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Facts, Formulas & Other Information
Swimming Pool Chemicals:
Types of Chlorine
% of Chlorine
Liquid Bleach (1/3rd-1/2 the strength Sodium Hypo)
Di-Chlor and Tri-chlor are both stabilized chlorine compounds. Cyanuric acid levels will increaseover time with the use of these two types of chlorine.
All chlorine types make the same thing when added to water, Hypochlorous acid (HOCI) andHypochlorite Ions (OCI). The Hypochlorous acid is the active sanitizer and the Hypochlorite ionsare the less active sanitizer. Percentage of activity is predicated on pH. Sanitizing activity is aGOOD thing!
Never mix the different types of chlorine together!
Chlorine Dosage Chart
Chlorine Gas (100%) (Chlorine Gas NOT FOR HOMEOWNER USE)
Volume of pool / 120,000 x __________ ppm desired change = __________pounds
Sodium Hypochlorite (Liquid Chlorine)
Volume of pool / 120,000 x __________ ppm desired change = __________ gallons
Calcium Hypochlorite (Cal-Hypo @ 67%)
Volume of pool / 78,000 x __________ ppm desired change = __________ pounds
Lithium Hypochlorite (35%)
Volume of pool / 42,000 x __________ ppm desired change = __________ pounds
Volume of pool / 108,000 x __________ ppm desired change = __________ pounds
Volume of pool / 67,200 x __________ ppm desired change = __________ pounds
Volume of pool / 74,400 x __________ ppm desired change = __________ pounds
To Neutralize Chlorine
Volume of pool / 67,250 x __________ ppm unwanted chlorine = __________ pounds
Volume of pool / 117,600 x __________ ppm unwanted chlorine = __________ pounds
Chlorine Conversion/Comparison Chart
1 lb of gas chlorine
= (1 gallon liquid chlorine) = (1 lb 8-1/2 oz Cal-Hypo) = (2lb 13-1/2 oz
Lithium Hypo) = (1 lb 12-1/2 oz Sodium Dichlor) = (1 lb 2 oz Trichlor)
1 Gal Liquid Chlorine
= (1 lb gas chlorine) = (1 lb 8-1/2 oz Cal-Hypo) = (2 lb 8-1/2 oz Lithium
Hypo) = (1 lb 12-1/2 oz Sodium Dichlor) = (1 lb 2 oz Trichlor)
1 lb Calcium Hypochlorite
= (10-1/2 oz gas chlorine) = (2/3 gallon liquid chlorine) = (1lb 13-1/2
oz Lithium Hypo) = 1 lb 2-1/2 oz Sodium Dichlor) = 11-1/2 oz Trichlor)
1 lb Lithium Hypochlorite
= (5-1/2 oz gas chlorine) = (1/3 gallon liquid chlorine) = (8-1/2 oz Cal-
Hypo) = (10 oz Sodium Dichlor) = (6 oz Trichlor)
1 lb Sodium Dichlor
= (9 oz gas chlorine) = (½ gallon liquid chlorine) = (14 oz Cal-Hypo) = (1lb
9-1/2 oz Lithium Hypo) = (10 oz Trichlor)
1 lb Trichlor
= (14-1/2 oz gas chlorine) = (9/10 gallon liquid chlorine) = (1 lb 6 oz Cal-Hypo) = (2
lb 9 oz Lithium Hypo) = (1 lb 9-1/2 oz Sodium Dichlor)
Other Pool Chemicals
What they do
Simplified Total Alkalinity (TA) adjustment dosages
Lowering TA with Muriatic Acid
Volume of pool / 125,000 x __________ ppm desired change =__________quarts
Lowering TA with Sodium Bisulfate
Volume of pool / 47,056 x __________ ppm desired change = __________ pounds
Raising TA with Sodium Bicarbonate
Volume of pool / 71,425 x __________ ppm desired change = _________ pounds
Raising TA with Sodium Carbonate*
Volume of pool / 113,231 x __________ ppm desired change = __________ pounds
Raising TA with Sodium Sesquicarbonate
Volume of pool / 80,0000 x __________ ppm desired change = __________ pounds
* Only use Sodium Carbonate when both Total Alkalinity and pH need to be raised and TDS andcalcium carbonate are low - otherwise a white calcium precipitate may be formed. Use care andcaution when adding pool chemicals. Always add chemicals to water not water to chemicals.
