a very small percentage.
It is too commonplace. So might the head-line, "No animal fat." People may not caremuch about that. The headline, "It floats"might prove interesting. But a headline refer-ring to beauty or complexion might attractmany times as many.
An automobile ad might refer in the head-line to a good universal joint. It might fallflat, because so few buyers think of universaljoints. The same ad with a headline, " The
Many articles are sold under guarantee - so
commonly sold that guarantees have ceasedto be impressive. But one concern made a
The competent advertising man must under-
fortune by offering a dealer's signed warrant.
stand psychology. The more he knows about
it the better. He must learn that certain effects
agreed in writing to pay it back if asked. In-
lead to certain reactions, and use that knowl-
stead of a far-away stranger, a neighbour
edge to increase results and avoid mistakes.
gave the warrant. The results have led manyto try that plan, and it has always proved ef-
spects it is the same today as in the time ofCaesar. So the principles of psychology are
Many have advertised, "Try it for a week.
fixed and enduring. You will never need to
If you don't like it we'll return your money."
Then someone conceived the idea of sendinggoods without any money down, and saying,
We learn, for instance, that curiosity is
"Pay in a week if you like them." That
one of the strongest human incentives. We
employ it whenever we can. Puffed Wheatand Puffed Rice were made successful
One great advertising man stated the dif-
largely trough curiosity. "Grains puffed to 8
ference this way: "Two men came to me,
times the normal size." "Foods shot from
each offering me a horse. Both made equal
guns." "125 million steam explosions
caused in every kernel." These foods were
gentle. A child could drive them. One man
failures before that factor was discovered.
said, 'Try the horse for a week. If my claimsare not true, come back for your money.' The
other man also said, 'Try the horse for week.'
want bargains but not cheapness. They want
naturally bought the second man's horse."
to feel that they can afford to eat and haveand wear the best. Treat them as if they could
Now countless things - cigars, typewriters,
washing machines, books, etc. - are sent outin this way on approval. And we find that
people are honest. The losses are very small.
price. They are not experts. In the BritishNational Gallery is a painting, which is an-
businessmen. The advertising was unprofit-
$750,000. Most people at first pass it by at a
able, so he consulted another expert. The ads
glance. Then later they get farther on in the
were impressive. The offer seemed attractive.
catalogue and learn what the painting cost.
"But," said the second man, "let us add one
little touch which I have found effective. Letus offer to put the buyer's name in gilt letter-
ing on each book." That was done, and with
Easter time a $100 hat, and the floor could
scarcely another change in the ads they sold
not hold the women who came to see it.
some hundreds of thousands of books.
ogy. Perhaps we are advertising a valuable
impressive. So we state - as a fact - that wepaid $100,000 for that formula. That state-
Many send out small gifts, like memoran-
ment when tried has won a wealth of respect.
dum books, to customers and prospects. Theyget very small results. One man sent out a
letter to the effect that he had a leather-
The other gained added respect for his ar-
covered book with a man's name on it. It was
ticle by paying retail price to let the user try
waiting on him and would be sent on request.
it. An article good enough for the maker to
The form of request was enclosed, and it also
buy is good enough for the user to buy. It is
asked for certain information. That informa-
vastly different to pay 15 cents to let you try
tion indicated lines on which a man might be
an article that to simply say, "It's free."
Nearly all men, it was found, filled out
product to a housewife and she pays it slight
that request and supplied the information.
respect. She is in no mood to see its virtues.
But get her to ask for a sample after reading
to him - something with his name on - he will
your story, and she is in a very different po-
make an effort to get it, even though the thing
sition. She knows your claims. She is inter-
ested in them, else she would not act, and sheexpects to find the qualities you told.
In the same way it is found that an offerlimited to a certain class of people is far more
There is a great deal in mental impression.
effective than a general offer. For instance,
Submit five articles exactly alike and five
an offer limited to veterans of the war, or to
members of a lodge or sect, or to executives.
out in one some qualities to notice and eve-
Those who are entitled to any seeming ad-
ryone will find them. The five people then
vantage will go a long way not to lose that
mental impressions, they can be made to fa-
stitution. He said, "Look out for substitutes,"
vour a certain brand in that way. And that, on
"Be sure you get this brand," etc., with no
some lines, is the only way to win them.
Two concerns, side by side, sold women's
Then he said, "Try our rivals' too" - said
it in his headlines. He invited comparisons
course, was to poor girls who desire to dress
and showed that he did not fear them. That
better. One treated them like poor girls and
corrected the situation. Buyers were careful
to get the brand so conspicuously superior
that its maker could court a trial of the rest.
did business in her name. They used her pic-
nearly identical. Both offered a full-size
ture. She signed all ads and letters. She wrote
package as an introduction. But one gave his
to these girls like a friend. She knew herself
package free. The other bought the package.
what it meant to a girl not to be able to dress
A coupon was good at any store for a pack-
her best. She had long sought a chance to
age, for which the maker paid retail price.
supply women good clothes and give them allseason to pay. Now she was able to do so,
The first advertiser failed and the second
succeeded. The first even lost a large part ofthe trade he had. He cheapened his product
by giving a 15-cent package away. It is hard
appeals. It was not long before this woman's
to pay for an article, which has once been
long established next-door rival had to quit.
free. It is like paying railroad fare after trav-
furnishings on installments. Sending outcatalogues promiscuously did not pay. Of-
fering long-time credit often seems like a re-flection.
But when a married woman bought gar-ments from Mrs _, and paid as agreed, theywrote to her something like this: "Mrs._,whom we know, tells us that you are one ofher good customers. She has dealt with you,she says, and you do just as you agree, so wehave opened with you a credit account on ourbooks, good any time you wish. When youwant anything in furnishings, just order it.
Pay nothing in advance. We are very glad tosend it without any investigation to a personrecommended as you are.
That was flattering. Naturally those peo-ple, when they wanted some furniture, wouldorder from that house.
There are endless phases to psychology.
Some people know them by instinct. Many ofthem are taught by experience, but we learnmost of them from others. When we see awinning method we note it down for usewhen occasion offers.
These things are very important. An iden-tical offer made in a different way may bringmultiplied returns. Somewhere in the minesof business experience we must find the bestmethod somehow.
been reduced 25 per cent" he gets the full
latitudes and generalities roll off the human
clothing to people of the poorer classes. For
understanding like water from a duck. They
years he used the slogan, "Lowest prices in
leave no impression whatever. To say, "Best
America." His rivals all copied that. Then he
in the world," "Lowest price in existence,"
guaranteed to undersell any other dealer. His
etc. is at best simply claiming the expected.
rivals did likewise. Soon those claims be-
But superlatives of that sort are usually dam-
came common to every advertiser in his line,
aging. They suggest looseness of expression,
a tendency to exaggerate a careless truth.
They lead readers to discount all the state-
statement to "Our net profit is 3 per cent."That was a definite statement and it proved
People recognise a certain license in sell-
very impressive. With their volume of busi-
ing talk as they do poetry. A man may say,
ness it was evident that their prices must be
"Supreme in quality" without seeming a liar,
though one may know that the other brands
business on less than 3 per cent. The next
are equally as good. One expects a salesman
year their business made a sensational in-
to put his best foot forward and excuses some
exaggeration born of enthusiasm. But just forthat reason general statements count for little.
