8. Explain, in your own words, the term "transition
10. "Natural vegetation is usually quite different from
zone." Give an example and explain why this vege-
plants which people cultivate for food or for use in in-
tation region is a transition zone.
dustry." Explain the differences.
ANSWER: Answers will vary, but should include the ANSWER: Answers will var y, but should include the • A transition zone is an area where the natural • Natural vegetation seeds itself naturally in the wild; vegetation of one region gradually changes into the cultivated plants are artificially germinated, and often ANSWERS/RESOURCE LIST
begin life in the controlled conditions of a greenhouse. • A transition zone is the line on a map that shows the • Natural vegetation has not been subject to DNA boundary between one vegetation region and an engineering; many cultivated plants have been other, but does not indicate an abrupt change in the genetically engineered to make them more colourful, while the smaller particles of clay prevent rapid drainage. A • A large transition zone is considered to be a • Unlike cultivated plants, natural vegetation is neither Student Book Questions, pp. 155-156 well-balanced mixture of both allows the soil to hold fertilized nor sprayed to control insects and weeds. moisture, and at the same time allows water to pass • A transition zone is the area where the climate and • Unlike cultivated plants, the land on which natural through at a rate moderate enough to allow plants to take soil conditions of one region begin to change into the CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
climate and soil conditions of another region. Example • Natural vegetation consists of a mixture of many 1. Describe the four components that make up a true soil.
and explanation: An example of a transition zone is the different species of plants and trees growing together, ANSWER: (pp. 145–146) The four components of a true 4. Explain the difference between leaching and calcifi-
Mixed forest vegetation region. This region is located all of which compete for space, light, moisture, and soil are minerals, bacteria and organic materials, air, and between the Boreal and Taiga forest region and the nutrients; only one species of cultivated plant is grown Deciduous forest region. The Mixed forest vegetation in a particular field at any given time, which eliminates • Minerals, w hich come from rock, become part of the soil • Leaching occurs in areas of high precipitation region is a transition zone because it has the same type competition from any other plant species for survival. when the rock is broken down into smaller particles (creating wet-climate soils); calcification occurs in dry of natural vegetation, namely coniferous and deciduous called sand, silt, or clay. Many of these minerals (e.g., climates areas (creating dry-climate soils). forests, as the two regions that border it In the northern 11. Copy Fig. 13-18 into your notebook. Complete the
calcium, phosphorous, and potassium) provide • The leaching process is a downward movement of part of the region the climate is similar to that of the chart using the information in this chapter.
water through the soil; the calcification process is an Boreal and Taiga forest, while in the southern part of the • When organic materials, i.e., plants and animals, die, upward movement of water through the soil. region the climate is similar to that of the Deciduous for- they are decomposed by bacteria in the soil. As bacteria • As leaching occurs, water dissolves the chemical est. The soil in northern parts of this transition zone is break down these organic materials, humus is formed. nutrients and carries them downward; as calcification similar to the leached, infertile soil of the Boreal and Taiga Vegetation
Temperature Precipitation Soil
Humus provides nutrients and moisture for plants, and occurs, water evaporates, leaving behind the minerals forest; in southern parts, it resembles the soil of the Character -
Character -
Character -
Plants need air around their roots. Humus helps • Leaching removes nutrients in the soil that plants produce air in the soil because the loose, decaying need to survive; calcification builds up nutrients and ANALYZE AND APPLY
materials allow for many air pockets. Insects, worms, minerals in the upper portion of the soil. and small animals that tunnel through the soil also • Excessive leaching results in a poor, often thin, topsoil 9. Fig. 13-17 shows the relationship between precipita-
layer; excessive calcification results in a layer of tion and soil fertility in temperate latitudes. Copy the
Moisture, i.e., water, dissolves nutrients in the soil and mineral deposits that is poisonous to plants. graph in your notebook, and mark the following on it:
is taken up by plants through their roots. Moisture is a) a brown prairie soil
In your own words, explain the meaning of the term
necessary for plant survival and for the chemical and b) a lightly leached soil
"natural vegetation."
physical processes that weather rock and decay c) a black prairie soil
ANSWER: (p. 149) Natural vegetation refers to plants and d) a heavily leached soil
trees that grow without any human interference. e) the boundary between wet-climate and dry-
2. a) How is topsoil formed?
