1. General description
Laser Renovation Of Monuments And Art Works
The Main Aim Is To Design, Investigate And Develop Laser Systems And Technologies ForThe Restoration Of Monuments, And Art Works, Environmentally-Friendly Methods For TheFast And Precise Treatment Of Objects.
Inst. Of Optoelectronics, Military
University Of Technology
Laser Zentrum Hannover E.V. (Lzh)
Structures And Lasers(Iesl)Ljubljana University/Chemistry &
Chemical Technology FacultyDeptartment Of Analytical ChemistryBam - Laboratory For Thin Film
Technology Bundesanstalt FuerMaterialforschung Und PreufungNat. & Univ.Library Of
National Institute For Laser, Plasma And Romania
Radiation Physics Laser DepartmentP.T.H. Kolt S.A.
Conservation/Restoration Of Works OfArtS.C. Optoelectronica 2001 S.A.
2. Project outline
The main aim of the project is the design, development and investigation of laser systems and technologiesfor the restoration of monuments and art works. Under development will be also diagnostic techniques ofmonuments, ancient buildings and art works, based on spectroscopic analysis of laser evaporatedmicroparticles of investigated samples, non-destructive surface testing using low power lasers andultrasounds as well as visual inspection of object surface structure with endoscopes (borescopes). The baseof developed systems will be 'ReNoVaLaser', solid-state Nd:YAG laser system (with II, III and IV harmonicsof fundamental 1.06 microns wavelength) developed in IOE MUT (main participant) as well as differentsources of radiation developed in other participating research centres.
Particular objectives are as follows:1. Development of devices and techniques for the renovation of wide scale antiques depending on material(organic and inorganic) of surface/ substrate, kind, age and dimension of pollutants to be removed.
2. Development of the base of the laser and opto-electronic diagnostic for monuments, historical buildingsand art works.
3. Development of integrated systems able to control the amount of ablated materials, evaluating the surfacereflectivity and/ or absorption and measuring the ablation depth with an opto-electronic system (non-organicbase materials).
4. Development of a database collecting the known results regarding the efficiency and limits of various laserbased techniques used in artwork restoration.
5. Employment and technique development of a handheld fibre laser output source for high precisiontreatments of 3D-objects and a remote computer-controlled high-precision prototype laser cleaning system.
The main advantages of the laser technologies for the surface renovation of priceless works are theirefficiency connected with no risk of mechanical or chemical damage, environmental protection as well asselectivity in acting only on the definite parts of the objects. The ease of displacement of a laser system orlaser beam is also essential.
The restoration and art history expert partners will define and select samples and objects for whichconventional renovation techniques appear difficult, inefficient or impossible. The laser technology andindustrial partners will demonstrate all the advantages of contact-less laser cleaning and will develop new oradapt existing methods of object diagnosis and control of the laser-material interaction.
Keywords: laser renovation, Nd:YAG laser, art works.
1. Optimization and modification of the current lasersource:- increasing the frequency conversion efficiency for II,III and IV harmonics of fundamental Nd:YAG laser sourcewavelength and the development of V harmonic generation(deep UV light),- improvement of beam quality (uniform energy distributionin transverse cross-section).
2. Development of selective pumping of the active medium(laser diode pumping).
3. Adaptation of an acoustic control process of the laser-material interaction, providing feedback to the laserexposure control for surface preparation.
4. Development of object surface diagnosis by illuminationwith low power laser and homodyne/heterodyne detection ofbackscattered radiation.
5. Adaptation of existing medical instrumentation(endoscopes with visualization systems) to inspect objectcross-sections or cavities that would otherwise beinaccessible.
6. Adaptation of (laser-induced)spectroscopy to study thechemical composition of removed pollutants.
7. The new application of the Nd:YAG laser surface cleaningconcept for the removal of the fine-cast residues (sub-
sized sand particles) from the surface of CoCr hipjointimplants.
8. Interdisciplinary discussion on the functionality oflaser equipment and its effectiveness, user friendlinessand harmlessness to the object and laser treatmentoperating environment.
Cultural heritage objects (buildings, monuments, statues,cloths, etc.) are cleaned conventionally by mechanicaland/or chemical means exhibiting only limited control thatmay lead to the destruction of cover and substrate as wellas result in environmental hazards. Laser cleaning,however, is a contactless technique avoiding any chemicalcontamination and mechanical destruction of the objects.
An expected effect of this project is entry in the nearfuture to the potential production and service market inROMANIA, POLAND, GREECE and other countries with acompetitive product as regards price and quality ofservice.