And a man inclined to superlatives must ex-
there was a general impression that profits
pect that his every statement will be taken
were excessive. One well-advised advertiser
came out with this statement; "Our profit is 9per cent." Then he cited actual costs on the
hidden costs of a $1,500 car. They amounted
either telling the truth or a lie. People do not
expect an advertiser to lie. They know that he
could easily see. This advertiser made a great
can't lie in the best mediums. The growing
success along those lines at that time.
respect in advertising has largely comethrough a growing regard for its truth.
Shaving soaps have long been advertised"Abundant lather," "Does not dry on the
face," "Acts quickly," etc. One advertiser had
cepted. Actual figures are not generally dis-
counted. Specific facts, when stated, have
Then a new maker came into the field. It
was a tremendously difficult field, for every
written or personal salesmanship. The weight
customer had to be taken from someone else.
of an argument may often be multiplied by
He stated specific facts. He said, "Multiplies
making it specific. Say that a tungsten lamp
itself in lather 250 times" "Softens the beard
gives more light than a carbon and you leave
in one minute." "Maintains its creamy full-
some doubt. Say it gives three and one-third
ness for ten minutes on the face." "The final
times the light and people realise that you
result of testing and comparing 130 formu-
las." Perhaps never in advertising has therebeen a quicker and greater success in an
A dealer may say, "Our prices have been
reduced" without creating any marked im-pression. But when he says, "Our prices have
Makers of safety razors have long adver-tised quick shaves. One maker advertised a
78-second shave. That was definite. It indi-cated actual tests. That man at once made asensational advance in his sales.
In the old days all beers were advertisedas "Pure," The claim made no impression.
The bigger the type used the bigger the folly.
After millions had been spent to impress aplatitude, one brewer pictured a plate glasswhere beer was cooled in filtered air. Hepictured a filter of white wood pulp throughwhich every drop was cleared. He told howbottles were washed four times by machin-ery. How he went down 4,000 feet for purewater. How 1,018 experiments had beenmade to attain a yeast to give beer thatmatchless flavour. And how all the yeast wasforever made from that adopted mother cell.
All claims were such as any brewer mighthave made. They were mere essentials in or-dinary brewing. But he was the first to tellthe people about them, while others criedmerely "pure beer." He made the greatestsuccess that was ever made in beer advertis-ing.
"Used the world over" is a very elasticclaim. Then one advertiser said, "Used by thepeoples of 52 nations," and many others fol-lowed.
One statement may take as much room asanother, yet a definite statement is manytimes as effective. The difference is vast. If aclaim is worth making, make it in the mostimpressive way.
All these effects must be studied. Sales-manship-in-print is very expensive. A sales-man's loose talk matters little. But when youare talking to millions at enormous cost, theweight of your claims is important.
No generality has any weight whatever. Itis like saying, "How do you do?" When youhave no intention of inquiring about one'shealth. But specific claims when made inprint are taken at their value.
turns. So with some general ads. They are
Tell your full story
perfected ads, embodying in the best wayknown all that one has to say. Advertisers do
Whatever claims you use to gain attention,
not expect a second reading. Their constant
the advertisement should tell a story reasona-
returns come from getting new readers.
bly complete. If you watch returns, you will
In every ad consider only new customers.
find that certain claims appeal far more that
People using your product are not going to
others. But in usual lines a number of claims
read your ads. They have already read and
appeal to a large percentage. Then present
those claims in every ad for their effect on
month to present users that the product they
use is poison, and they would never know it.
Some advertisers, for sake of brevity, pre-
So never waste one line of your space to say
sent one claim at a time. Or they write a se-
something to present to users, unless you can
rial ad, continued in another issue. There is
say it in your headlines. Bear in mind always
no greater folly. Those serials almost never
that you can address an unconverted pros-
Any reader of your ad is interested; else
then is the time to accomplish all ever hope
he would not be a reader. You are dealing
with him. Bring all your good arguments to
with someone willing to listen. So do your
bare. Cover every phase of your subject. One
level best. That reader, if you lose him now,
fact appeals to some, one to another. Omit
any one and a certain percentage will lose the
office. He may have tried again and again to
People are not apt to read successive ad-
get entree. He may never be admitted again.
This is his one chance to get action, and he
than you read a news item twice, or a story.
In one reading of an advertisement one de-
This brings up the question of brevity. The
cides for or against a proposition. And that
most common expression you hear about ad-
operates against a second reading. So present
vertising is that people will not read much.
to the reader, when once you get him, every
Yet a vast amount of the best-paying adver-
tising shows that people do read much. Then
The best advertisers do that. They learn
they write for a book, perhaps - for added
their appealing claims by tests - by compar-
ing results from various headlines. Gradually
There is fixed rule on this subject of brev-
they accumulate a list of claims important
ity. One sentence may tell a complete story
enough to use. All those claims appear in
on a line like chewing gum. It may on an ar-
ticle like Cream of Wheat. But, whether long
or short, an advertising story should be rea-
the men who read them all. A complete story
is always the same. But one must consider
A certain man desired a personal car. He
that the average reader is only once a reader,
cared little about the price. He wanted a car
probably. And what you fail to tell him in
to take pride in; else he felt he would never
that ad is something he may never know.
drive it. But, being a good businessman, he
change their ads. Single mail order ads oftenrun year after year without diminishing re-
His inclination was towards a RollsRoyce. He also considered a Pierce-Arrow, aLocomobile and others. But these famouscars offered no information. Their advertise-ments were very short. Evidently the makersconsidered it undignified to argue compara-tive merits.
The Marmon, on the contrary, told a com-plete story. He read columns and books aboutit. So he bought a Marmon, and was neversorry. But he afterwards learned facts aboutanother car at nearly three times the price,which would have sold him the car, had heknown them.
What folly it is to cry a name in a line likethat, plus a few brief generalities. A car maybe a lifetime investment. It involves an im-portant expenditure. A man interested enoughto buy a car will read a volume about it if thevolume is interesting.
So with everything, you may be simplytrying to change a woman from one breakfastfood to another, or one toothpaste, or onesoap. She is wedded to what she is using.
Perhaps she has used it for years.
You have a hard proposition. If you do notbelieve it, go to her in person and try to makethe change. Not to merely buy a first packageto please you, but to adopt your brand. A manwho once does that at a woman's door won'targue for brief advertisements. He will neveragain say, "A sentence will do," or a nameclaim or a boast.
Nor will the man who traces his results.
Note that brief ads are never keyed. Note thatevery traced ad tells a complete story, thoughit takes columns to tell.
Never be guided in any way by ads, whichare untraced. Never do anything becausesome uninformed advertiser considers thatsomething right. Never be led in new pathsby the blind. Apply to your advertising ordi-nary common sense. Take the opinion of no-body, whom knows nothing about his returns.
So with correspondence schools. Theirs is
Art in advertising
traced advertising. Picturing men in high po-sitions of taking upward steps forms a very
Pictures in advertising are very expensive.
Not in cost of good art work alone, but in the
So with beauty articles. Picturing beautiful
cost of space. From one-third to one-half of
women, admired and attractive, is a supreme
an advertising campaign is often staked on
inducement. But there is a great advantage in
else it involves much waste. So art in adver-
them using their beauty, as women do use it,
tising is a study of paramount importance.
