Explanation of blood tests_new logo:layout 1.qxd
CBC (COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT):
• WBC (WHITE BLOOD CELLS)
are also called
leukocytes. Their function is to assist the body in
overcoming infections. A white count of less than 3,000
(3.0x10³) or greater than 12,000 (12.0x10³) may be
significant and should be reported to your doctor.
• RBC (RED BLOOD CELLS)
or erythrocytes carry
hemoglobin. The red blood cell count is an actual count of
the number of red cells per cubic millimeter of blood.
is the main constituent of red blood
cells. It carries oxygen to every cell of the body and
returns carbon dioxide to the lungs. Low hemoglobin may
indicate anemia. High hemoglobin may also be significant
and should be reported to your doctor.
is a number that tells the percent of red
cells as compared to the volume of plasma in a milliliter
• MCV, MCH, MCHC AND RDW-SD
calculations of red cells that measure the volume of the
red cells, the weight of hemoglobin in a red cell, the
average hemoglobin concentration in red cells and the size
distribution of the red cells.
are tiny cells whose functions are to
assist in blood clotting and to help maintain damaged
blood vessels. A platelet count of less than 50,000
(50x10³) or greater than 500,000 (500x10³) should be
reported to your doctor.
is a numerical indicator of the type of
white cells that are present in blood. There are usually
more neutrophils than any other cell type.
• Neutrophils assist the body in fighting bacterial
• Lymphocytes are the second most common type of
white blood cell. They help the body make antibodies and fight viral infections.
• Monocytes help the body produce antibodies.They
also assist neutrophils and lymphocytes in carrying out their functions.
• Eosinophils and Basophils are usually present in
small number and are not clinically significant unless extremely elevated.
Copyright 2007 Physicians Laboratory Services
BUN (BLOOD UREA NITROGEN)
is a waste
activity. Your doctor should evaluate any elevated
product produced in the liver and excreted by the
kidneys. High values may mean that kidney function is
The following explanation of tests is provided as a
decreased. BUN is also affected by high protein diets
are elements found in the body.
guideline for interpreting results of commonly ordered
and/or strenuous exercise, which raise levels, and by
The electrolytes include SODIUM, POTASSIUM, and
CHLORIDE. The kidneys control potassium levels verycarefully. It is important for proper functioning of
This information is to help you understand your blood
is a waste product not affected by the
nerves and muscles, particularly the heart. Values
protein you eat. It’s a very good indicator of kidney
outside the expected ranges, high or low, generally
function. High values, especially with high BUN levels,
require medical evaluation. This is especially important
Abnormal values may be the result of several factors
require medical evaluation. Low values are not significant.
if you are taking a diuretic (water pill) or heart pill
and do not always indicate the presence of any disease.
is normally excreted in urine. High values
should be evaluated by your doctor and are associated
ALBUMIN & GLOBULIN
measure the amount and
a) You may have eaten during the overnight fast
with gout, arthritis, kidney problems and use of some
type of protein in your blood. They are a general index
b) medications you are taking (if any) are interfering
diuretics. Low values are probably not significant.
of overall health and nutrition. Globulin is the
is a pigment produced as a result of the
“antibody” protein important for fighting disease. If one
c) you are normally not within standard ranges, or
normal breakdown and recycling of red blood cells and
of these results is high, but all other values are within
d) there was a delay in processing your sample.
is removed from the blood by the liver. Low values are
expected ranges, it is probably not significant.
of no concern. If levels are elevated above the expected
CONSULT YOUR DOCTOR WITH ANY
CHOLESTEROL & TRIGLYCERIDES
are two of
ranges, but all enzymes (LD, AST, ALT) are within
QUESTIONS ABOUT THE RESULTS
the fats in the blood that have been associated with heart
expected ranges, it is probably not significant.
OF ANY LAB TEST.
disease in some people. Triglyceride values are
is an enzyme found
significantly affected by recent ingestion of food.
YOUR PHYSICIAN MAY WANT YOU TO
primarily in bones and the liver. Expected values are
However, even if you just ate and your cholesterol is
SCHEDULE AN APPOINTMENT FOR
high for those who are growing (children and pregnant
over 330 or your triglyceride result is higher than 500,
women) or when damage to bones or liver has occurred.
consult your doctor. Low values for these fats are not
Low values are probably not significant.
important in the screening situation. The AmericanHeart Association recommends cholesterol levels be
It is not possible to diagnose or treat any disease or
is an enzyme present in all cells in the body.
below 200 for individuals of all ages.
problem with blood tests alone. The tests can help you
Anything that damages cells, including blood drawing
learn more about your body and help detect potential
itself, will raise levels in the blood. If your blood
HDL & LDL
are abbreviations for lipoproteins. These
problems in early stages when treatment or lifestyle
sample is not processed promptly and properly, high
lipoproteins help predict the risk of developing
levels may occur. If all values except LD are within
coronary heart disease (CHD). High levels of HDL may
expected ranges, it is probably a processing variation
Non-prescription drugs (aspirin, cold medication,
and does not require further evaluation.
vitamins), prescription drugs and alcohol intake often
TSH (THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE)
affect test results. Your doctor must have a complete
AST & ALT
are abbreviations for proteins called
stimulates the thyroid gland to synthesize and secrete
and honest picture of your use of medications in order
enzymes that help control chemical activities within
to effectively interpret the results of your blood tests.
cells. They’re found in muscle cells, liver cells and heart
hyperthyroidism the TSH will be low. In primary
To save time and money, please inform your physician
muscle cells. Any injury to these cells causes the release of
hypothyroidism TSH will be elevated.
of these factors in the initial visit.
these enzymes into the blood. Damage from alcohol and
PSA (PROSTATE SPECIFIC ANTIGEN)
a number of diseases cause high values and should be
is a measure of sugar levels in the blood.
evaluated by your doctor. Low values are not significant.
glycoprotein produced by the prostate gland, the lining
High values may be due to recent food intake or
of the urethra, and the bulbourethral gland. Normally
diabetes. If your value is over 200, even if you had
CALCIUM & PHOSPHORUS
levels are controlled
very little PSA is secreted into the blood. Increases in
recently eaten, consult your doctor. If you know you
by the parathyroid glands and the kidneys. These
glandular size and tissue damage caused by benign
have diabetes it is important to report an elevated sugar
minerals are found mostly in bone but are also
prostatic hypertrophy, prostatitis, and/or prostate
important for proper blood clotting, nerve and cell
cancer may increase circulating PSA levels.
AK and the Histamine Problem Wolfgang F. Gerz, M.D., DIBAK Abstract One of the most important screening tests in Applied Kinesiology (AK) since the mid-eighties has been the testing with histamine 12X or the actual amino acid histidine to identify the “Histamine Allergy” (Schmitt;1, 2, 3 Lebowitz4). This screening has been very successfully used in the nineties in the German speakin
Legal and Ethical Issues for Chaplains A paper delivered at the National Conference for Sports and Leisure Ministries, Melbourne, Australia, August 20, 2003 John Roebig, BA, MLitt, PhD(cand) INTRODUCTION No doubt you have heard or read about Personal injury litigation recently in the press. I have Been Told that N.S.W. is the litigation capital of Australia. In fact it was