The global restoration market amounts to more than severalhundred of MECU. Dry laser cleaning technology offerseconomic potential in the global conservation market for:* Government Agencies,* Museums,* Laboratories,* Conservation studios, and* Archives.
The development of different surface/substrate andevaporated material investigation methods will make itpossible to optimize the renovation process depending onthe substrate material, age and type of impurities. Thedevelopment of an easy-to-operate laser cleaning tool as acommercial product for conservation practice is also veryimportant. Later on, it will also facilitate the trainingof end-users.
The results of project will be disseminated throughpublications, conference papers, international workshopsand seminars.
Research and experimental development on natural sciencesand engineering
Museum activities and preservation of historical sites andbuildings
3. Main participant
Inst. Of Optoelectronics, Military University Of Technology
Ph.D. Jan Marczak
Head Of Department Of Laser Systems And Technologies
1. Modify existing laser head and design and investigate of new prototypes in close cooperation with IOELS.A, FORTH, IAF, KOLT S.A. 2. Develop spectroscopic, laser and opto- electronic diagnostic/on-line processcontrol arrangements.
At the very beginning of the 1960's, the MILITARY UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY attained outstandingachievements in the field of research and construction of laser devices. The INSTITUTE OFOPTOELECTRONICS, is the natural heir of this tradition, created at the beginning of 1995, as a fusion of theINSTITUTE OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS MUT and the INSTITUTE OF OPTOELECTRONICS MUT.
Now, it is the biggest Polish centre of laser and optoelectronics research, with 46 people holding scientificdegrees and titles. Within its various R & D fields, the programme of IOE MUT connected with itsparticipation in this project includes: - development and implementation of optoelectronic devices for remotemeasurement of temperature and spectrum in the infrared band, - technology and investigations of detectorsin the wide bandwidth of spectrum including assemblies for direct and heterodyne detection of light, -investigations and development of solid-state lasers generating in the 1-3 micron band, - development oflaser radiation modulators and converters, - investigations and development of efficient and selective laserpumping systems, including laser diode pumping. - mathematical models and investigations into laserinteraction with materials, - investigations of laser photochemistry (etching, deposition, oxidizing, etc.), - workon laser operational safety, including investigations into protective materials, - application of pulse solid-statelaser radiation to surface cleaning. Their modern laboratories and equipment destined to make the projectsuccessful, include: - spectrophotometry laboratory (in conformity with ISO/IEC Guide 25:1990) -conventional and FT spectrophotometers (UV-VIS-NIR-IR), fluorimeters, interferometers, - laser-inducedspectrometry laboratory - self-made stand, - optics production facility - polishing, thin film layers coatingUV-IR, - high repetition pulse Nd:YAG (with harmonics) laser movable stands, - weak optical and thermalradiation detection stands.
Laser Zentrum Hannover E.V. (Lzh)
Dr. Ing. Stephan Barcikowski
Head Of Group
The main achievement will be the development of a new method for cleaning antique metallic artworks usinga femtosecond laser beam source. The influence of the laser fluence (0.01 - 6 J/cm2) and the pulse duration(150 - 600 fs) on the specific removal efficiency of the various corrosion products will be analysed. Usingoptimal parameters, a non-thermal ablation of corrosion products can be achieved. Most of the objects showa surface topography, which is irregularly structured. To ensure a constant and efficient ablation process, thelaser beam spot diameter on the treated object surface has to be automatically adjusted to a constant value,so that a quality control unit using a distance sensor system is presented. Within E! 2542, the results areevaluated in comparison to Nd:YAG-laser ablation results focussing on quality and economic aspects.
Furthermore, the results shall be disseminated on a European level.
On June 20, 1986 the LASER ZENTRUM HANNOVER E.V. (LZH) was founded under the patronage of theGERMAN STATE MINISTRY OF TRADE, INDUSTRY, TECHNOLOGY, AND TRANSPORTATION in LowerSaxony. The institution's legal form is that of a registered association. The association's main task is tosupport applied research in laser technology on a non-profit basis. The LZH is involved in: - R & D projects inthe field of laser development and laser applications. - Technical and scientific consulting to link researchand practice. - Industry-oriented training of experts for applying and operating laser systems. The closecooperation between production engineers, material scientists and physicists makes it possible to findinterdisciplinary solutions in all fields of laser applications. The Process Analysis and Safety TechnologyGroup at the LZH decisively contribute to the advancement of lasers where material properties (e.g. ofcellular materials) or technology results (e.g. radiation safety, emitted pollutants) determine the efficiency of amanufacturing process. Environmental and safety-engineering developments are a complex task within theapplication of laser material processing, such as: - Laser safety: Characterisation of exposure and radiation,in particular of femtosecond lasers. - Restoration of metallic cultural assests: Through the use offemtosecond lasers attainable materials protective ('cold') removal of corrosion damage or discolouration ofthe genuine surfaces shall be prevented.
