Clexane lovenox - technical leaflet
NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT
Clexane (Lovenox) SyringesClexane (Lovenox) Forte Syringes
QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION
Enoxaparin sodium 20mg (equivalent to 2,000 IU anti-Xa activity) in 0.2ml water for injections
Enoxaparin sodium 40mg (equivalent to 4,000 IU anti-Xa activity) in 0.4ml water for injections
Enoxaparin sodium 60mg (equivalent to 6,000 IU anti-Xa activity) in 0.6ml water for injections
Enoxaparin sodium 80mg (equivalent to 8,000 IU anti-Xa activity) in 0.8ml water for injections
Enoxaparin sodium 100mg (equivalent to 10,000 IU anti-Xa activity) in 1.0 ml water for injections
Enoxaparin sodium 120mg (equivalent to 12,000 IU anti-Xa activity) in 0.8ml water for injections
Enoxaparin sodium 150mg (equivalent to 15,000 IU anti-Xa activity) in 1.0ml water for injections
Sterile, colourless to pale yellow, pyrogen-free solution for injection contained in ready-to-use pre-filled syringes.
The prophylaxis of thromboembolic disorders of venous origin, in particular those which may be associated with orthopaedic or general surgery.
The prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in medical patients bedridden due to acute illnesses including cardiac insufficiency, respiratory failure, or severe infections.
The treatment of venous thromboembolic disease presenting with deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or both.
The treatment of unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, administered concurrently with aspirin.
The prevention of thrombus formation in the extracorporeal circulation during haemodialysis.
Posology and method of administration
Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in surgical patients
In patients with a moderate risk of venous thromboembolism, the recommended dosage of enoxaparin sodium is 20mg (2,000 IU) once daily by subcutaneous injection. In patients undergoing surgery, the initial dose should be given approximately 2 hours pre-operatively.
In patients with a higher risk of thromboembolism, such as in orthopaedic surgery, the recommended dosage of enoxaparin sodium given by subcutaneous injection is 40mg (4,000 IU) once daily with the initial dose administered approximately 12 hours pre-operatively.
Enoxaparin sodium treatment is usually prescribed for an average period of 7 to 10 days, or until the risk of thromboembolism has diminished.
Longer treatment duration may be appropriate in some patients following hip replacement and enoxaparin sodium may be continued for as long as there is a risk of venous thrombo-embolism and until the patient is ambulatory.
Continued therapy with 40mg once daily for 3 weeks following initial therapy has been proven to be beneficial in patients post hip replacement.
For special recommendations concerning dosing intervals for Spinal/Epidural Anaesthesia and Percutaneous coronary revascularisation procedures: see Precautions & Warnings section.
Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in medical patientsThe recommended dose of enoxaparin sodium is 40mg once daily by subcutaneous injection.
Treatment with enoxaparin is prescribed for a minimum of 6 days and continued until the full return to ambulation, for a maximum of 14 days. Where a patient is clinically adjudged to be at continued significant risk for thromboembolic events beyond fourteen days a decision to prolong prophylaxis should be made on an individual basis.
The treatment of venous thromboembolic disease presenting with deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or both
Enoxoparin sodium can be administered subcutaneously either as a single injection of 1.5mg/kg (150 IU/kg) or as a twice daily injection of 1 mg /kg (100 IU/kg). In patients with a complicated thromboembolic disorder, a dose of 1mg/kg (100 IU/kg) administered twice daily is recommended.
Enoxaparin treatment is usually prescribed for at least 5 days and until adequate oral anticoagulation is established.
Treatment of unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction:
The recommended dose 1mg/kg (100 IU/kg) every 12 hours by subcutaneous injection, administered concurrently with oral aspirin (100 to 325mg once daily). Enoxaparin treatment should be prescribed for a minimum of 2 days and continued until clinical stabilisation. The usual duration of treatment is 2 to 8 days.