There are two classes of trees. Which one can survive
climate soils
ANSWER: (pp. 145–146) Topsoil is formed very slowly a harsher climate? Why?
as dead plants, leaves, and animals are decomposed ANSWER: (p. 151, see Fig. 13-9 caption) Coniferous trees by bacteria. The decaying organic materials form can survive in a harsher (colder) climate because they have humus, which gives the topsoil its dark colour. b) How long has it taken to form topsoil in Canada?
• Long roots are able to extract nutrients from the Dry climate
and Taiga
ANSWER: (p. 146) It has taken 6000 to 10 000 years to form 15-25 cm of topsoil in Canada. This is how long it • Sticky sap prevents the needles from freezing. • Waxy needles and thick bark prevent a loss of c) Why does the topsoil differ in thickness in different
The needles and flexible branches easily shed snow parts of Canada?
ANSWER: (pp. 147–148, 153–154) The creation of top- • The needles can conduct photosynthesis on warm soil is related to the influence of climate, which in turn affects the amount of vegetation in a given area. In cold climates where there is little vegetation, humus does 7. Name the Canadian vegetation region which:
not build up, and the topsoil remains thin. In warm a) is the largest
climates where there is more vegetation, the humus ANSWER: (p. 148) the Boreal and Taiga forest region builds up from greater amounts of decaying plants, b) is the smallest
leaves, and wood. This results in a thicker, richer topsoil. ANSWER: (p. 148) the Deciduous forest region c) is the wettest
3. Why is the size of rock particles important to soil
ANSWER: (p. 148) the West Coast forest region structure?
d) is the coldest
ANSWER: (p. 146, see margin) The larger rock particles of sand allow rain water to drain quickly through the soil, Chapter 13: Soil and Natural Vegetation Connections Answers/Resource List Chapter 13: Soil and Natural Vegetation Connections Answers/Resource List Vegetation
Temperature Precipitation Soil
Vegetation Types of
Temperature Precipitation Soil
12. a) Using Fig. 13-5 and 12-21, p. 143, match each
and wet, and encourages the growth of deciduous and Character-
vegetation region to the corresponding climate
coniferous trees. The dry climate of the Prairies does not Vegetation
encourage the growth of trees, but the grass grows abun - dantly. North of the Prairies, the Boreal and Taiga forest region has climate conditions that are harsher than those in • parkland
the Mixed forest and Grassland regions. These conditions Vegetation Region Corresponding Climate Regions
prevent deciduous trees from growing, but the coniferous trees still survive. Farther north, where temperatures are even colder, the coniferous trees begin to thin out, until they gradually disappear. Above the tree line is the Tundra where only small shrubs, moss, and lichen grow close to the ground, between patches of bare rock. In Arctic areas of the Tundra, there is nothing but snow and ice. Boreal and Taiga forest Boreal, Taiga, and Atlantic Maritime English as a Second Language Activity, TSP Cordilleran • vegetation
A . 1 . G ; 2 . D ; 3 . J ; 4 . F ; 5 . K ; 6 . H ; 7 A ; 8 . B ; 9 . E ; 1 0 . I Deciduous
Vegetation varies greatly
B. 1. infertile; 2. plentiful; 3. leached; 4. lush; 5. mild; 6. natural; 7 moist; 8. coniferous; 9. evaporates; 10. b) The mixed forest and the deciduous forest regions
are found in the same climate region. Explain how
two vegetation regions can both occur in the same
climate region.