Advertising pictures should not be eccen-
cause they are interesting, or to attract atten-
tric. Don't treat your subject lightly. Don't
tion, or to decorate an ad. We have covered
lessen respect for yourself or your article by
these points elsewhere. Ads are not written to
any attempt at frivolity. People do not pa-
interest, please or amuse. You are not writing
tronise a clown. There are two things about
to please the hoi- polloi. You are writing on a
which men should not joke. One is business,
spending. And you address a restricted mi-
damage. One may gain attention by wearing
Use pictures only to attract those who may
a fool's cap. But he would ruin his selling
profit you. Use them only when they form a
better selling argument than the same amount
unique, takes attention from your subject.
Mail order advertisers, as we have said,
You cannot afford to do that. Your main ap-
have pictures down to a science. Some use
peal lies in headline. Over-shadow that and
large pictures, some small, some omit pic-
you kill it. Don't, to gain general and useless
tures entirely. A noticeable fact is that none
attention, sacrifice the attention that you
of them uses expensive artwork. Be sure that
all these things are done for reasons madeapparent by results.
Don't be like a salesman who wears con-spicuous clothes. The small percentage he
appeals to are not usually good buyers. The
same principles. Or, if none exist to apply to
great majority of the sane and thrifty heartily
his line, he should work out his own by tests.
despite him. Be normal in everything you do
It is certainly unwise to spend large sums on
Pictures in many lines form a major fac-
Generalities cannot be applied to art.
tor. Omitting the lines where the article itself
There are seeming exceptions to most state-
should be pictured. In some lines, like Arrow
ments. Each line must be studied by itself.
Collars and most in clothing advertising,pictures have proved most convincing. Not
But the picture must help sell the goods. It
only in picturing the collar or the clothes, but
should help more than anything else could do
also in picturing men whom others envy, in
in like space, else use that something else.
surroundings which others covet. The pic-
Many pictures tell a story better than type
tures subtly suggest that these articles of ap-
can do. In advertising of Puffed Grains the
parel will aid men to those desired positions.
picture of the grains were found to be most
effective. They awake curiosity. No figure
drawing in that case compares in results with
merely interest, amuse, or attract. That is not
your province. Do only that which wins thepeople you are after in the cheapest possible
Other pictures form a total loss. We have
cited cases of that kind. The only way toknow, as is with most other questions, is by
mere economies, not largely affecting the re-sults of a campaign.
There are disputed questions in artwork,which we will cite without expressing opin-
ions. They seem to be answered both ways,
sults in two. Other things can be done which
according to the line, which is advertised.
multiply those results. Minor costs are insig-nificant when compared with basic princi-
Does it pay better to use fine art work or
ordinary? Some advertisers pay up to $2,000
another in a palace. That is immaterial. The
per drawing. They figure that the space is ex-
pensive. The art cost is small in comparison.
So they consider the best worth its cost.
Others argue that few people have arteducation. They bring out their ideas, andbring them out well, at a fraction of the cost.
Mail order advertisers are generally in thisclass.
The question is one of small moment.
Certainly good art pays as well as mediocre.
And the cost of preparing ads is very smallcompared with the cost of insertion.
Should every ad have a new picture? Ormay a picture be repeated? Both viewpointshave many supporters. The probability is thatrepetition is an economy. We are after newcustomers always. It is not probable that theyremember a picture we have used before. Ifthey do, repetition does not detract.
Do colour pictures pay better than blackand white? Not generally, according to theevidence we have gathered to date. Yet thereare exceptions. Certain food dishes look farbetter in colours. Tests on lines like oranges,and desserts etc. show that colour pays. Col-our comes close to placing the products onactual exhibition.
But colour used to amuse or to gain atten-tion is like anything else that we use for thatpurpose. It may attract many times as manypeople, yet not secure a hearing from asmany whom we want.
children it has age-old fame. Doctors have
Things too costly
advised it for many generations. People whodon't serve oatmeal are therefore difficult to
start. Perhaps their objections are insur-
which are too costly to attempt. That is an-
other reason why every project and method
sive. A project, which involves that, must be
paign to any such impossible object. Yet they
seriously considered. To sell shaving soap to
devote a share of their space to that object.
the peasants of Russia one would first need to
That is only the same folly on a smaller scale.
change their beard wearing habits. The cost
would be excessive, Yet countless advertisers
try to do things almost as impossible. Just
could attempt to increase the consumption of
because questions are not ably considered,
those fruits. The cost might be a thousand
times his share of the returns. But thousands
For instance, the advertiser of a dentifrice
of growers combined have done it on those
may spend much space and money to educate
and many other lines. There lies one of the
people to brush their teeth. Test, which we
great possibilities of advertising develop-
know of, have indicated that the cost of such
ment. The general consumption of scores of
converts may run from $20 to $25 each. Not
foods can be profitably increased. But it must
only because of the difficulty, but because
much of the advertising goes to people al-
No advertiser could afford to educate peo-
ple on vitamins or germicides. Such things
Such a cost, of course, is unthinkable. One
are done by authorities, through countless
might not in a lifetime get it back in sales.
columns of unpaid-for space. But great suc-
The maker who learned these facts by tests
already educated and satisfying their created
tooth brush habit. What cannot be done on a
large scale profitably can not be done on a
It is a very shrewd thing to watch the de-
small scale. So not one line in any ad is de-
velopment of a popular trend, the creation of
voted to this object. This maker, who is con-
new desires. Then at the right time offer to
stantly guided in everything by keying every
yeast’s, for instance, and on numerous anti-
septics. It can every year be done on new
money to make converts to the toothbrush.
things which some popular fashion or wide-
The object is commendable, but altruistic.
spread influence is bring into vogue. But it is
The new business he creates is shared by his
a very different thing to create that fashion,
rivals. He is wondering why his sales in-
taste or influence for all in your field to
crease is in no way commensurate with his
might possibly be sold to half the homes in
money to educate people to the use of oat-
the country. A Dakin-fluid germicide, for in-
meal. The results were too small to discover.
stance. But the consumption would be very
All people know of oatmeal. As a food for
small. A small bottle might last for years.
this subject. We do not the percentage of
revenue per customer might not in ten years
repay the cost of getting. Mail order sales on
might show it to be one in a hundred. If so,
single articles, however popular, rarely cost
less than $2.50 each. It is reasonable to sup-
readers to reach one he wants. His cost of
pose that sales made through dealers on like
result might be twenty times as high as on
articles will cost approximately as much.
another article, which appeals to one in five.
Those facts must be considered on any one-
sale article. Possibly one user will win others.
disaster. For reasons like these every new
But traced returns as in mail order advertising
advertiser should seek for wise advice. No
would prohibit much advertising, which is
one with the interests of advertising at heart
Costly mistakes are made by blindly fol-
lowing some ill-conceived idea. An article,
ture in the main are still popular enough to
consider. They influence a certain number of
which is to prevent disease. Prevention is not
people - say one-fourth of your possible cus-
a popular subject, however much it should
tomers. Such claims may be featured to ad-
be. People will do much to cure trouble, but
vantage in a certain percentage of headlines.
people in general will do little to prevent it.