Prevention of extracorporeal thrombus formation during haemodialysis:
A dose of 1mg/kg (100 IU/kg) introduced into the arterial line at the beginning of a dialysis session is usually sufficient for a 4 hour session. If fibrin rings are found, such as after a longer than normal session, a further dose of 0.5 to 1mg/kg (50 to 100 IU/kg) may be given. For patients at a high risk of haemorrhage the dose should be reduced to 0.5mg/kg (50 IU/kg) for double vascular access or 0.75mg/kg (75 IU/kg) for single vascular access.
No dose adjustment is necessary in the elderly, unless kidney function is impaired (see Warnings & Precautions: Haemorrhage in the Elderly, Pharmacokinetics: Elderly and Posology and Method of Administration: Renal impairment).
Not recommended, as dosage not established.
(see Warnings & Precautions: Renal impairment and Pharmacokinetics: Renal impairment).
A dosage adjustment is required for patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance 30ml/min), according to the following tables, since enoxaparin sodium exposure is significantly increased in this patient population.
The following dosage adjustments are recommended for therapeutic dosage ranges:
The following dosage adjustment are recommended for prophylactic dosage ranges:
The recommended dosage adjustments do not apply to the haemodialysis indication.
Moderate and Mild Renal Impairment:
Although no adjustment of the dose is recommended in patients with moderate (creatinine clearance 30-50ml/min) and mild ( creatinine clearance 50-80 ml/min) renal impairment, careful clinical monitoring is advised.
In the absence of clinical studies, caution should be exercised.
Enoxaparin is administered by subcutaneous injection for the prevention or treatment of deep venous thrombosis, for the treatment of unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction and through the arterial line of a dialysis circuit for the prevention of thrombus formation in the extra-corporeal circulation during haemodialysis.
Subcutaneous injection technique: The pre-filled disposable syringe is ready for immediate use. Clexane should be administered when the patient is lying down, by deep subcutaneous injection. The air bubble should not be expelled from the syringe before the injection is given to avoid the loss of drug. The administration should be alternated between the left and right anterolateral or posterolateral abdominal wall. The whole length of the needle should be introduced vertically into a skin fold held between the thumb and index finger. The skin fold should not be released until the injection is complete. Do not rub the injection site after administration.
Contraindicated in patients with acute bacterial endocarditis; major bleeding disorders; thrombocytopenia in patients with a positive in-vitro aggregation test in the presence of enoxaparin; in jaundice; active gastric or duodenal ulceration; hiatal ulceration. hypersensitivity to enoxaparin; in patients with cerebrovascular accidents (unless due to systemic emboli); threatened abortion, retinopathy or in other patients with an increased risk of haemorrhage (e.g. subdural haematoma).
Special warnings and special precautions for use
As different low molecular weight heparins may not be equivalent, alternative products should not be substituted during a course of treatment.
Enoxaparin is to be used with extreme caution in patients with a history of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with or without thrombosis.
As there is a risk of antibody-mediated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia also occurring with low molecular weight heparins, regular platelet count monitoring should be considered prior to and during therapy with these agents. Thrombocytopenia, should it occur, usually appears between the 5th and 21st day following the beginning of therapy. If the platelet count is significantly reduced (30 to 50% of the initial value), therapy must be discontinued immediately and an alternative therapy initiated.
Use in conditions with increased potential for bleeding
Enoxaparin injection should only be used with great caution in conditions with increased potential for bleeding, such as: impaired haemostasis, history of peptic ulcer or bleeding, recent ischaemic stroke, severe arterial hypertension, severe liver or kidney dysfunction, diabetic retinopathy, recent cerebral surgery or trauma.
As with other anti-coagulants, there have been cases of neuraxial haematomas reported with the concurrent use of enoxaparin and spinal/epidural anaesthesia resulting in long term or permanent paralysis. These events are rare with enoxaparin sodium dosage regimens 40mg od or lower. The risk is greater with higher enoxaparin dosage regimens, use of post-operative indwelling catheters or the concomitant use of additional drugs affecting haemostasis such as NSAIDs (see
Interactions with other medicaments and other forms of interaction). The risk also appears to be increased by traumatic or repeated neuraxial puncture.
