Npj fall 2001.final
L. [Araliaceae]) is native to the eastern half of
North America from Georgia to Quebecand west to the Mississippi River fromAlabama to Minnesota and westernIowa. It is an obligate shade plant thatinhabits the understory of hardwoodforests with well-drained, porous, andhumus-rich soils and is commonly foundon upland north- and east-facing slopes.
It is also found in coniferous forestsand/or on south-facing slopes in soilscomposed mostly of sand and clay. Shadeand loamy soils are requirements forthriving wild populations.
family (Araliaceae), which includes 6species of herbaceous perennials foundin North America and Asia. All specieshave thick roots and palmately com-pound leaves borne in whorls. Thesmall, white flowers are borne in termi-nal umbels bearing a fleshy drupe con-taining 2 to 3 seeds after maturation.
Greek word “pan-axos” meaning “all-heal-
ing.” The common name “ginseng”comes from 2 Chinese words meaning“likeness of man,” referring to the mature
root that resembles a human figure. Twospecies are native to North America:
American ginseng and the uncommondwarf ginseng (P. trifolius
HISTORY AND USES
About 4600 y ago, Huang Ti, the firstruler of China, described the medicinalproperties of Asian ginseng (P. ginseng
C.A. Meyer) in Nei Ching Su Wen
A B S T R A C T
first written text of internal Chinesemedicine. Ginseng is used for stimula-
Hsu’s Ginseng Enterprises in Wausau, Wisconsin, provide properly stratified seeds to
other commercial growers and roots to the herbal market 4 y after initial field-grown
plantings. Woods-grown ginseng requires up to 8 y for production. Seeds of northern
sources exhibit deep simple morphophysiological dormancy and must be carefully
ginsenocides are found in all species and
handled during harvest and immediately stratified for up to 18 mo. Successful germi-
are responsible for the medicinal effects.
nation, establishment, growth, and production require adequate shade, leaf litter,
nutrition, and disease and pest prevention. Over 75% of all American ginseng pro-
duction in the US occurs in Wisconsin. Currently, Hsu’s Ginseng Enterprises include
405 ha (1000 ac) of land in production as cultivated fields and “woods-grown”
American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius
, seed propagation, seed produc-
(fungi) Farr and others (1989); (species of Panax
) Wen and
Zimmer (1996); (North American plants) ITIS (2001)
N AT I V E P L A N T S J O U R N A L
Jesuit missionary in 1716 nearMontreal, Quebec, and was laterdescribed from collections from NewEngland in 1750. By the late 1700s,American ginseng was exported toChina by the American Fur TradingCompany. Ginseng roots and furs werethe first American exports by colonists(NYSDEC 2001). Heavy collectionfrom wild populations continued untilthe late 1800s. By the turn of the 20thcentury, American ginseng farmingbecame quite common throughout east-ern North America as wild populations
became increasingly rare due to over-harvesting. As a result, American gin-seng is a native North American plantintensively farmed as a horticulturalcrop. Hsu’s Ginseng Enterprises includecultivation on large farms and under
Figure 1 • Field-grown American ginseng plants emerging in spring in mulch-amended
FARMING FOR SEED AND
source of organic matter to the soil, acts
also placed over the top of the stratifica-
required to break 1 type of physiological
are sold to other commercial growers.
tures during late summer and autumn.
Figure 2 • Computer models use weather data to predict
and are immediately stratified. Seeds are
when fungicide applications are necessary.
V O L U M E 3 • N U M B E R 2
with stratified seeds by a mechanicalseeder at the same rate and desired den-sity as with field production in Augustof the 3 y. Seeds are mulched with oatstraw after sowing. Woods-grownAmerican ginseng roots are producedfor high quality and character and take8 y from initial sowing to harvest.
Cultivated American ginseng has beenexported to foreign markets for over100 y. It is one of the most well-knownherbal medicines and is widely con-sumed in Asia, North America, andEurope. Currently, over 75% of allAmerican ginseng production in the USoccurs in Wisconsin. Ginseng can bepropagated in fields or under existing
forest canopies if the proper level ofshade, high levels of organic matter,
Figure 3 • “Woods-grown” ginseng emerging from raised beds of mulch under an exist-
sufficient plant spacings are provided.
Ginseng plantations provide seeds forother commercial growers and roots for
gal diseases. Slugs eat seeds, seedlings,
commercially approved molluscicides.
Baskin CC, Baskin JM. 1998. Seeds: ecology, bio-
prongs of leaflets. During the third year,
geography and evolution of dormancy andgermination. San Diego (CA): Academic Press.
Farr DF, Bills GF, Chamuris GP, Rossman AY. 1989.
Fungi on plants and plant products in theUnited States. St Paul (MN): The American
Link:Fr. and Rhizoctonia
Phytopathological Society Press. 1252 p.
spp.) and root rot (Phytophora cactorum
[ITIS] Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
herbal market during the fourth year.
(Lebert & Cohn) J. Schrot.), which are
2001. Biological Names. Version 4.0 (On-linedatabase). URL: http:// www.itis.usda.gov
Whetzel) is controlled
Environmental Conservation. 2001. Ginsengand goldenseal in your forest. URL:
Wen J, Zimmer EA. 1996. Phylogeny and biogeog-
raphy of Panax L
. (the ginseng genus,
Araliaceae): Inferences from ITS sequences ofnuclear ribosomal DNA. Molecular
Phylogenetics and Evolution 6:167–177.
soils rich in humus from leaf litter.
maple and oak (Acer
L. [Aceraceae] and
L. [Fagaceae] species) are select-
dressing usually includes a fertilizer of
Paul C Hsu
Hsu’s Ginseng Enterprises Inc
PO Box 509
Wausau, WI 54402-0509
composted leaf litter to the soil surface.
N AT I V E P L A N T S J O U R N A L
IN THE ARMED FORCES TRIBUNAL REGIONAL BENCH, GUWAHATI. T.A. NO. 14 OF 2010 (Arising out of Writ Petition (C) No. 1911/2007) HON’BLE MR. JUSTICE H.N.SARMA, Member (J) HON’BLE CMDE MOHAN PHADKE (Retd), Member (A) Lt.Col( retd) G.C.L.Arokiadas Son of Late S.Guru swami Station Cell HQ 51 SUB AREA Narengi Cantt. PO Satgaon,Guwahti-781027,Assam. Mr.A.Ahmed Legal Practit
Alfonso Cardenal López Trujillo Presidente del Pontificio Consejo PONTIFICIO CONSEJO PARA LA FAMILIA SEXUALIDAD HUMANA: VERDAD Y SIGNIFICADO Orientaciones educativas en familia INTRODUCCION La situación y el problema 1. Entre las múltiples dificultades que los padres de familia encuentran hoy, aun teniendo en cuenta los diversos contextos culturales, se