F.O.R.T.H. / Institute Of Electronic Structures And
1527 Vasilika Vouton,711 10 HeraklionGreece
Dr. Vassilis Zafiropulos
Research Group Leader
Experimental studies on Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) on the surface of different substrates. Feasibilitystudy on the type of information revealed by LIF.
Expertise: Know-how on Laser Ablation: (a) basic research, and (b) applications. - Know-how onLaser-Matter Interactions including polymers, marble/stone, paper/parchment, glass, wood, ceramics, etc. -Spectroscopic techniques for in-situ analysis - Multispectral Imaging Techniques - Diagnostic techniques forStructural Analysis and non- destructive testing (Holographic Techniques) - Fundamental Research onLaser-Matter Interactions. Contribution: - Experimental studies on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy(LIBS) for discrimination between different pollution layers. Cross-sectional elemental analysis. - Know-howon Laser Ablation protocols and parameters and their adaptation to the developed systems.
Ljubljana University/Chemistry & Chemical Technology
Faculty Deptartment Of Analytical Chemistry
Prof. Matija Strlic
The working parameters will be defined: number of repetitions and repetition rate, fluency, wavelength, theuse of acoustic techniques for following the cleaning process will be examined.
Expertise: The University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Department of AnalyticalChemistry has an extensive expertise in all fields of chemical analysis, including chromatography,spectroscopy, electro analytical techniques, flow-injection analysis and separations in continuous flowsystem, bioelectroanalytical chemistry, etc. Developments in electronics and instrumentation includeconstruction and automatisation of electrochemical instruments, e.g. potentiostats, polarographs, automatedcyanide analyser. The wide range of analytical expertise has expanded to the area of polymer analysis.
Recent developments in cellulose chemistry include automation of polymer analysis, stabilisation of iron inpaper, testing of antioxidants with model substances and in real systems, detection and quantitation ofhydroxyl radials in polymeric materials, studies on size exclusion chromatography of cellulose anddetermination of low-molecular-weight degradation products. One of the focal points is the evaluation ofstability of cellulose under conditions of natural ageing using measurements of chemiluminescence andusing accelerated ageing. Application of lasers for the cleaning of organic materials has also been one of theresearch topics, the research was so far focused on the application of an excimer laser at 308nm and ofNd:YAG lasers at 1064 and 532nm. The evaluation of surface modifications is usually achieved by usingspectroscopic methods, while changes in the degree of polymerisation are determined usingchromatographic methods. Contribution: In the frame of the project, the specific objectives are: 1. UsingNd:YAG laser, the laser cleaning of organic materials such as paper, cotton and silk textile, parchment, woodwill be attempted, by application of model soiling; 2. Evaluation and minimisation of yellowing phenomenaoccurring during laser cleaning of soiled organic substrates. The evaluation of surface modifications oforganic materials immediately after laser treatment and (for selected materials) after a period of acceleratedageing in chambers, will be done by suing diffuse reflectance FTIR and size exclusion chromatography oftreated samples, by determinations of physical properties and by suing other methods and techniquesavailable at the site.
Bam - Laboratory For Thin Film Technology Bundesanstalt
Fuer Materialforschung Und Preufung
Site "Fabeckstrasse", Unter Den Eichen, 87
The main objective of the contribution from the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) isthe development and investigation of Nd:YAG laser systems and technologies for the restoration of art workswith special emphasis on high-precision cleaning and remote computer controlling on the one hand and newdiagnostic tools, like acoustic and multispectral detection, on the other hand. Particular objectives are asfollows: 1. Development of techniques for renovation of antiques mainly of organic materials, such as paper,parchment, leather, textiles, wood and inorganic materials, such as metals, alloys, and ceramics. 2. Provisionand application of I, II, III harmonics of Nd:YAG laser sources. Particular employment and techniquedevelopment of a handheld fibre laser output source for high precision treatments of 3D-objects and aremote computer-controlled high-precision prototype laser cleaning system. 3. Development ofopto-electronic and remote sensing diagnostics on the basis of acoustics detection, multispectral analysis,and laser-induced plasma spectroscopy. 4. Particular collaboration in the area of diagnostics of organicsubstrates will be undertaken with the Slovenian partner, Preservation Department, National and UniversityLibrary, Ljubljana, SLOVENIA, and the Greek partner, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL),Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH) Science & Technology, Heraclion, Crete. 5.