It should probably be included in every ad-
vertisement. But those are not things to guess
at. They should be decided by actual knowl-edge, usually by traced returns.
One may spend much money in arguingprevention when the same money spent on
This chapter, like every chapter, points out
sales. A heading, which asserts one claim,
results. Scientific advertising is impossible
may bring ten times the results of a heading,
without that. So is safe advertising. So is
which asserted another. An advertiser may go
A toothpaste may tend to prevent decay. It
probably cost enough money to pay the na-
may also beautify teeth. Tests will probably
tional debt. That is what has filled the adver-
show that the latter appeal is many times as
tising graveyards. That is what has discour-
strong as the former. The most successful
aged thousands who could profit in this field.
toothpaste advertiser never features tooth
troubles in his headlines. Tests have proved
bringing a new day in the advertising busi-
them unappealing. Other advertisers in this
line center on those troubles. That is oftenbecause results are not known and compared.
A soap may tend to cure eczema. It may atthe same time improve complexion. The ec-zema claim may appeal to one in a hundredwhile the beauty claims would appeal tonearly all. To even mention the eczemaclaims might destroy the beauty claims.
A man has a relief for asthma. It has doneso much for him he considers it a great ad-vertising possibility. We have no statistics on
A $25,000-a-year man, before advertising
outfits for acetylene gas, spent weeks in go-ing from farm to farm. Another man did that
An ad-writer, to have a chance at success,
must gain full information on his subject.
thousand men were asked to state what they
books on every line that calls for research. A
painstaking advertising man will often readfor weeks on some problem, which comes up.
Called on to advertise pork and beans, a
Perhaps in many volumes he will find few
facts to use. But some one fact may be the
homes. Theretofore all pork and bean adver-
tising has been based on "Buy my brand."That canvass showed that only 4 per cent of
the people used any canned pork and beans.
mous amount of reading, medical and other-
wise, on coffee. This to advertise a coffee
home. The problem was not to sell a particu-
without caffeine. One scientific article out of
lar brand. Any such attempt appealed to only
a thousand perused gave the keynote for that
four per cent. The right appeal was to win the
stimulation comes two hours after drinking.
advertising, which without knowledge must
So the immediate bracing effects which peo-
have failed, proved a great success.
ple seek from coffee do not come from thecaffeine. Removing caffeine does not remove
A canvas is made, not only of homes, but
the kick. It does not modify coffee's delights,
also of dealers. Competition is measured up.
for caffeine is tasteless and odourless.
Every advertiser of a similar product is
Caffeine-less coffee has been advertised
written for his literature and claims. Thus we
for years. People regarded it like near beer.
start with exact information on all that are
Only through weeks of reading did we find a
Clipping bureaus are patronised, so that
To advertise toothpaste this writer has also
everything printed on our subject comes to
read many volumes of scientific matter dry as
found the idea which has helped make mil-
ers or dealers goes to this man's desk.
lions for that tooth paste maker. And hasmade this campaign one of the sensations of
It is often necessary in a line to learn the
total expenditure. We must learn what a userspends a year, else we shall not know if users
Genius is the art of taking pains. The ad-
vertising man who spares the midnight oilwill never get very far.
We must learn the total consumption, else
to whom our product appeals. We must often
On another line, letters we sent to 12,000
gather this data on classes. The percentage
physicians. Questionnaires are often mailed
may differ on farms and in cities. The cost of
advertising largely depends on the percentage
Thus a very large volume of data usuallyprecedes an advertising campaign. Even anexperimental campaign, for effective experi-ments cost a great deal of work and time.
Often chemists are employed to prove ordisprove doubtful claims. An advertiser, inall good faith, makes an impressive assertion.
If it is true, it will form a big factor in adver-tising. If untrue, it may prove a boomerang.
And it may bar our ads from good mediums.
It is remarkable how often a maker proveswrong on assertions he has made for years.
Impressive claims are made far more im-pressive by making them exact. So many ex-periments are made to get the actual figures.
For instance, a certain drink is known to havea large food value. That simple assertion isnot very convincing. So we send the drink tothe laboratory and find that its food value is425 calories per pint. One pint is equal to sixeggs in calories of nutriment. That claimmakes a great impression.
In every line involving scientific details acensor is appointed. The ad-writer, howeverwell informed, may draw wrong inferencesfrom facts. So an authority passes on everyadvertisement.
The uninformed would be staggered toknow the amount of work involved in a sin-gle ad. Weeks of work sometimes. The adseems so simple, and it must be simple to ap-peal to simple people. But back of that admay lie reams of data, volumes of informa-tion, months of research.
It is a well-known fact that the greatest
profits are made on great volume at smallprofit. Campbell's Soups, Palmolive Soap,
venom. Or much, if you prefer, like a game
examples. A price, which appeals only to -
of chess. We are usually out to capture others'
say 10 percent - multiplies the cost of selling.
But on other lines high price is unimpor-
tant. High profit is essential. The line may
must have training and experience, also right
cares what he pays for a corn remedy because
tion, and enough. We dare not underestimate
he uses little. The maker must have a large
opponents. Our intelligence department is a
margin because of small consumption.
vital factor, as told in the previous chapter.
On other lines a higher price may even be
We need alliances with dealers, as another
an inducement. Such lines are judged largely
chapter tells. We also need strategy of the
by price. A product which costs more than
ablest sort, to multiply the value of our
the ordinary is considered above the ordinary.
So the price question is always a very big
Competition must be considered. What are
portant. Often the right name is an adver-
the forces against you? What have they in
tisement in itself. It may tell a fairly complete
price or quality or claims to weigh against
story, like Shredded Wheat, Cream of Wheat,
against them? What have you to hold trade
How strongly are your rivals entrenched?
is usually conspicuously displayed. Many a
There are some fields, which are almost im-
name has proved to be the greatest factor in
pregnable. They are usually lines, which cre-
an article's success. Other names prove a dis-
ate a new habit, or custom and which typify
tinct disadvantage - Toasted Corn Flakes, for
that custom with consumers. They so domi-
instance. Too many others may share a de-
nate a field that one can hardly hope to in-
vade it. They have volume, the profit to make
have succeeded. Kodak, Karo etc., are exam-
Such fields are being constantly invaded.
ples. They are exclusive. The advertiser who
But it is done through some convincing ad-
gives them meaning never needs to share his
vantage, or through very superior salesman-
helps to impress a dominant claim, is cer-tainly a good advantage. Names that tell sto-
Other lines are only less difficult. A new
ries have been worth millions of dollars. So a
great deal of research often precedes the se-
possible customer is using a rival soap. Most
of them are satisfied with it. Many are wed-ded to it. The appeal must be strong enough
to win those people from long-established
high price creates resistance. It tends to limit
one's field. The cost of getting an addedprofit may be more than the profit.
Such things are not accomplished by hap-hazard efforts. Not by considering people in
the mass and making blind stabs for their fa-
The attitude of dealers must be considered.
vours. We must consider individuals, typical
There is a growing inclination to limit lines,
people who are using rival brands. A man on
to avoid duplicate lines, to lesson inventories.
a Pullman, for instance, using his favourite
If this applies to your line, how will dealers
soap. What could you say to him in person to
receive it? If there is opposition, how can we
after thousands of men until we learn how to
The problems of distribution are important
and enormous. To advertise something that
The maker may say that he has no distinc-
few dealers supply is a waste of ammunition.
tions. He is making a good product, but much
Those problems will be considered in another
like others. He deserves a good share of the
trade, but he has nothing exclusive to offer.