To reduce the potential risk of bleeding associated with the concurrent use of enoxaparin and epidural or spinal anaesthesia/analgesia, the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug should be considered (see Pharmacokinetic properties ). Placement and removal of the catheter is best performed when the anticoagulant effect of enoxaparin is low.
Placement or removal of a catheter should be delayed for 10-12 hours after administration of DVT prophylactic doses of enoxaparin sodium, whereas patients receiving higher doses of enoxaparin sodium (1mg/kg twice daily) will require longer delays (24 hours). The subsequent enoxaparin sodium dose should be given no sooner than two hours after catheter removal.
Should the physician decide to administer anticoagulation in the context of epidural/spinal anaesthesia, extreme vigilance and frequent monitoring must be exercised to detect any signs and symptoms of neurological impairment such as midline back pain, sensory and motor deficits (numbness or weakness in the lower limbs), bowel and/or bladder dysfunction. Patients should be instructed to inform their physician immediately if they experience any of the above signs or symptoms. If signs or symptoms of spinal haematoma are suspected urgent diagnosis and treatment including spinal cord decompression should be initiated.
There have been no adequate studies to assess the safe and effective use of enoxaparin sodium in preventing thromboembolism in patients with prosthetic heart valves. The use of enoxaparin sodium cannot be recommended for this purpose ( See Section 4.6 Pregnancy and Lactation)
No increased bleeding tendency is observed in the elderly with the prophylactic dosage ranges. Elderly patients (especially patients eighty years of age and older) may be at an increased risk for bleeding complications with the therapeutic dosage ranges. Careful clinical monitoring is advised (see Posology and Method of Administration:Elderly and Pharmacokinetics: Elderly).
In patients with renal impairment, there is an increase in exposure of enoxaparin sodium which increases the risk of bleeding. Since exposure of enoxaparin sodium is significantly increased in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance 30ml/min), a dosage adjustment is recommended for therapeutic and prophylactic dosage ranges. Although no dose adjustment is recommended in patients with moderate (creatinine clearance 30-50ml/min) and mild (creatinine clearance 50-80ml/min) renal impairment, careful monitoring is advised (see Dosage and Administration: Renal impairment and Pharmacokinetics: Renal impairment).
An increase in exposure of enoxaparin sodium with prophylactic dosages (non-weight adjusted) has been observed in low-weight women (45kg) and low-weight men(57kg) which may lead to a higher risk of bleeding. Therefore, careful clinical monitoring is advised in these patients (see Pharmacokinetics:Weight)
Interactions with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
It is recommended that agents which affect haemostasis should be discontinued prior toenoxaparin therapy unless their use is essential, such as : systemic salicylates, acetylsalicylic acid and NSAIDS. If the combination cannot be avoided, enoxaparin should be used with careful clinical and laboratory monitoring.
Pregnancy and lactation
There is no evidence of teratogenic effect in animal studies but there is no experience of use during pregnancy or lactation. Clexane should not be used during these periods unless it is considered essential.
In a clinical study of pregnant women with prosthetic heart valves given enoxaparin sodium (1mg/kg b.i.d.) to prevent thromboembolism, two women developed clots resulting in blockage of the valve and leading to death.
In the absence of additional dosing, efficacy and safety
information in this circumstance, enoxaparin sodium is not recommended for use in pregnant women with prosthetic heart valves.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines
Enoxaparin has no effect on the ability to drive and operate machines.
Bleeding may occur during enoxaparin therapy in the presence of associated risk factors such as: organic lesions liable to bleed , invasive procedures or the use of medications affecting haemostasis (see
).The origin of the bleeding should be investigated and appropriate treatment instituted. Major haemorrhage including retroperitoneal and intracranial bleeding has been reported. Some of these cases have been lethal.
There have been reports of neuraxial haematomas with concurrent use of enoxaparin and spinal/epidural anaesthesia or spinal puncture. These events have resulted in varying degrees of neurologic injuries including long-term or permanent paralysis( see Special warnings and special precautions for use).
