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Microsoft word - noninsulin diabetes medications summary chart 072012-ch.doc

Noninsulin Diabetes Medications Summary Chart
Medications marked with an asterisk (*) can cause hypoglycemia
MED GROUP DESCRIPTOR
Drug Class
SIDE EFFECTS
(mg/tab)
FREQUENCY/DAY
(mg/day)
INSULIN SECRETAGOGUES
Sulfonylureas*
Action: Stimulates β-cell insulin
Side effects: Potential for

Meglitinides*

Action: Stimulates β-cell insulin
Side effects: Potential for
D-Phenylalanine Derivative*
Action: Stimulates β-cell insulin
Side effects: Potential for
hypoglycemia
GLUCOSE SUPPRESSORS
Biguanides
Action: Decreases hepatic glucose

Side effects:
Gas, diarrhea, lactic
acidosis. To decrease lactic acidosis
risk, avoid in:
 Liver disease, alcohol abuse/bingeing
 If creatinine ≥1.4 mg/dL in women;  If creatinine clearance ≤50 mL/min  Recurrent CHF  Severe infection, acute MI  Hold for IV contrast dye, surgery, or severe vomiting or diarrhea. Repeat creat. in 48 hrs; if OK, restart metformin
Note: Take with food to decrease gas,
diarrhea
Copyright 2012 Joslin Diabetes Center. All rights reserved.

MED GROUP DESCRIPTOR
Drug Class
SIDE EFFECTS
(mg/tab)
FREQUENCY/DAY
(mg/day)
INSULIN SENSITIZERS
Thiazolidinediones
Action (both): Improves glucose
Note: The FDA has now determined
Side effects (both): Weight gain,
state that use of the drug is limited to: Notes (both):
medicines (Actos, Actoplus Met, Actoplus Met XR, or Duetact)
DPP-4 INHIBITORS
SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE
Action: Slows the inactivation of
Side effects: URI, stuffy nose, sore
(Januvia and Onglyza).
(Tradjenta)
that inhibit CYP450 3A4
(Onglyza)

MED GROUP DESCRIPTOR

Drug Class
SIDE EFFECTS
(mg/tab)
FREQUENCY/DAY
(mg/day)
STARCH BLOCKERS
Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors
Action: Delays absorption and
intestines

Side effects:
Gas, diarrhea;
elevation of LFTs with acarbose in
doses >50 mg tid, and wt < 132 lbs
hypoglycemia when used in combination therapy BILE ACID SEQUESTRANTS
Action: Reduces LDL cholesterol
Side effects: Constipation, nausea,
DOPAMINE AGONIST
BROMOCRIPTINE MESYLATE*
Action: Unknown; lowers glucose
the risk of MI and stroke
Side effects: Hypotension,
orthostatic changes, fainting,
drowsiness, may worsen psychotic
disorders, hypoglycemia, nausea,
fatigue, severe dizziness
FIXED COMBINATIONS
GLYBURIDE and METFORMIN*
Action: Stimulates β-cell insulin
Side effects: See above for
Action: Improves glucose transport
Side effects: See above for
Action: Stimulates β-cell insulin
Side effects: See above for
†See note under thiazolidinediones regarding limitations on use
MED GROUP DESCRIPTOR
Drug Class
SIDE EFFECTS
(mg/tab)
FREQUENCY/DAY
(mg/day)
Action: Improves glucose transport,
insulin production

Side effects:
See above for
thiazolidinediones and sulfonylureas
Action: Improves insulin action in
Side effects: See above for
Action: Slows the inactivation of
______________________________
Side effects: See above for
†See note under thiazolidinediones regarding limitations on use
MED GROUP DESCRIPTOR
Drug Class
SIDE EFFECTS
(mcg or mg/dose)
FREQUENCY/DAY
(mcg or mg/day
Injectables
GLP-1 RECEPTOR AGONISTS
*
EXENATIDE
Action: Increases the level of
reduced glucagon secretion in a glucose-dependent manner Side effects: Nausea, anorexia,
AMYLIN MIMETIC*
PRAMLINTIDE
Action: Exact mechanism unknown;
Side effects: Nausea, anorexia,

Source: http://www.joslin.org/docs/Joslin_Diabetes_Center_Noninsulin_Diabetes_Medications_Summary_Chart.pdf

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