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Livestock Production Science 63 (2000) 85–91 A comparison of the composition of milks from Meishan and Brenda Alston-Mills *, Sara J. Iverson , Marvin P. Thompson aNorth Carolina State University, Department of Animal Science, Box 7621 Raleigh, NC 27695, USA bCanadian Institute of Fisheries Technology, Technical University of Nova Scotia, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3J 2X4 c Allied Health Department, Saint Augustines College, Raleigh, NC 27610, USA Received 17 April 1998; received in revised form 26 January 1999; accepted 18 May 1999 Abstract
Because of low energy reserves at birth, piglets are dependent on the sow’s milk for survival. Breed differences can influence milk composition. The objective of this study was to examine litter characteristics, milk composition includingcalcium and the water holding capacity of casein, solvation, between the highly prolific Meishan breed and lean crossbredpigs. Samples were collected by hand-milking at early (days 3–5) and late (days 20–21) lactation. Milk fat percentage forMeishans was higher than for the crossbred, especially during early lactation (10.7260.5 . 8.9160.4 (crossbred); P ,0.0005). During late lactation, Meishans had 8.6060.49 . 6.4960.39 (crossbred); P . 0.05. No differences were observedbetween breeds for lactose or protein at either sampling time. Calcium concentration (mg / dl) was higher in Meishan milkthan in crossbred milk at early lactation (0.20460.01 . 0.17860.01; P , 0.05). There were no differences at late lactation.
Crossbred solvation values (g water / g protein) were the same (2.1860.12) as Meishan (2.3660.16). Those values were alsosimilar at late lactation. The mean litter size for the Meishans was higher than that of the crossbred (13.860.1 . 11.160.7;P , 0.05). Mean birth weights (kg) were less for Meishans (0.9160.09 , 1.460.07; P , 0.05) and similarly, weaningweights (4.7860.41 , 5.9460.31; P , 0.05). Milk from Meishans might provide an early advantage to improve survivabilityof piglets by supplying more fat and higher calcium for bone development than traditional breeds.  2000 Elsevier ScienceB.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Milk composition; Meishan; Pig; Solvation 1. Introduction
milks of the primates, including man, are relativelydevoid of casein (0.1–0.2%), whereas those of pigs Upon examination of the milks of over 200 (sow milk) contain | 4%. Additionally, he observed species of mammals, Jenness (1974, 1988) observed breed variations in milk composition among Bos considerable variation in their overall composition, taurus, the Jersey breed being highest in the per- including protein, fat and lactose. For example, the centage of fat. In a joint study, Thompson et al.
(1969) and Jenness observed a direct relationshipbetween casein pellet solvation (g water / g protein) *Corresponding author. Tel.: 11-919-515-4036; fax: 11-919- and the heat-stability of bovine milk, an observation E-mail address: bpam@unity.ncsu.edu (B. Alston-Mills) which appeared to involve, in part, the total con-  2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
P I I : S 0 3 0 1 - 6 2 2 6 ( 9 9 ) 0 0 1 1 4 - 1 B. Alston-Mills et al. / Livestock Production Science 63 (2000) 85 –91 centration of ionised calcium in the system. As the calcium ion concentration increased, solvation de-creased and vice versa. Thompson and Farrell (1974) confirmed this observation by reporting that the calcium-binding property of casein relates to the overall stability of micellar casein.
Despite evidence that breed differences in pigs significantly influence milk production and composi- tion (Fahmey, 1972), few studies have been con- ducted (over the course of lactation) which included Meishan pigs. These pigs are a highly successful breed from China, which are characterized by high back-fat. Despite higher body lipids, their piglets tend to weigh less than traditional breeds at birth, and are more resistant to cold and starvation (Le Dividich et al., 1991). Although the colostrum appears similar in composition to conventional Choline chloride (0.105), folic acid (0.034), biotin (0.05), breeds (Herpin et al., 1993), the purpose of this vitamin A (5156 IU), swine vitamin P (0.10), vitamin E (12.4 IU), L-lysine-HCl (0.05), sodium selenite (0.05), magnesium oxide study was to characterize properties of mature milk 2. Materials and methods
Fat percentage was determined by the Babcock method (AOAC, 1984). Total skim-milk protein wasmeasured using the bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA) Crossbred (n 5 9) and Meishan gilts (n 5 5) were following the procedures as suggested by the manu- reared at Swine Unit II, North Carolina State Uni- facturer (Pierce Chemicals, Rockford, IL). Lactose versity. Crossbred pigs consisted of 1 / 4 Landrace, was measured using a YSI Glucose Analyzer with a 1 / 4 Large White, 1 / 4 Duroc and 1 / 4 Hampshire.
lactose membrane (Yellow Springs, OH).
