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Diabetes mellitus - 12

Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is characterized by abnormal sugar metabolism causing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Chronichyperglycemia adversely affects the body. In the vascular system, there can be events such as strokes and heart attackscaused by atherosclerosis. There can also be renal disease, peripheral neuropathy, and blindness. In the United States,DM is a leading cause of end stage kidney disease, leg amputations, and blindness.
Blood sugar enters cells via the action of insulin, which is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Factorsthat contribute to hyperglycemia include reduced insulin secretion, decreased blood sugar (glucose) usage by the body, orincreased glucose production. Type 1 diabetes formerly called juvenile-onset or insulin dependent (IDDM), has a peak age at onset of 12 years old. It
is unusual to begin after age 40. Type 1 DM is due to beta cell destruction so that no insulin is produced and must be
replaced by insulin injections. Symptoms include excessive thirst, excessive urination, and weight loss.
Type 2 diabetes was formerly called adult-onset or noninsulin dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized by 1) variable
degrees of resistance to the action of insulin, 2) impaired insulin secretion by the beta cells, or 3) impaired glucose
production. Type 2 DM usually develops over the age of 30, but its incidence is increasing in children and adolescents,
especially those who are obese. (Eighty percent of Type 2 patients are obese. Many have excessive thirst or urination, but
most have no symptoms. Type 2 may also require insulin in the later stages.) Type 2 is initially treated with diet and
exercise. If decreased calorie intake and increased exercise does not result in blood glucose control, oral medication is
added. Some oral medications include: sulfonylureas, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, thiazolidinedione, metformin, and
repaglinide. Risk factors for the development of NIDDM are older age, obesity, positive family history and history of
gestational diabetes.
Secondary diabetes can result from pancreatic disease, hormonal syndromes (Cushing’s syndrome), drug-induced disease
(thiazide diuretics, steroids, phenytoin) or those associated with syndromes such as hemochromatosis and acromegaly.
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) are also termed subclinical or borderline diabetes.
Patients generally have no symptoms. Many go on to develop diabetes. There is an increased risk of cardiovascular
disease.
Gestational diabetes is diagnosed when glucose intolerance is discovered during a pregnancy. It is associated with
increased perinatal complications. Risk factors for the development of gestational diabetes are older age, overweight,
previous large or stillborn babies, or positive family history of diabetes. Women with a history of gestational diabetes have
an increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes (as high as 50% within 10 years and 70% within 20 years).
This material is intended for insurance informational purposes only and is not personal medical advice for clients. This marketing material includes an expiration date and use of this material must be discontinued as of the expiration date. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR USE WITH THE PUBLIC.
2006 The Prudential Insurance Company of America 751 Broad Street, Newark, NJ 07102-3777Rx012 IFS-A005228 Ed. 08/06 Exp. 02/08 Diagnostic Criteria for Diabetes
• Fasting blood glucose: 2 readings greater than or equal to 126 mg/dl • A positive 100 gram glucose tolerance test for pregnant women to screen for gestational diabetes.
Other laboratory studies used to monitor diabetes include glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fructosamine. HbA1c gives an indication of glucose control over the preceding 60 days, and fructosamine (glycosylated protein) measures glucose control over a 20-day time span.
Diabetes is a progressive disease which can be slowed by meticulous control of blood sugar, weight control and exercise.
Diabetes control is monitored by testing glycosylated hemoglobin in the blood and by home monitoring of blood sugar.
Normal glycosylated hemoglobin is a value of < 6 (though range of normal varies among testing laboratories). The goal for known diabetes is <7. Glycosylated hemoglobin over >8 is evidence of poor control.
Rating for diabetes mellitus depends on 1) age at onset 2) years since diagnosis, 3) control of the diabetes, and 4) presence of complications. Ratings increase with younger ages, longer time since onset, poor control and complications.
Table for Diabetes Mellitus (based on age and duration)
Age at Issue
0-7 years
8.0–14 years
15- 20 years
Over 20 years
Prudential has a number of best case scenarios available. Please see Rx for Success on Diabetes Mellitus Controlled for more details on diabetes control and best case scenarios.
You may also consider reviewing other Rx for Success topics such as Diabetes Mellitus Complications or Older Age To get an idea of how a client with a history of diabetes would be viewed in the underwriting process, please feel free to use the attached Ask “Rx” pert underwriter for an informal quote. This material is intended for insurance informational purposes only and is not personal medical advice for clients. This marketing material includes an expiration date and use of this material must be discontinued as of the expiration date. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR USE WITH THE PUBLIC.
2006 The Prudential Insurance Company of America751 Broad Street, Newark, NJ 07102-3777Rx012 IFS-A005228 Ed. 08/06 Exp. 02/08 Diabetes Mellitus - Ask "Rx" pert underwriter
(ask our experts)
Producer ____________________________________________ Phone ___________________ Fax ______________________ Client ______________________________________________ Age/DOB _________________ Sex ______________________ If your client has diabetes, please answer the following: 1. Please list date when first diagnosed: ______________________________________________________________________ 2. How often does your client visit their physician? (also note date of last visit) ___________________________________ 3. The client's diabetes is controlled by ■ diet alone■ oral medication _______________________ (medication & doses)■ insulin ______________________________ (amount of units/day) 4. Is your client on any other medications? ■ yes, please give details _________________________________________________________________________■ no 5. Please give the most recent blood sugar reading ____________________________________________________________ 6. Does your client monitor their own blood sugar? __________________________________ 7. If available, please give the most recent glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) or fructosamine level _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Please check if your client has had any of the following: ■ chest pain or coronary artery disease 9. Has your client smoked cigarettes in the last 12 months? 10. Does your client have any other major health problems (ex: cancer, etc.)? ■ yes, please give details _________________________________________________________________________■ no After reading the Rx for Success on Diabetes Mellitus Classification, please feel free to use this Ask “Rx” pert underwriter for an informal quote. This material is intended for insurance informational purposes only and is not personal medical advice for clients.
This marketing material includes an expiration date and use of this material must be discontinued as of the expiration date. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR USE WITH THE PUBLIC.
2006 The Prudential Insurance Company of America751 Broad Street, Newark, NJ 07102-3777Rx012 IFS-A005228 Ed. 08/06 Exp. 02/08

Source: http://tools.insper.com/doclib/files/INSPER/40805/Pru%20Diabetes%20Mellitus.pdf

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