Dilute as required and follow all manufacturer recommendation and instructions. Wear safetyequipment to protect yours eyes and skin. Do not inhale chemicals. Broadcast or pour around thepool in an even and consistent manner. It would always be better to add a little less chemical thanis required and test later. Re-adjust as needed.
To Increase Calcium Hardness
Calcium Chloride (77%)
Volume of pool / 92,400 x __________ ppm desired increase = __________ pounds
Calcium Chloride (100%)
Volume of pool / 120,000 x __________ ppm desired increase = __________ pounds
To Increase Cyanuric Acid
Cyanuric Acid (100% strength)
Volume of pool / 120,000 x __________ ppm desired increase = __________ pounds
Conversions and Definitions
1-inch = 0.0833 feet (12/10)Surface Area of a rectangle = length X widthSurface Area of a circle = radius X radius X 3.14Surface Area of an irregular shaped pool 2 widest sections added together X length X 0.45(Common sense and limitations apply)(Make-up water or water loss calculation would be surface area of pool X inches of loss X 0.0833)Example 400 SQFT Pool losing 2 inches per week 400 X 2 X 0.0833 = 66.64 cubic feet of waterloss. Now convert to gallons 66.64 X 7.5 =499.8 gallons
Circumference = Distance around a circleCircumference = Diameter X 3.14Diameter = Distance across a circleRadius = ½ the diameterRadius = diameter divided by 2
7.48 gallons in each cubic foot of water (You can use 7.5)1 gallon of water weighs 8.33 pounds1 cubic foot of water weighs 62.3 lbs1 ton = 2000 lbsAn average 12,000 gallon residential pool water weighs 100,000 lbs1 yard of shotcrete/concrete weighs APPROX 4200lbsAn average 18 yard residential swimming pool shell weighs 76,000 lbsAn average residential swimming pool and its water weighs 176,000lbs (88 tons)(This would not include decking, interior finish, tile, boulders and or water feature's)
16 ounces dry weight = 1 pound dry weight128 ounces liquid = 1 gallon64 ounces = ½ gallon liquid32 ounces = ¼ gallon or 1 quart liquid16 ounces = 1/8 gallon or 1 pint liquid8 ounces = 1/16 gallon or 1 cup liquid
ELECTRICITY & POOL PUMPS
1000 watts = 1 kilowatt
1,000,000 watts = 1 Megawatt
.000001 watt = 1 Microwatt
1 milliamp = 0.001 amp (30 milliamps will cause muscle contractions)
3/4 volt of 1 volt = 750 millivolts = 0.75 volts
1 Horsepower = 746 watts commonly calculated at 1000 watts or 1 kilowatt per HP
Ohms Law means E = IR - Voltage = Current X Resistance or I = E/R and R = E/I
(E=Voltage) (I=Current) (R=Resistance)
Power Formula - Watts = Voltage X Current (Watts Law)
Example (1000 watts = 120 AC Voltage X 8.33 amps)
Example (1000 watts = 240 AC Voltage X 4.165 amps)
Example (10 amps X 120 AC Voltage = 1200 watts)
Example (5 amps X 240 AC Voltage = 1200 watts)
Example (120 AC Voltage X 12 amps = 1440 watts)
Example (240 AC Voltage X 6 Amps = 1440 Watts)
NOTE: @ 240 Volts twice as much power is being delivered, this cuts the Amps in half A 1 HP
120 volt 10 amp pump would use the same amount of electricity as a 1 HP 240 volt 5 amp pump(Always use caution with electricity, consult an electrician if you do not know what you are
Approximate power usage by HP
1/3 HP = 246 watts per hour
½ HP = 373 watts per hour
¾ HP = 560 watts per hour
1 HP = 746 watts per hour
1-1/2 HP = 1120 watts per hour (Average size pool pump)
2 HP = 1492 watts per hour or approximately 1.5 kilowattsv 3 HP = 2238 watts per hour
Swimming pool pumps generally run @ 3450 RPM2-Speed pumps run @ 3450 RPM (High Speed) and 1725 RPM (Low Speed)
Pump manufactures make many lines of pool pumps. Some will be more efficient than others.