However, there is nearly always something
advertising men must solve. These are some
impressive which others have not told. We
of the reasons why vast experience is neces-
sary. One oversight may cost the client mil-
advantage. People don't quit habits without
lions in the end. One wrong piece of strategy
There is the problem of substitution and
way may be twice as easy, half as costly, as
how to head it off. That often steals much of
one's trade. This must be considered in one's
original plan. One must have foresight to see
like a waterfall going to waste. The power
all eventualities, and the wisdom to establish
might be there, but it is not made effective.
We must center the force and direct it in a
Many pioneers in the line establish large
demands. Then, through some fault in their
Advertising often looks very simple.
foundations, lose a large share of the harvest.
Thousands of men claim ability to do it. And
Theirs is a mere brand, for instance, where it
there is still is a wide impression that many
might have stood for an exclusive product.
men can. As a result, much advertising goes
Vaseline is an example. That product es-
by favour. But the men who know realise that
the problems are as many and as important as
nopolized that demand through wisdom at the
the problems in building a skyscraper. And
start. To have called it some different brand
many of them lie in the foundations.
of petroleum jelly might have made a differ-ence of millions in results.
Jell-O, Postum, Victrola, Kodak, etc. es-tablished coined names, which came to typifya product. Some such names have been ad-mitted to the dictionary. They have becomecommon names, though coined and exclu-sive.
Royal Baking Powder and Toasted CornFlakes, on the other hand, when they pio-neered their fields, left the way open to per-petual substitution. So did Horlick's MaltedMilk.
make the coupon good for a package at the
Use of samples
The product itself should be its own best
You say that is expensive. So is it expen-
sive to gain a prospect's interest. It may cost
product plus a mental impression, and atmos-
you 50 cents to get the person to the point of
phere, which you place around it. That being
writing for a sample. Don't stop at 15 cents
so, samples are of prime importance. How-
additional to make that interest valuable.
ever expensive, they usually form the cheap-
est selling method. A salesman might as well
keying your advertisements. They register the
go out without his sample case as an adver-
interest you create. Thus you can compare
one with the another ad, headline, plan and
Sampling does not apply to little things
alone, like foods or proprietaries. It can be
applied in some way to almost every thing.
ing. The wisest, most experienced man can-
We have sampled clothing. We are now sam-
not tell what will most appeal in any line of
copy. Without a key to guide you, your re-
turns are very apt to cost you twice what they
poses. They enable on to use the word "Free"
need cost. And we know that some ads on the
in ads. That often multiplies readers. Most
same product will cost ten times what others
people want to learn about any offered gift.
cost. A sample may pay for itself several
Test often show that samples pay for them-
times over by giving you an accurate check.
selves - perhaps several times over - in mul-
tiplying the readers of your ads without addi-
tomers where they can be supplied. This is
important before you attain general distribu-tion.
A sample gets action. The reader of yourad may not be convinced to the point of
buying. But he ready to learn more about the
penny wise. They are afraid of imposition, or
product that you offer. So he cuts out a cou-
they try to save pennies. That is why they ask
pon, lays it aside, and later mails it or pres-
ten cents for a sample, or a stamp or two.
ents it. Without that coupon he would soon
cents to $1. That is, it may add that to thecost of replies. But it is remarkable how
Then you have the name and address of an
many will pay that addition rather than offer
interested prospect. You can start him using
your product. You can give him fuller infor-mation. You can follow him up.
Putting a price on a sample greatly retardsreplies. Then it prohibits you from using the
word "Free," and as we have stated, that word
"free" will generally more than pay for your
would be lost. But when he writes you, you
have a chance to complete with that prospectall that can be done. In that saving of waste
For the same reason some advertisers say,
"You buy one package, we will buy theother." Or they make a coupon good for part
of the purchase price. Any keyed returns will
clearly prove that such offers do not pay. Be-
dealer for a full-size package. Or we may
fore a prospect is converted, it is approxi-
mately as hard to get half price for your arti-
cle as to get the full price for it.
Bear in mind that you are the seller. You
Sometimes it is not possible to supply all
are the one courting interest. Then don't make
dealers with samples. Then we refer people
it difficult to exhibit that interest. Don't ask
to some central stores. These stores are glad
your prospects to pay for your selling efforts.
to have many people come there. And other
Three in four will refuse to pay - perhaps
dealers do not generally object so long as
It is important to have these dealers send
every line. It depends on your breadth of ap-
peal. Some things appeal to everybody, some
follow up the inquiries while their interest is
to a small percentage. One issue of the papers
in Greater New York brought 1,460,000 re-
It is said that sample users repeat. They do
to some extent. But repeaters form a small
chocolate drink, one-fifth the coupons pub-
lished are presented. Another line not widelyused may bring a fraction of that number.
Say to the woman, "Only one sample to ahome" and few women will try to get more of
But the cost of inquiries is usually enough
to be important. Then don't neglect them.
generally the people who would buy. So you
Don't stint your efforts with those you have
are not losing purchasers, but the samples
half sold. An inquiry means that a prospect
has read your story and is interested. He orshe would like to try your product and learn
more about it. Do what you would do if that
fered full-sized packages free. The packages
were priced at from 10 cents to 50 cents each.
In certain territories for a time we have
Cost of inquiries depends largely on how
checked up on repeaters. And we found the
they come. Asking people to mail the coupon
loss much less than the cost of checking.
brings minimum returns. Often four times asmany will present that coupon for a sample at
In some lines samples would be wasted on
children, and they are most apt to get them.
Then say in your coupon "adults only."
Children will not present such coupons, and
inquiries obtained by mail average 70 cents
each. The same ads bring inquiries at from 18cents to 22 cents each when the coupons are
But one must be careful about publishing
coupons good for a full-size package at anystore. Some people, and even dealers, may
Most people write few letters. Writing is
buy up many papers. We do not announce the
an effort. Perhaps they have no stamps in the
date of such offers. And we insert them in
house. Most people will pay carfare to get a
Sunday papers, not so easily bought up.
sample rather than two cents postage. There-fore, it is always best, where possible; to
But we do not advocate samples given out
promiscuously. Samples distributed tohomes, like waifs on the doorsteps, probably
On one line three methods were offered.
The woman could write for a sample, or tele-
house the housewife. When they do, there is
phone, or call at a store. Seventy per cent of
no prediction for them. The product is cheap-
the inquiries came by telephone. The use of
ened. It is not introduced in a favorable way.
So with demonstrations in stores, there isalways a way to get the same results at afraction of the cost.
Many advertisers do not understand this.
They supply thousands of samples to dealersto be handed out, as they will. Could a tracebe placed on the cost of returns, the adver-tiser would be stunned.
Give samples to interested people only.
Give them only to people who exhibit thatinterest by some effort. Give them only topeople whom you have told your story. Firstcreate an atmosphere of respect, a desire, anexpectation. When people are in that mood,your sample will usually confirm the quali-ties you claim.