Mild, transient, asymptomatic thrombocytopenia has been reported during the first days of therapy. Rare cases of immuno-allergic thrombocytopenia with thrombosis have been reported. In some cases thrombosis was complicated by organ infarction or limb ischaemia. (see Special warnings and special precautions for use).
Pain, haematoma and mild local irritation may follow the subcutaneous injection of enoxaparin. Rarely, hard inflammatory nodules which are not cystic enclosures of enoxaparin, have been observed at the injection site. They resolve after a few days and should not cause treatment discontinuation.
Exceptional cases of skin necrosis at the injection site have been reported with heparins and low molecular weight heparins. These phenomena are usually preceded by purpura or erythematous plaques, infiltrated and painful. Treatment with enoxaparin must be discontinued.
Although rare, cutaneous or systemic allergic reactions may occur. In some cases discontinuation of treatment may be necessary. Asymptomatic and reversible increases in platelet counts and liver enzyme levels have been reported.
Orally administered enoxaparin is poorly absorbed and even large oral doses should not lead to any serious consequences. This may be checked by plasma assays of anti-Xa and anti-IIa activities.
Accidental overdose following parenteral administration may produce haemorrhagic complications. These may be largely neutralised by slow intravenous injection of protamine sulphate or hydrochloride. The dose of protamine should be equal to the dose of enoxaparin injected, that is, 100 anti-heparin units of protamine should neutralise the anti-IIa activity generated by 1mg (100 IU) of enoxaparin. However, even with high doses of protamine, the anti-Xa activity of enoxaparin is never completely neutralised (maximum approximately 60%).
Enoxaparin is a low molecular weight heparin, with a mean molecular weight of approximately 4,500 daltons.
In the in vitro purified system, enoxaparin has a high anti-Xa activity
(approximately 100 IU/mg) and low anti-IIa or anti thrombin activity (approximately 28 IU/mg).
At the recommended doses, enoxaparin does not influence bleeding time and global blood coagulation tests significantly, nor does it affect platelet aggregation or binding of fibrinogen to platelets.
The pharmacokinetic parameters of enoxaparin sodium have been studied mainly in terms of the time course of plasma anti-Xa activity and also by anti-IIa activity, at the recommended dosage ranges after single and repeated subcutaneous administration and after single intravenous administration.
The quantitative determination of anti-Xa and anti-IIa pharmacokinetic activities was conducted by validated amidolytic methods with specific substrates and an enoxaparin standard calibrated against the international standard for LMWHs (NIBSC).
The absolute bioavailability of enoxaparin sodium after subcutaneous injection, based on anti-Xa activity, is close to 100 %. Injection volume and dose concentration over the range 100-200mg/ml does not affect pharmacokinetic parameters in healthy volunteers.
The mean maximum plasma anti-Xa activity is observed 3 to 5 hours after subcutaneous injection and achieves approximately 0.2, 0.4, and 1.0 and 1.3 anti-Xa IU/ml following single-subcutaneous administration of 20, 40mg, 1 mg/kg and 1.5mg/kg doses, respectively.
Enoxaparin pharmacokinetics appear to be linear over the recommended dosage ranges. Intra-patient and inter-patient variability is low. After repeated subcutaneous administration of 40mg once daily and 1.5mg/kg once daily regimens in healthy volunteers, the steady-state is reached on day 2 with an average exposure ratio about 15% higher than after a single dose. Steady-state enoxaparin activity levels are well predicted by single dose pharmacokinetics. After repeated subcutaneous administration of the 1mg/kg twice daily regimen, the steady state is reached from day 3 to 4 with mean exposure about 65% higher than after a single dose and mean peak and trough levels of about 1.2 and 0.52 IU/ml, respectively.
pharmacokinetics, this difference in steady-state is expected within the therapeutic range.