Efficient pumps generally use about 10% less electricity than standard pumps. This can add upquickly over time. The cost difference between an efficient model and a standard model is usuallyless than $50.00. An average pool pump will cost approximately (8 hours per day X 1120 watts =8960 watts X .10 per kilowatt hour = 89.60 cents per day times 365 days = $327.00 per year. Itwould take about 18 months to pay for the upgrade. Your pool pump should last 5-10 years ormore. It is worth the extra money. Cost per kilowatt-hour of electricity is something you can findon your electrical service provider bill.
Swimming pool pumps will use more electricity if there is too much resistance is your circulationsystem. I.E pump to big, filter to small, inadequate piping or piping to small, filter dirty, hair andlint pot dirty, skimmer full of debris etc… With pool pumps bigger is usually NOT better.
Spa Jets should be sized 1 jet per 1/3 HP of pool pump = 2HP = 6 jets / 1-1/2 HP = 4 jets
SINGLE SPEED PUMP vs. 2-SPEED PUMP COMPARISAN
STANDARD FILTRATION COSTS:
A standard single speed pool filtration system operates on a time clock for approximately eight
hours per day. A two horsepower pump consumes approximately 1.5kw per hour. Assuming an
electric rate of $0.10 per kWh, the following equation would apply:
8 hours X 1.5kw per hour X the rate of $0.10 per kWh = $1.20 per day.
$1.20 per day X 30 days = $36.00 per month
TWO-SPEED SYSTEM COSTS:
A two-speed system can operate your pool's filtration system 24-hours per day; 4 hours per day
on high speed (2 horsepower) and 20 hours per day on low speed (1/3 horsepower) is one
consideration. For this comparison we will only consider equal water turnover and filtration. High-
speed cost is the same as above per hour; low-speed cost is about 1/4th-1/6th of high-speed.
4 hours X 1.5 kWh per hour X the rate of $0.10 per kWh = $0.45 per day.
8 hours X 0.375 kWh per hour (1/4th the 1.5 kWh cost) X the rate of $0.10 per kWh = $0.30 per
day. / $.75 per day X 30 days = $22.50 per month.
In this scenario we have turned over the same amount of water as above (standard filtration
costs) yet saved about 33% in utility costs.
24 HOUR CIRCULATION:
4 hours X 1.5 kWh per hour X the rate of $0.10 per kWh = $0.45 per day.
20 hours X 0.375 kWh per hour X the rate of $0.10 per kWh = $0.75 per day.
$.75 per day X 30 days = $36.00 per month.
(These are the FAIR comparisons) The bottom line is this, for about the same money as runninga single speed pump for 8 hours on high speed you can run a 2-speed pump 24 hrs a day andtake advantage of all the items listed below. This does not even take into consideration time ofuse plans where you could save more money on utility bills. 2-Speed pumps make a lot of sense.
Smaller pumps apply as well!
Benefits of the Two-Speed System
1. 24-hour per day filtration keeps your pool cleaner by circulating and filtering water 24/7.
You turnover the water in the pool almost twice as many times - this results in healthierwater conditions.
2. Chemical needs are reduced, as your pool remains cleaner because it is filtering all the
time. Chemicals and temperature are evenly mixed throughout the pool.
3. Energy and chemical costs can be reduced.
4. This helps your pool remain clean, fresh and ready for swimming.
5. If you use an automatic cleaner, it will only work on high-speed. Since you would be
running the pump in high-speed less than ½ the time of a single speed pump, you couldeffectively increase the life of your cleaner by twice as long. If you use an Electric cleaner– no worries
A single speed two horsepower pump running at 3450 RPM with a flow rate of 140GPM @ 40feet of TDH operating for 8 hours will filter 67,200 gallons of water. An average pool is 12,500gallons - this gives us a turnover of 5.376 times. A two-speed pump running at 3450 RPM with aflow rate of 140 GPM @ 40 feet of TDH in high-speed for four hours and in low-speed for 20hours at 1725 RPM with a flow rate of 70 GPM will filter 117,600 gallons of water. This willproduce 9.408 turnovers.