Contribution to a database collecting the known results regarding the efficiency and the limits of variouslaser-based techniques used in artwork restoration. 6. Results of the project will be disseminated bypublications, conference papers, international workshops and seminars.
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Wolfgang Kautek is head of the Laboratory for Thin Film Technology at the Federal Institute forMaterials Research and Testing, Berlin, since 1988. His research interests are materials processing withnano- and sub-picosecond lasers, pulsed laser deposition, electrochemical in-situ techniques and chemicalsensors. Pioneering experiences with parchment and paper laser cleaning have been achieved in recentyears (see literature below). This entered into international activities as there are (1) LACONA Conferences('Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks'): I, Heraklion 1995; II, Liver-pool 1997; III, Firenze 1999, IV, 2001Paris. (2) LACLEPA Project ('Laser Cleaning of Paper and Parchment'), EUREKA/EUROCARE # EU 1681.
(3) LASER CLEANING Project ('Modeling and diagnostic of pulsed laser-solid interactions: application tolaser cleaning'), European Commission TMR # ERB-FMRX- CT98-0188. (4) PaReLa Project ('PaperRestoration using Laser Technology') EU CRAF-1999-70109 (5) Delegate of the Federal Republic ofGermany to COST ACTION G7, Artwork conservation by laser, COST 274 Literature (choice) * W. Kautek,S. Pentzien, P. Rudolph, J. KrÃ¼ger, and E. KÃ¶nig, Appl. Surf. Sci 127-129 (1998) 746. 'Laser Interactionwith Coated Collagen and Cellulose Fibre Composites: Fundamentals of Laser Cleaning of AncientParchment Manuscripts and Paper'. * J. Kolar, M. Strlic, S. Pentzien, W. Kautek, Appl. Phys. A 71 (2000)87-90. 'Near-UV, visible and IR pulsed laser interaction with cellulose'. * W. Kautek, S. Pentzien, P. Rudolph,J. KrÃ¼ger,C. Maywald-Pitellos, H. Bansa, H. GrÃ¶sswang, E. KÃ¶nig,J. Cultural Heritage 1 (2000)S233-S240. 'Near-UV Laser Interaction with Contaminants and Pigments on Parchment: Laser CleaningDiagnostics by SE-Microscopy, VIS, and IR Spectroscopy'. * R. Oltra, E. Arenholz, P. Leiderer, W. Kautek,C. Fotakis, M. Autric, C. Afonso, P. Wazen, SPIE Proceedings, 'High-Power Laser Ablation II' 3885 (2000)499-508. 'Modelling and Diagnostic of Pulsed Laser-Solid Interactions. Applications to Laser Cleaning'. * A.
Cortona and W. Kautek, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 3 (2001) 5283-5289. 'Microcorrosion and Shock-AffectedZone Investigation at Anodic Films on Aluminium Alloys by Pulse Laser Depassivation'. * W. Kautek, S.
Pentzien, D. MÃ¼ller-Hess, K. Troschke, R. Teule, Laser Techniques and Systems in Art Conservation,SPIE 4402 (2001) 130-138. 'Probing the limits of paper and parchment laser cleaning by multi-spectralimaging'. * J. KrÃ¼ger, P. Meja, M. Autric, W. Kautek, Appl. Surf. Sci., in press. 'Femtosecond Pulse LaserAblation Of Anodic Oxide Coatings On Aluminium Alloys With On-Line Acoustic Observation'. * G. Daminelli,P. Meja, A. Cortona, J. Krueger, M. Autric, W. Kautek, SPIE Proceedings, in preparation. 'Femtosecond andnanosecond laser removal of anodic oxide layers from aluminum'.
Nat. & Univ.Library Of Slovenia/Preservation Department
Dr. Jana Kolar
Head Of Department
The evaluation of surface modifications of selected organic materials will be done by using viscometry, SEM,colorimetry and by determinations of physical properties.
Expertise: The Library has large expertise in development and evaluation of preservation/conservationmethods for library materials. Its preservation department is equipped with various heat/light ageingchambers, flow injection analysis, colorimeter, etc. Recent developments include stabilisation of iron andcopper in paper, application of thermochemiluminescence to the studies of cellulose degradation, testing ofantioxidants for paper, studies on size exclusion chromatography of cellulose, determination oflow-molecular-weight degradation products, evaluation of standard accelerated aging test method, sourcesof yellowing of paper upon aging and its relation to paper degradation and effects of laser treatment of thestability of paper. Contribution: Within the framework of the project, special organic materials (e.g. leather,skin, paper, parchment, silk, wood, etc.) will be selected and artificial soiling applied. The effect of thetreatment using Nd:YAG laser running at 1064nm will be studied immediately after the treatment and afterexposure to accelerated heat/light ageing. Based on the results, the wavelength, pulse power, duration andrepetition will be optimised. Possibilities of use of acoustic techniques for on-line monitoring will be studied.