Pigs were hand-milked after i.m. injection of 0.5 to For analysis of fatty acids, milk lipid was ex- 1.0 ml (20 U / ml) oxytocin. Samples were taken at tracted according to the method of Folch et al.
early (day 3) and late (days 20 to 21) lactation. All (1957) as modified by Iverson (1988). Fatty acid sows were maintained on a standard diet based on methyl esters were prepared directly from the pure NRC (1988) requirements (Table 1) and fed ad extracted lipid (filtered and dried over anhydrous libitum. Litters of the Meishan and crossbred sows sodium sulfate), using 1.5 ml 8% boron trifluoride in were weighed at birth and at each sampling period.
methanol (v / v) and 1.5 ml hexane, capped under Approximately 30 ml of milk were collected from nitrogen, and heated at 1008C for 1 h. Fatty acid each sow studied. The milk was collected and pooled methyl esters were extracted into hexane, concen- from the first three pairs of teats for each sow at each trated, and brought up to volume (50 mg / ml) with sampling time, pooled, and then placed on ice.
Aliquots of well-mixed milk were taken for fat and Duplicate analyses of fatty acid methyl esters were four samples from each breed were chosen at random for fatty acid analysis. The remainder of all samples grammed gas liquid chromatography according to was centrifuged to remove fat and the skim milk was Iverson (1988) and Iverson et al. (1992), on a Perkin assayed in duplicates for lactose, total protein, Elmer Autosystem II Capillary FID gas chromato- graph fitted with a 30 m 3 0.25 mm i.d. column B. Alston-Mills et al. / Livestock Production Science 63 (2000) 85 –91 coated with 50% cyanopropyl polysiloxane (0.25 mm normal distribution and as determined by small film thickness J&W DB-23; Folsom, CA) and linked sample size). In addition, the correlation coefficient to a computerized integration system. Fatty acids was determined for the above-mentioned milk prop- were identified and quantified according to Iverson et erties. Fatty acid statistical analysis was done, using al. (1997) using a combination of standard mixtures a two-way analysis of the variance. A paired t-test (Nu Check Prep) and silver nitrate chromatography, was done for early- vs. late-lactation samples.
as well as an ion-trap mass detector. Fatty acids are Comparison means and standard deviations were expressed as weight percent of total fatty acids.
chartered for Meishan and crossbred breeds at early- To determine calcium concentration, milk was and late-lactation for: piglets born alive or dead, diluted 1:1000 using 5% lanthanum oxide buffer (pH collective birth and post-weaning weights. The 1.7) and measured by absorption spectrophotometry.
statistical model included stage of lactation and Casein pellet solvation (g water / g protein) was breed for fat, protein, lactose, calcium, and solvation.
essentially performed as described by the method ofThompson et al. (1969) except that a BeckmanModel L8M ultracentrifuge was used with automatic 3. Results
temperature control. Four ml of whole milk werepipetted into 4 ml cellulose nitrate centrifuge tubes and centrifuged at 68,000 3 g, 25,000 rev. / min, inan SW-39 rotor for 35 min at 378C. Following Total protein, lactose and milk fat contents are centrifugation, the tubes were drained for 5 min and the tube cut off 2 to 3 mm above the pellet. The tubeplus the pellet were weighed (W ), frozen at 2408C, and lyophilized overnight. The dry pellet and tube were weighed (W ) and the pellet alone was weighed, being careful to scrape away all the pellet Solvation values from Meishans were slightly in the tube (W ). Solvation was determined by the higher than the crossbreds at early-lactation and at equation: W 2 W /W 5g water / g protein.
late-lactation. At early-lactation, milk from the crossbreds had less calcium than the Meishans (P , 0.05). At the same time, crossbred milk calciumconcentrations increased (P ,0.01) by late-lactation A general linear-models procedure was performed with only a slight increase observed in the Meishans.
on the data contrasting the breeds and lactation stage There were positive correlations among values for for the above-mentioned variables. A one-way analy- solvation values, proteins, and calcium to the breed.