HYDRAULICS (FLUIDS IN MOTION)
1-psi = 2.31 feet of head (resistance) (Pressure)1-psi - 28 inches water column pressure (WCP)1-inch of mercury = 1.13 feet of head (Vacuum)
You can check the resistance in a closed loop swimming pool circulation system by installing avacuum gauge just prior to the pump or at the pump and a pressure gauge just after the filter.
These two readings when combined will give you a Total Dynamic Head or Resistance readingfor your system. Most residential systems are and should be designed for about 40 feet of TDH.
There are exceptions and this is not meant to be dogmatic. Example system: Vacuum gaugereads 8.3 and pressure gauge reads 13.4.
8.3 X 1.13 = 9.379 + 13.4 X 2.31 = 30.03. Total system resistance is 9.37 + 30.03 = 39.409
The PVC Piping in a pool system is designed to carry fluid from one point to another in anefficient matter. When piping is to small velocities increase and performance decreases. Pipingvelocities should be kept at less than 6 feet per second (fps) on the suction side and no morethan about 8 fps on the return side. By sticking to these recommendations the pool pump canoperate in an efficient manner.
A swimming pool system should have a Hydraulic design that will take into account pool watervolume, turn over rate, filtering rate, pump size and type, filter size and type, distance from pool toequipment and many other factors. A common mistake is a 1-1/2 inch to 2 inch single suction line(In many cases connected to BOTH the skimmer and main drain) with a pump larger than 1 HP.
We see this constantly!
PVC plumbing is designed to carry water @ less than 100 degrees plus/minusCPVC plumbing is designed to carry water above 100 degreesSwimming pools should turn over the entire volume of water at least one time every 6 hours(minimum)Spas should turn over every 30 minutes or less
Filters are by size, filtering rate and microns of effective filter capability. The lower number ofmicrons the smaller the particulate a filter will catch. Following is some general filter informationand guidelines.
1 micron = one-millionth of 1 meter = 0.0000394 inches (the human eye can detect objects asmall as 35 microns)1 grain of table salt = 100 microns
Sand Filters catch particulates to about 30-50 microns
(As SAND filters get dirty they catch smaller and smaller debris)
Most residential Sand Filters are rated @ 20 GPM per SQFT of filtering areaThis means:3.1 SAND Filter is rated @ 63 GPM (Gallons per minute)4.9 SAND Filter is rated @ 98 GPM (Gallons per minute)7.0 Sand Filter is rate @ 140 GPM (Gallons per minute)
DE Filters catch particulates to about 7-10 microns(As DE Filters load up they catch smaller and smaller debris)
Most residential DE filters are rated @ 2 GPM per SQFT of filtering areaThis means:36 SQFT DE Filter is rated @ 72 GPM (Gallons per minute)48 SQFT DE Filter is rated @ 98 GPM (Gallons per minute)60 SQFT DE Filter is rated @ 120 GPM (Gallons per minute)72 SQFT DE Filter is rated @ 144 GPM (Gallons per minute)
Cartridge Filters catch particulates to about 15-20 microns(As Cartridge Filters load up they catch smaller and smaller debris)
For residential applications Cartridge filters are rated @ 1 GPM per SQFT of filter area forcommercial applications they are rated at .375 GPM per SQFT of filtering area. You want to usethe commercial rating.
This means:320 SQFT Cartridge filter is rated @ 120 GPM (Gallons per minute)420 SQFT Cartridge filter is rated @ 157.50 GPM (Gallons per minute)520 SQFT Cartridge filter is rated @ 195 GPM (Gallons per minute)
NOTE: It is possible to backwash SAND and DE filters too much. By doing this you never reallygive the filter a chance to load up and catch the small debris. Most SAND and DE filters shouldnot be backwashed until the pressure gauge on the filter rises 8-10 psi OR water quality starts tobe compromised.
3.1 Sand Filter 300 gallons or until water is clear coming out of the backwash hose4.9 Sand Filter 500 Gallons or until water is clear coming out of the backwash hose7.0 Sand Filter 700 Gallons or until water is clear coming out of the backwash hose
36 SQFT DE Filter 180 Gallons or until water is clear coming out of the backwash hose48 SQFT DE Filter 240 Gallons or until water is clear coming out of the backwash hose60 SQFT DE Filter 300 Gallons or until water is clear coming out of the backwash hose72 SQFT DE Filter 360 Gallons or until water is clear coming out of the backwash hose
1 pound of DE powder will coat 10 SQFT of DE Filter36 SQFT DE filter requires 3.6 pounds of DE48 SQFT DE filter requires 4.8 pounds of DE60 SQFT DE filter requires 6 pounds of DE72 SQFT DE filter requires 7.2 pounds of DE
DE Filters should be completely manually cleaned and inspected once a year. The grids in thefilter are what need inspecting. Check for broken pieces and torn and worn grids.