Plasma anti-IIa activity after subcutaneous administration is approximately ten-fold lower than anti-Xa activity. The mean maximum anti-IIa activity is observed approximately 3 to 4 hours following subcutaneous injection of 40 mg (while it is not detectable at the 20 mg dose level when using conventional amidolytic method) and reaches 0.13 IU/ml and 0.19 IU/ml following repeated administration of 1mg/kg twice daily and 1.5mg/kg once daily, respectively.
The volume of distribution of enoxaparin anti-Xa activity is about 5 litres and is close to the blood volume.
Enoxaparin sodium is a low clearance drug with a mean anti-Xa plasma clearance of 0.74 L/h after a 1.5mg/kg 6-hour intravenous infusion.
Elimination appears monophasic with a half-life of about 4 hours after a single-subcutaneous dose to about 7 hours after repeated dosing. The anti-Xa activity is measurable in the plasma up to 24 hours after subcutaneous injection of 40 mg enoxaparin.
Enoxaparin sodium is primarily metabolised in the liver by desulfation and/or depolymerisation to lower molecular weight species with much reduced biological potency. Renal clearance of active fragments represents about 10% of the administered dose and total renal excretion of active and non-active fragments 40% of the dose.
Based on the results of a population pharmacokinetic analysis, the enoxaparin sodium kinetic profile is not different in elderly subjects compared to younger subjects when renal function is normal. However since renal function is known to decline with age, elderly patients may show reduced elimination of enoxaparin sodium (see Precautions: Haemorrhage in the Elderly, Dosage and Administration: Elderly and Pharmacokinetics: Renal impairment).
A linear relationship exists between anti-Xa plasma clearance and creatinine clearance at steady-state has been observed, which indicates decreased clearance of enoxaparin sodium in patients with reduced renal function. Anti-Xa exposure represented by AUC, at steady-state is marginally increased in mild (creatinine clearance 50-80ml/min) and moderate (creatinine clearance 30-50ml/min) renal impairment after repeated subcutaneous 40mg once daily doses. In patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance30ml/min), the AUC at steady state is significantly increased on average by 65% after repeated subcutaneous 40mg once daily doses ( see Precautions: Renal impairment and Dosage and Administration: Renal impairment).
After repeated subcutaneous 1.5mg/kg once daily dosing, mean AUC of anti-Xa activity is marginally higher at steady state in obese healthy volunteers (BMI 30-48kg/m2) compared to non-obese control subjects, while Amax is not increased. There is a lower weight-adjusted clearance in obese subjects with subcutaneous dosing.
When non-weight adjusted dosing was administered, it was found after a single subcutaneous 40mg dose, that anti-Xa exposure is 50% higher in low-weight women (45kg) and 27% higher in low-weight men (57 kg) when compared to normal weight control subjects (see Precautions: Low Weight).
In a single study, elimination rate appeared similar but AUC was two fold higher than control population, after a single 0.25 or 0.50mg/kg intravenous dose.
Preclinical safety data
List of Excipients
Clexane should not be mixed with any other injections or infusions
Special Precautions for storage
Do not store above 25°C. Do not refrigerate or freeze.
Nature and contents of container
Clexane is available in a range of Hypak SCF pre-filled syringes (Becton Dickinson) that deliver the following doses; 20mg (2,000IU) enoxaparin sodium per 0.2ml.
40mg (4,000IU) enoxaparin sodium per 0.4ml.
60mg (6,000IU) enoxaparin sodium per 0.6ml.
80mg (8,000IU) enoxaparin sodium per 0.8ml.
100mg (10,000IU) enoxaparin sodium per 1.0ml.
120mg (12,000IU) enoxaparin sodium per 0.8ml.
150mg (15,000IU) enoxaparin sodium per 1.0ml.
Instructions for use/handling
See “Posology and method of administration”Used syringes should be disposed of safely e.g. in a sharp’s bin.
MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER
Aventis Pharma Ltd.,Citywest Business Campus,Dublin 24,Ireland.
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DATE OF AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF AUTHORISATION
DATE OF (PARTIAL) REVISION OF THE TEXT
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