sis of the variance was performed for the two stages Over time, the slight decreases observed in protein of lactation between the two breeds (t-test). Because content were reflected by the solvation values and the sample size was small, ,15, a Wilcoxon rank- inversely reflected in the calcium concentration sum test was performed (because of the absence of a Proximate analysis (percent6S.E.M.) of gilts sampled at early lactation (EL) and weaning (LL) Numbers within columns with different superscripts are different at Numbers between EL and LL with different superscripts are different at B. Alston-Mills et al. / Livestock Production Science 63 (2000) 85 –91 Solvation values (g water / g protein) and calcium concentrations (g / dl) in milks from gilts at early lactation (EL) and weaning (LL) Numbers within columns with different superscripts are significant at Numbers across rows with different superscripts are significant at No breed differences were observed in milk fatty The Meishan sows consistently had larger litters at acid composition (Table 4). However, in the farrowing than the crossbred sows (P ,0.05). There Meishan pigs, an increase was observed in 14:0 and were no differences in the number born dead or 16:0 values while 18:1 values decreased from early- to late-lactation. Similar but insignificant changes crossbred piglets was higher than for the Meishan between early- and late-lactation were observed in piglets. The same was true for mean piglet weaning Table 4Milk fatty acid analysis comparing milks from Meishan and crossbred multiparous sows. Samples were from early and late lactation(percent6S.E.M.) a Early vs. late lactation significance ,0.05.
Litter characteristics of Meishan and crossbred pigs Numbers across rows with different subscripts are significantly different at B. Alston-Mills et al. / Livestock Production Science 63 (2000) 85 –91 4. Discussion
serum increase calcium bridges among individualcasein molecules limiting the amount of water The newborn piglet is solely dependent on sow trapped in the micelle lattice. Unpublished work by colostrum and milk for its nutritional energy source Thompson in 1970 observed that poorly solvated with glucose and fatty acid metabolism having major micelles ( ,1.5 g water / g protein in bovine milk) were dramatically larger than highly solvated mi- Nutrient partitioning to lean or adipose is affected by celles ( $2.09 g water / g protein) when observed by genetics as suggested by McNamara and Martin transmission electron microscopy. These findings, (1982). From this study, litter size was higher in the the inverse relationship of size and solvation, were Meishans but mean of the birth weights were less corroborated by Anema and Creamer (1993). They than in the crossbred pigs. Additionally, the Meishan also related solvation to high amount of k-casein mean of the weaning weights were less than those of present with no relation to calcium.
the crossbred piglets. Bazer et al. (1988) reported On the one hand, a study by Sood and Gaind both decreased birth weights and weaning weights in (1979) postulated that voluminosity of the casein Meishans when compared to Large Whites. Our data micelle increased as solvation increased without loss comparing crossbred piglets were similar. There of protein. On the other hand, these researchers also were higher concentrations of milk fat in the found, as reported here, a negative correlation be- Meishans as compared to the crossbred. It has been tween calcium content and solvation. Although total suggested that an increase in colostral or milk fat casein of sow’s milk (|4%) is higher than that of would provide improved piglet performance. Bishop cow’s milk (|2.5%), our observations show that et al. (1985) added triamcinolone plus soy oil to the casein micelles are solvated 17% more than the prepartum diet of sows and observed that the colos- average cow’s milk. Genetic variants of a , b, and trum had more fat but the diet also increased carcass k-casein have been associated with bovine micelle fat in nursed pigs. Coffey et al. (1982) found no solvation. Therefore, the expectation of differences increase in weaned piglet weights as a result of between Meishan and crossbred sows would not be increased milk yield / milk fat. We conjecture that no unusual if, indeed, the caseins are also genetically improvement in weaning weight is a reasonable variable. The importance of solvation in sow milk is finding if the assumption is that carcass fat weighs uncertain. A possible explanation of its function less than muscle fat. In contrast, according to Nissen might be that solvation influences protein retention time in the gut slowing the rate of digestion and methylbutyrate to the diet of sows increased the absorption; i.e. the lower the solvation, the greater percentage milk fat and also increased piglet weight.
the retention time. Amino acids from milk proteins Further, similar results were reported by Averette contribute little to the energy of the newborn but are and Odle (1997) who added a fat supplement to the important in the accretion of body protein (Girard et diet of primiparous and multiparous sows resulting in al., 1992). In this study, milk from crossbred sows increased piglet weight. In addition, differences in had the lowest solvation ratios. Also, the piglets were fatty acid composition between the Meishans and heavier at weaning when compared to the Meishan crossbreds were not observed. This was not surpris- piglets. It is not known whether the high solvation ing given the fact that both breeds were on the same values reflect piglet performance in this study.