Here again comes the advantage of figur-ing cost per customer. That is the only way togauge advertising. Samples sometimes seemto double advertising cost. They often costmore than the advertising. Yet, rightly used,they almost invariably form the cheapest wayto get customers. And that is what you want.
The arguments against samples are usu-ally biased. They may come from advertisingagents who like to see all the advertisingmoney spent in print. Answer such argumentsby tests. Try some towns with them, somewithout. Where samples are effectively em-ployed, we rarely find a line where they donot lesson the cost per customer.
certain dealers, the average dealer wants to
be included. It is often possible to get most ofthem by offering to name them in the first
problem of getting distribution. National ad-
vertising is unthinkable without that. A ven-
ers, the others will stock in very short order if
ture cannot be profitable if nine in ten of the
the advertising is successful. Then the trade
To force dealers to stock by bringing re-peated demands may be enormously expen-
The sample plans dealt with in the previ-
sive. To cover the country with a selling
ous chapter aid quick distribution. They often
force is usually impossible. To get dealers to
pay for themselves in this way alone.
stock an unknown line on promise of adver-
If the samples are distributed locally, the
tising is not easy. They have seen to many
coupon names the store. The prospects who
efforts fail, too many promises rescinded.
go there to get the samples know that those
stores are supplied, if a nearer dealer is not.
distribution. There are scores of ways em-
ployed, according to the enterprise. Some
start by soliciting direct sales - mail orders -
vertiser, inquiries are referred to certain deal-
until the volume of demand forces dealers to
ers at the start. Enough demand is centered
there to force those dealers to supply it.
sample or other offer, then refer them to cer-
samples, but on the requirement of a certain
purchase. You supply a dozen samples with
Some well-known can get a large percent-
a dozen packages, for instance. Then inquir-
ies for samples are referred to all stores. This
quickly forces general distribution. Dealers
jobbers so dealers can easily order. Some
don't like to have their customers go to com-
name certain dealers in their ads until dealers
Where a coupon is used, good at any store
The problems in this line are numberless.
for a full-size package, the problem of distri-
The successful methods are many. But most
bution becomes simple. Mail to dealer’s
of them apply to lines too few to be worthy
proofs of the ad, which will contain a cou-
pon. Point out to each that many of his cus-tomers are bound to present that coupon.
We shall deal here with articles of wide
appeal and repeated sales, like foods or pro-
profit. No average dealer will let those cou-
We usually start with local advertising,
Such a free-package offer often pays for
itself in this way. It forms the cheapest way
adapted to the article. We get our distribution
town by town, then change to national adver-tising.
Some of the most successful advertisershave done this in a national way. They have
inserted coupon ads in magazines, each cou-
stocked. As others stock, we add their names.
pon good at any store for a full-size package.
When a local campaign is proposed, naming
A proof of the ad is sent to dealers in ad-
vance, with a list of the magazines to be used,
But don't start advertising without distri-
bution. Don't get distribution by methods tooexpensive. Or by slow old-fashioned meth-
In this way, in one week sometimes, mak-
ers attain a reasonable national distribution.
mously in sales. And it may enable energetic
pletes it. Here again the free packages costless than other ways of forcing distribution.
And they start thousands of users besides.
ences the best plan to apply to your line.
Palmolive Soap and Puffed Grains are amongthe products, which attain their distribution inthat way.
Half the circulation of a newspaper maygo to outside towns. That half may be wastedif you offer a sample at local stores. Say inyour coupon that outside people should writeyou for a sample. When they write, do notmail the sample. Send the samples to a localstore, and refer inquiries to that store. Mail-ing a sample may make a convert who cannotbe supplied. But the store, which supplies thesample, will usually supply demand.
In these ways, many advertisers get na-tional distribution without employing a singlesalesman. They get it immediately. And theyget it at far lower cost than by any othermethod. There are advertisers who, in start-ing, send every dealer a few packages as agift. That is better, perhaps, than losing cus-tomers created. But it is very expensive.
Those free packages must be sold by adver-tising. Figure their cost at your selling price,and you will see that you are paying a highcost per dealer. A salesman might sell thesesmall stocks at a lower cost. And other meth-ods might be vastly cheaper.
Sending stocks on consignment to retail-ers is not widely favoured. Many dealers re-sent it. Collections are difficult. And un-businesslike methods do not win dealer re-spect.
The plans advocated here are the bestplans yet discovered for the lines to whichthey apply. Other lines require differentmethods. The ramifications are too many todiscuss in a book like this.
comes back. Before we spread out, we prove
our undertaking absolutely safe. So there aretoday no advertising disasters piloted by men
cheaply, quickly and finally, by a test cam-
Perhaps we try out our project in four or
paign. That is the way to answer them, not by
five towns. We may use a sample offer or a
arguments around a table. Go to the court of
free package to get users started quickly.
last resort. The buyers of your product.
Then we wait and see if users buy those sam-
ples. If they do, will they continue? How
question of selling that article profitably. You
much will they buy? How long does it take
and your friends may like it, but the majority
for the profit to return our cost of selling?
may not. Some rival product may be better
A test like this may cost $3,000 to $5,000.
It is not all lost, even when the product
proves unpopular. Some sales are made.
Nearly every test will in time bring back theentire cost.
People may buy and not repeat. The arti-cle may last too long. It may appeal to a
Sometimes we find that the cost of the ad-
small percentage, so most of your advertising
vertising comes back before the bills are due.
That means that the product can be advertisedwithout investment. Many a great advertiser
There are many surprises in advertising. A
has been built up without any cost whatever
project you will laugh at may make a great
beyond immediate receipts. That is an ideal
success. A project you are sure of may fall
down. All because tastes differ so. None ofus know enough people's desires to get an
months to bring back the cost with a profit.
But one is sure of his profit in that time.
In the old days, advertisers ventured on
their own opinions. The few guessed right,
the many wrong. Those were the times of ad-vertising disaster. Even those who succeeded
came close to the verge before the time is
he considers an advertising possibility. But
national advertising looks so big and expen-
customer or their sale per customer. The cost
of selling might take a long to come back.
towns, at a very moderate cost. With almost
Now we let the thousands decide what the
no risk whatever. From the few thousands he
millions will do. We make a small venture,
learns what the millions will do. Then he acts
accordingly. If he then branches he knows to
a certainty just what his results will be.
almost exactly what a million will cost.
He is playing on the safe side of a hundred
When we learn what they buy, we know what
to one shot. If the article is successful, it may
make him millions. If he is mistaken about it,
our cost, we know our sale, and we know our
and spread. All our largest accounts are now
profit and loss. We know how soon our cost
built in this way, from very small beginnings.
When businessmen realise that this can be
of all. It reduced our cost of selling by 75 per
cent. That is, it was four times more effective
countless fortune-earners now lie dormant.
The largest advertiser in the world makes
That is what mail order advertisers do - try
a business of starting such projects. One by
out plan after plan to constantly reduce the
one he finds out winners. Now he has twenty-
cost. Why should any general advertiser be
six, and together they earn many millions
These test campaigns have other purposes.