SAND and DE Filters require a backwash valve for backwashing. Cartridge filter do not. DO NOTuse the backwash valve to drain your pool any lower than the bottom of the skimmer throat. Thiscan cause the pump to run dry and burn up your pump. The best way to drain a pool is with asubmersible pump. They can be rented or purchased fairly inexpensively.
Cartridge Filters are manually cleaned as needed (Use hose and water). Clean cartridge
elements with (TSP) Tri-Sodium-Phosphate to degrease them. DO NOT use muriatic acid untilAFTER you have done this. You can soak them in a mild solution of chlorine to turn them whiteagain AFTER you have cleaned, decreased and rinsed them good.
Sand should be replaced in SAND Filter about every 3-5 years depending on manufacturer’sspecifications.
Sand Filter use #20 Silica sand and or predetermined amount of pea gravel. Consult yourmanufacturer’s specifications.
1 BTU (British Thermal Unit) is the amount of heat required to raise 1 pound of water 1°FEXAMPLE: 800 gallon spa (800 X 8.33 = 6664 lbs) (If the spa temperature was 70 degrees andthe desired temperature is 104 degrees) (6664 X 34 = 226,576 BTUs required) (400,000 BTU gasheater @ 82% efficiency) (400,000 X 82% =328,000 BTU output) (328,00 BTU output /226,576BTU needed X 60 = 41 minutes to heat
1 therm (measurement of gas supply) = 100,000 BTU per hour1 kilowatt = 3412 BTU1 gallon of fuel oil = 140,000 BTU1 ton (heat pump rating) = 15,000 BTU Example / 5-ton Heat pump = 75,000 BTU
Without a pool cover heat loss in a swimming pool can be 50% or more overnight
A typical bather displaces 3 cubic feet of water (Or about 20-25 gallons)
One active swimmer in a pool produces about 1 pint of sweat
One dog in a pool is equal to 50 people, Yes 50!
4 people in a 600 gallon spa are equal to 250 people in a 25' x 50' x 4' deep pool
Your taste threshold for salt water is around 3500 ppm
1 Yard of concrete will cover 75 SQFT 4" thick
The diving board type should be used as a source for determining safe diving pooldesign. Bigger boards require longer deeper pools.
Diving pools should be no less than 15' wide and 32-34' long minimum.
Recommended max temperature for spas is no more than 104 degrees.
Recommended max time in a spa @ 104 degrees is 15 minutes. Cool off and than goback in.
A bucket can sometimes be used to determine if a leak is in a pool. Turn off water andthe water-leveling device. Place bucket on the top step of the pool. Make sure the level inthe bucket is equal to the level in the pool. Mark the level in the bucket. Check in 48hours. Generally if there is a leak in the pool the water in the pool will be less than thewater in the bucket. The evaporation rate should be the same.
8 gpm to fill pool with one hose ( 20,000 gallon pool would take 41.6 Hours to fill) 18gpm to fill the pool with two hoses ( 20,000 gallon pool would take 18.5 hours to fill)
Kardioline HCG Urine Pregnancy Test (Cassette) For Self-Testing INTERPRETATION OF THE SYMBOLS ON THE PACKAGE REAGENTS Test device comprised colloidal gold coated with anti β-HCG monoclonal antibody, NC membrane coated with anti α-HCG monoclonal antibody and rabbit anti mouse IgG Symbol for “Attention, see instructions for use” MATERIALS PROVIDED Each pouch cont
FDA on Bioidentical Hormones: Myths vs. Facts There is a lot of confusion surrounding FDA’s recent action to restrict women’s access to bio-identical hormones that their doctors prescribe for them. In recent months, FDA raised various concerns. For example, FDA has said that making unsubstantiated claims of safety and efficacy is inappropriate. In this instance, the FDA may be cor