National Institute For Laser, Plasma And Radiation Physics
Ph.D. Constantin Fenic
Development of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the enhanced free running regime as a new laser source withsurface processing application. Development of a microchip Nd:YVO4 QCW (Q-switch continuous wave)diode pumped laser. Investigation of a possible surface cleaning application.
The current Laser Department of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR LASERS, PLASMA AND RADIATIONPHYSICS (INFLPR) was established in 1968. Their main laboratories are: * Solid-State Lasers, *Laser-Surface-Plasma Interactions, * Atomic and Ion Lasers, * High Power CO2 Lasers, * LaserInterferometry and Metrology and * Nonlinear Optics. The Laser Department has also three workshops: *glass manufacture, * mechanical workshop, and * optical manufacture. The department is involved in highlevel education and postgraduate activities. A PHARE TTQM project is under development regarding thebuilding of a Nd:YAG laser device for surface cleaning in collaboration with FORTH-IESL (GREECE) andPRO OPTICA (ROMANIA). They have long-term experience in laser applications in medicine,microprocessing, range finding, surface processing and laser-surface interaction.
P.T.H. Kolt S.A.
M.Sc. Roman Okninski
Will make accessible their own Nd:YAG laser system for restoration. From Polish side, they will beresponsible for marketing and participate in the implementation of project results (devices, technologies).
Producer of specialised optoelectronic systems, laser simulators and electronic control instrumentation.
Authorised supplier of SILICON GRAPHICS computers and licensed distributor of software products(MULTIGEN LTD., PARADIGM SIMULATION INC.)
Inter-Acad.Inst.Of Conservation/Restoration Of Works Of
Prof. Andrzej Koss
Will define/select samples/objects for laser renovation. Based on expertise in conventional restorationmethods,will participate in development of laser cleaning technologies and evaluation of diagnosis/controlmeasurement equipment.
Expertise: founded in 1999 as the result of resolutions made by the Senates of WARSAW and CRACOWACADEMIES OF FINE ARTS, to carry on studies, among others, in the field of protection and restoration ofart works. Both founder institutions have great experience in R & D activities in this field. Specialists fromIAICR have been cooperating several years with IOE MUT on the development of laser technology for therenovation of various cultural heritage objects. Contribution: They will provide technical and scientificassistance.
S.C. Optoelectronica 2001 S.A.
Dr. Teodor Necsoiu
Will produce the electronic subassemblies of the systems and optimize them from the point of view of globalvolume and efficiency. A scanning system wil be integrated and frequency conversion of laser transmitteroptimized.
Expertise: 1. Advanced fundamental research, development and applied research in the physical areas,particularly opto- electronics and lasers. 2. Fundamental and applied research in the medical physics domain(lasers, x-rays, ultrasound). 3. Advanced fundamental/applied R & D in the above fields as part of thefollowing International Programmes: TTQM, JOP PHARE, PC 5. 4. Technology of optoelectronic devices. 5.
Design and arrangement of technical documentation for optoelectronic devices, subassemblies andequipment. 6. Production of optoelectronic and medical apparatus, systems with piezoceramic elements. 7.
Setting-up of associations and Joint-Venture societes. 8. Import-export activities and marketing(documentation, product, service). Contribution: Will participate in the design and investigation of diodepumped laser transmitter and develop: - adaptation of acoustic control of the laser-material interactionprocess, - application of the Nd:YAG laser surface cleaning concept for the removal of the fine-cast residues(sub-sized sand particles) from the surface of CoCr hipjoint implants.
National Military Museum
Mr. Stefan Nicolin Mihail
Detailed study on art object and monument restoration techniques. Select specific art objects to be restoredusing the laser beam. Preparation of test probes for the calibration of the system. On the basis ofconventional methods of restoration expertise we will participate in the development of laser cleaningtechnologies and evaluation of the results.
Conventional methods of restoration of metal and stone art objects. Conservation and restoration of militarycultural patrimony. Archeological activity. Technical/artistic restoration assistance.
Effect of Face Mask Design on Inhaled Mass of Nebulized Albuterol,Hui-Ling Lin MSc RN RRT, Ruben D Restrepo MD RRT, Douglas S Gardenhire MSc RRT-NPS, BACKGROUND: Aerosol face mask design and the distance at which the face mask is held from the face affect the delivery of nebulized medication to pediatric patients. OBJECTIVE: To measure the inhaled mass of nebulized albuterol with 3 types of pedi
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