They answer countless questions, which arise
An advertiser is doing mediocre advertis-
ing. A skilled advertising agent feels that he
A large food advertiser felt that his prod-
can greatly increase results. The advertiser is
uct would be more popular in another form.
doubtful. He is doing fairly well. He has alli-
He and all his advisers were certain about it.
ances, which he hesitates to break. So he is
They were willing to act on this supposition
without consulting the consumers, but wiser
Now the question can be submitted to the
verdict of a test. The new agent may take a
few towns, without interfering with the gen-
coupon, good at any store for a package of
eral campaign. Then compare his results with
the new-style product. Then he wrote to the
the general results and prove his greater skill.
users about it. They were almost unanimous
Plausible arguments are easy in this line.
One man after another comes to an advertiser
to claim superior knowledge or ability. It is
still another form. The previous verdict made
hard to decide, and decisions may be wrong.
Now actual figures gained at a small cost
hardly thought a test to be worth while. But
can settle the question definitely. The adver-
he submitted the question to a few thousand
tiser makes no commitment. It is like saying
to a salesman, "Go out for a week and
voted for it. Now he has a unique product,
prove." A large percentage of all the adver-
which promises to largely increase his sales.
first one saved him a very costly mistake.
tising. Suppose a chemist would say in an
arbitrary way that this compound was best, orthat better. You would little respect his
Then we try test campaigns to try out new
methods on advertising already successful.
dreds of tests - to actually know which is
Thus we constantly seek for better methods,
best. He will never state a supposition before
without interrupting plans already proved
he has proved it. How long before advertisers
in general will apply that exactness to adver-
In five years for one food advertiser we
tried out over fifty separate plans. Every littlewhile we found an improvement, so the re-sults of our advertising constantly grew. Atthe end of five years we found the best plan
a lion's share of the trade. Yet it may not in-
Leaning on dealers
Those are facts to find out. Try one town
e cannot depend much in most lines on the
in one way, one in another. Compare total
active help of jobbers or of dealers. They are
sales in those towns. In many lines such tests
busy. They have many lines to consider. The
will show that costly displays are worthless.
profit on advertised lines is not generally
A growing number of experienced advertisers
large. And an advertised article is apt to be
This is all in line of general publicity, so
do. He exerts himself on brands of his own, if
waters and hoping for its return. Most adver-
tising was of that sort twenty years ago.
The dealer will often try to make youthink otherwise. He will ask some aid or con-
Now we put things to the test. We com-pare cost and result on every form of expen-
cession on the ground of extra effort. Adver-
diture. It is very easily done. Very many
tisers often give extra discounts. Or they
costly wastes are eliminated by this modern
make loading offers - perhaps one case free
in ten - in the belief that loaded dealers willmake extra efforts.
Scientific advertising has altered many oldplans and conceptions. It has proved many
This may be so on rare lines, but not gen-
long-established methods to be folly. And
erally. And the efforts if made do not usually
why should we not apply to these things the
increase the total sales. They merely swing
same criterion we apply to other forms of
Your object in all advertising is to buy
making a convert does not count for much.
new customers at a price, which pays a profit.
Sales made by conviction - by advertising -
You have no interest in garnering trade at any
are likely to bring permanent customers.
particular store. Learn what your consumers
cost and what they buy. If they cost you one
dations do not often stick. Next time some-
dollar each, figure that every wasted dollar
Revenue, which belongs to the advertiser,
Your business will be built in that way,
is often given away without adequate return.
These discounts and gifts could be far better
selling, make your own success. Be content if
dealers fill the orders that you bring. Elimi-
Free goods must be sold, and by your own
nate your wastes. Spend all your ammunition
means that advertising must sell ten per centmore to bring you the same return. The dealerwould probably buy just as much if you lethim buy as convenient.
Much money is often frittered away onother forms of dealer help. Perhaps on win-dow or store displays. A window display,acting as a reminder, may bring to one dealer
build on that acquaintance rather than intro-duce a stranger. People do not know us by
A person who desires to make an impression
name alone, but by looks and mannerisms.
must stand out in some way. Being eccentric,
being abnormal is not a distinction to covet.
But doing admirable things in a different way
salesmanship is made to order. That our ap-
So with salesman, in person or in print.
peals are created, studied, artificial. They
must seem to come from the heart, and the
same heart always, save where a wrong tack
uniqueness, which enhances, which we wel-
come and remember. Fortunate is the sales-
There are winning personalities in ads as
well as people. To some we are glad to listen,
We try to give each advertiser a becoming
others bore us. Some are refreshing, some
style. We make him distinctive, perhaps not
in appearance, but in manner and in tone. He
is given an individuality best suited to the
To create the right individuality is a su-
preme accomplishment. Then an advertiser's
growing reputation on that line brings him
line where rugged honesty counts. One may
ever-increasing prestige. Never weary of that
be a good fellow where choice is a matter of
part. Remember that a change in our charac-
favour. In other lines the man stands out by
teristics would compel our best friends to get
We have already cited a case where awoman made a great success in sellingclothing to girls, solely through a created per-sonality, which won.
That's why we have signed ads sometimes- to give them a personal authority. A man istalking - a man who takes pride in his ac-complishments - not a "soulless corporation."Whenever possible we introduce a personal-ity into our ads. By making a man famous wemake his product famous. When we claim animprovement, naming the man who made itadds effect.
Then we take care not to change an indi-viduality which has proved appealing. Beforea man writes a new ad on that line, he getsinto the spirit adopted by the advertiser. Heplays a part as an actor plays it.
In successful advertising great pains aretaken to never change our tone. That whichwon so many is probably the best way to win
The "Before and after taking" ads are fol-
lies of the past. They never had a place savewith the afflicted. Never let their memory
To attack a rival is never good advertising.
lead you to picture the gloomy side of things.
Don't point out others' faults. It is not per-mitted in the best mediums. It is never goodpolicy. The selfish purpose is apparent. Itlooks unfair, not sporty. If you abhor knock-ers, always appear a good fellow.
Show a bright side, the happy and attrac-tive side, and not the dark and uninviting sideof things. Show beauty, not homeliness;health, not sickness. Don't show the wrinklesyou propose to remove, but the face as it willappear. Your customers know all about thewrinkles.
In advertising a dentifrice, show prettyteeth, not bad teeth. Talk of coming goodconditions, not conditions that exist. In ad-vertising clothes, picture well-dressed people,not the shabby. Picture successful men, notfailures, when you advertise a businesscourse. Picture what others wish to be notwhat they may be now.
We are attracted by sunshine, beauty,happiness, health, and success. Then pointthe way to them, not the way out of the oppo-site.
Picture envied people, not the envious.
Tell people what to do not what to avoid.
Make your every ad breath good cheer.
We always dodge a Lugubrious Blue.
Assume that people will do what you ask.
Say, "Send now for this sample. "Don't say,"Why do you neglect this offer?" That sug-gests that people are neglecting. Invite themto follow the crowd.
Compare the results of two ads, one nega-tive, and one positive. One presenting thedark side, one the bright side. One warning,the other inviting. You will be surprised. Youwill find that the positive ad out pulls theother four to one, if you have our experience.
Just as men are doing now in all scientific
Mail order advertisers do likewise. They
his is another phase of advertising which all
test their letters as they test their ads. A gen-
of us have to consider. It enters, or should
eral letter is never used until it proves itself
enter, into all campaigns. Every businessman
receives a large number of circular letters.