the east side of get colder with lower slopes ANSWER: In the Southeastern climate region, the summers are relatively long and hot, the winters cool, and the precipitation plentiful. These conditions are Books and Booklets
ideal for deciduous trees, e.g., maple, beech, hickory, Attenborough, David. The Living Planet. Boston: Little, ash, and black walnut, because they need at least five months of warm weather to store up energy in their roots and trunk to survive the winter. Coniferous trees Bastedo, Jamie. Reaching North: A Celebration of the Subarctic. also find the conditions of the Southeastern climate Red Deer, Alta.: Red Deer College Press, 1998. ISBN ideal. They can survive the warm summers, and thrive on the abundant precipitation.They can withstand the relatively mild winters because they have characteristics Colpitts, Mark C. Forest Soils of New Brunswick. Ottawa: that enable them to survive in the harsh, northern con- Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, ditions of the Boreal and Taiga climate. We therefore find deciduous trees from the Mixed and Deciduous for- Grassland
est regions, and coniferous trees from the Mixed forest Eastern Canadian Boreal and Sub-arctic Wetlands: A Resource short
region, throughout the Southeastern climate region. Document. Ottawa: Environment Canada, Atmospheric 13. "If you climb up a mountain, you will find a similar
Environment Service, 1991. ISBN 0662184734 sequence of vegetation to that you would find if you
travelled from southern Canada to the high Arctic."
Lawford, Richard G., Paul Alaback, Eduardo Fuentes, eds. Explain why this is a valid statement.
High-Latitude Rainforests and Associated Ecosystems of the ANSWER: Answers will vary, but the explanation should be in a logical form similar to the following answer. As West Coast of the Americas: Climate, Hydrology, Ecology, you climb up a mountain, the temperature and Conservation. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1996. decreases. With every increase in altitude, the air becomes colder. The change in the mountains climate has a direct West Coast • temperate
effect on the type of vegetation growing up the mountain Ruitenberg, Arie A., and Clay Douglas, eds. Geology, Soils side. The warmer temperatures at the bottom encourage the growth of deciduous and coniferous trees and abundant and Climate of Fundy National Park and Its Greater Ecosystem: the Effects on Vegetation. Alma, NB: groundcover in the form of grass, small plants, and shrubs. Higher up, the deciduous trees start to disappear because Department of Canadian Heritage, Fundy National they cannot survive the colder temperatures. As the climate becomes even colder, the groundcover and shrubs begin to disappear. The coniferous trees begin to thin out, and gradu- Shields, J.A. et al. Soil Landscapes of Canada: Procedures, ally disappear. All that remains is moss, and very small Manual and User's Handbook. Ottawa: Agriculture plants growing between patches of bare rock. A snow cap sits on the very top of the mountain all year. As you travel from southern Canada to the high Arctic, Sims, R.A. Forest Site Classification iii Canada: A Current the climate becomes colder. It affects the vegetation in the same way that an increasingly colder climate affects the Perspective. Ottawa: Forestry Canada, Science and vegetation growing up a mountain side. The weather in the Sustainable Development Directorate, 1992. F042- Southeastern climate region of southern Canada is warm Chapter 13: Soil and. Natural Vegetation Connections Answers/Resource List Chapter 13: Soil and Natural Vegetation Connections Answers/Resource List

Source: http://teachers.wrdsb.ca/samsun/files/2012/12/Chapter-13.pdf


ARÊTE DE SAINT MARTIN DE L'ARÇON Caractéristiques : Éloignement : 1h30. Distance : 85 km. Amplitude : 9 h 00. Intérêt : 3*. Niveau : 3+. Longueur: 7,5 km. Durée : 6 h (pauses comprises). Altitude mini : 270 m. Altitude maxi : 1060 m. Dénivelé brut : 790 m. Dénivelé cumulé : 835 m Difficultés: Pas de balisage; quelques cairns; nécessité de posséder un b


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