Most of them go direct to the wastebasket.
Letter writing has much to do with adver-
But he acts on others, and others are filed for
tising. Letters to inquirers, follow-up letters.
Wherever possible they should be tested.
Where that is not possible, they should be
Analyse those letters. The ones you act on
or the ones you keep have a headline, whichattracted your interest. At a glance they offer
We find the same difference in letters as
something that you want, something you may
in ads. Some get action, some do not. Some
complete a sale; some forfeit the impressiongained. These are letters, going usually to
Remember that point in all advertising.
year. Every letter, every circular, which
comes to his desk, gets its deserved attention.
cent letter gets no more attention than a one-
He wants information on the lines he buys.
cent letter. Fine stationary no more than poorstationery. The whole appeal lies in the mat-
minute a score of letters may drop into thewastebasket. Then one is laid aside. That is
A letter, which goes to an inquirer, is like
something to consider at once. Another is
a salesman going to an interested prospect.
filed under the heading "Varnish." And later
You know what created that interest. Then
when he buys varnish that letter will turn up.
follow it up along that line, not on some dif-ferent argument. Complete the impression
That buyer won several prizes by articles
on good buying. His articles were based on
information. Yet the great masses of matterwhich came to him never got more than a
Do something if possible to get immediate
action. Offer some inducement for it. Or tellwhat delay may cost. Note how many suc-
The same principles apply to all advertis-
cessful selling letters place a limit on an of-
ing. Letter writers overlook them just as ad-
fer. It expires on a certain date. That is all
vertisers do. They fail to get the right atten-
done to get prompt decision, to overcome the
tion. They fail to tell what buyers wish to
One magazine sends out millions of letters
logue. The inquirer might send for three or
annually. Some to get subscriptions, some to
four similar catalogues. He had that competi-
sell books. Before the publisher sends out
five million letters he puts a few thousands totest. He may try twenty-five letters, each with
a thousand prospects. He learns what results
catalogue, and enclosed a personal card. He
will cost. Perhaps the plan is abandoned be-
said, "You are a new customer, and we want
cause it appears unprofitable. If not, the let-
ter, which pays best, is the letter that he uses.
writer wants to see that you get a gift with theorder - something you can keep."
With an old customer he gave some otherreason for the gift. The offer aroused curios-ity. It gave preference to his catalogue. With-out some compelling reason for orderingelsewhere, the woman sent the order to him.
The gift paid for itself several times over bybringing larger sales per catalogue.
The ways for getting action are many.
Rarely can one way be applied to two lines.
But the principles are universal. Strike whilethe iron is hot. Get a decision then. Have itfollowed by prompt action when you can.
You can afford to pay for prompt actionrather than lose by delay. One advertiser in-duced hundreds of thousands of women tobuy six packages of his product and send himthe trademarks, to secure a premium offergood only for one week.
shared it because they could use the name.
A name that helps
The originators depended only on a brand. Itis interesting to speculate on how much more
There is great advantage in a name that tells
profitable a coined name might have been.
a story. The name is usually prominently dis-
played. To justify the space it occupies, it
bered that the right to a name expires with
should aid the advertising. Some such names
that patent. Names like Castoria, Aspirin,
are almost complete advertisements in them-
Shredded Wheat Biscuit, etc., have become
selves. May Breath is such a name. Cream of
Wheat is another. That name alone has beenworth a fortune. Other examples are Dutch
This is a very serious point to consider. It
often makes a patent an undesirable protec-
Tapioca, 3-in-One Oil, Holeproof, Alcorub,
Another serious fault in coined names is
frivolity. In seeking uniqueness one gets
name itself describes the product, so it makes
something trivial. And that is a fatal handicap
in a serious product. It almost prohibits re-spect.
Other coined names are meaningless.
Some examples are Kodak, Karo, Sapolio,
Vaseline, Kotex, Lux, Postum, etc. They can
mon name, the best auxiliary name is a man's
be protected, and long-continued advertising
name. It is much better than a coined name,
may give them a meaning. When this is ac-
for it shows that some man is proud of his
complished they become very valuable. But
the great majority of them never attain status.
Thus the question of a name is of serious
Such names do not aid the advertising. It
importance in laying the foundations of a
is very doubtful that they justify display. The
service of the product, not the name, is the
the chief factors in success. Some have lost
important thing in advertising. A vast amount
for their originators four-fifths of the trade
of space is wasted in displaying names and
pictures, which tell no selling story. The ten-dency of modern advertising is to eliminatewaste.
Other coined names signify ingredients,which anyone may use. Examples are Syrupof Figs, Coconut Oil Shampoo, Tar Soap,Palmolive Soap, etc.
Such products may dominate a market ifthe price is reasonable, but they must to a de-gree meet competition. They invite substitu-tion. They are naturally classified with otherproducts, which have like ingredients, so theprice must remain in that class.
Toasted Corn Flakes and Malted Milk areexamples of unfortunate names. In each ofthose cases one advertiser created a new de-mand. When the demand was created, others
offer to pay five dollars to anyone who writes
you that he read the ad through. The scarcityof replies will amaze you."
A rapid stream ran by the writer's boyhood
Think what a confession - that millions of
dollars are being spent without knowledge of
and the wheel ran a mill. Under that primitive
results. Such a policy applied to all factors in
method, all but a fraction of the stream's po-
a business would bring ruin short order.
You see other ads, which you may not like
as well. They may seem crowded or verbose.
to that stream - put in a turbine and dynamos.
They are not attractive to you, for you are
Now, with no more water, no more power, it
entertain. But you will note that those ads are
keyed. The probability is that out of scores of
wasted advertising power. And we see it eve-
traced ads the type, which you see, has paid
potentialities - millions of circulation - used
Many other ads, which are not keyed now,
to turn a mill wheel. While other use that
were keyed at the beginning. They are based
scale before they ever ran on large scale.
year which we know to be unprofitable. Men
Those advertisers are utilising their enormous
spending five dollars to do what one-dollar
might do. Men getting back 30 per cent of
Advertising is prima facie evidence that
their cost when they might get 150 per cent.
the man who pays believes that advertising is
And the facts could be easily proved.
good. It has brought great results to others; it
must be good for him. So he takes it like
concepts, and entertainment. Costly pages
filled with palaver which, if employed by
dorsed. If the business thrives, the tonic gets
salesman, would reflect on his sanity. But
credit. Otherwise, the failure is due to fate.
is spent blindly, merely to satisfy some ad-
storekeeper who inserts a twenty-dollar ad
knows whether it pays or not. Every line of a
big store's ad is charged to the proper de-
advertiser has little or no idea of his adver-
partment. And every inch used must the next
through many efforts combined, and adver-
tising is given its share of the credit.
without justification. It is merely presumed to
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CHAPITRE 5 PROBLÈMES ÉVOLUTIFS La découverte de mutations capables de prolonger la vie des animaux a posé des problèmes aux évolutionnistes, qui pouvaient difficilement admettre que l’activité d’un gène puisse avoir pour effet de réduire la longévité, donc d’abaisser le potentiel reproductif des animaux. Pourtant, la liste des gènes dont les produits tendent à