diet. Fatty acids in the milk tend to reflect dietary fat Calcium concentration in the Meishan milk was composition rather than fatty acid composition of the higher than that of the crossbreds at early-lactation and slightly higher at late-lactation. At early-lacta- Over time, casein solvation values correlated tion, calcium is advantageous for providing bone positively with protein concentration and negatively growth, thereby contributing to overall strength of with calcium concentrations. This observation is the mammal. One study showed that in growing pigs, consistent with data reported on bovine milk high serum calcium, as a result of feeding increased calcium in the diet, significantly depressed pig Higher concentrations of ionic calcium in milk weights. Additionally, the immune response was not B. Alston-Mills et al. / Livestock Production Science 63 (2000) 85 –91 AOAC, 1984. In: 14th ed, Official Methods of Analysis, Associa- tion of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.
Brucella abortus (Galloway et al., 1989). Meishan Averette, L.A., Odle, J., 1997. Effects of dietary fat on milk pigs have better disease resistance to certain bacterial composition and litter performance of induced and naturally- strains (Duchet-Suchaux et al., 1991) but there is no farrowing swine (Abstract). FASEB J. 11, A415.
conclusive evidence that the high calcium concen- Martinat-Botte, F., Terqui, M., 1988.
Sexual maturation and morphological development of the trations observed in Meishan milk at early-lactation reproductive tract in large white and prolific Chinese Meishan have any protective effects for the piglets, although pigs. J. Reprod. Fertil. 84, 37–42.
the possibility exists. Improved immune response Bishop, T.C., Stahl, T.S., Cromwell, G.L., 1985. Effects of dietary would contribute to overall well-being and surviv- fat and triamcinolone additions during late gestation on the ability. Factors such as high calcium that are effec- body energy reserves of neonatal pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 61,1476–1484.
tive during early development, i.e. suckling, may not Coffey, M.T., Seerley, R.W., Mubrey, J.W., 1982. The effect of be as effective at a later stage of development, i.e.
source of supplemental dietary energy on sow milk yield, milk composition and litter performance. J. Anim. Sci. 55, 1388–1394.
Duchet-Suchaux, M.F., Bertin, A.M., Menanteau, P.S., 1991.
5. Conclusion
Susceptibility of Chinese Meishan and European Large Whitepigs to enterotaxigenic Escherichia coli strains bearing coloni-zation factor K88, 987P, K99, or F41. Am. F. Vet. Res. 52, 40.
A contributing factor to the success of Meishan Pegorier, J.P., Darcy-Vrillon, B., Girard, J., 1996.
piglets can be attributed to the quality of the sow Glucose and fatty acid metabolism in the newborn pig. In: milk. High milk-fat is advantageous to the newborn Tumbelson, M.E., Schook, M.E. (Eds.), Advances in Swine in but may be contraindicated to the long-range goals of Biomedical Research, Plenum Press, New York, p. 865.
Fahmey, M.H., 1972. Comparative study of colostrum and milk pork producers who are concerned with ways to composition of seven breeds of swine. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 52, increase piglet weights for early weaning without compromising the carcass lean:fat ratio, especially if Folch, J., Lees, M., Sloane-Stanley, G.H., 1957. A simple method there was a residual effect of high milk-fat on post- for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal weaning pigs. Additionally, it is well known that tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226, 497–509.
milk contains growth factors and other modulators of Galloway, S.T., Jacobson, N.L., Beitz, D.C., 1989. Effect of dietary calcium and vitamin d on immune response and blood growth including minerals. For example, the contri- parameters of young swine. In: Swine Research Report, Publ.
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state of the pig at birth. J. Anim. Sci. 71, 2645–2653.
Iverson, S.J., 1988. Composition, Intake and Gastric Digestion of Milk Lipids in Pinnipeds. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Mary- Acknowledgements
Iverson, S.J., Frost, K.J., Lowry, L.L., 1997. Fatty acid signatures reveal fine scale structure of foraging distribution of harbor Research supported by North Carolina Institute of seals and their prey in Prince William Sound. Alaska. Mar.
Nutrition and North Carolina Agricultural Research Station. Special thanks for technical assistance to Iverson, S.J., Sampugna, J., Oftedal, O.T., 1992. Positional specificity of gastric hydrolysis of long-chain n-3 polyunsatu-rated fatty acids of seal milk triglycerides. Lipids 27, 870–878.
Jenness, R., 1974. The composition of milk. In: Larson, B.L., Smith, V.R. (Eds.), Lactation: A Comprehensive Treatise, References
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Jenness, R., 1988. Composition of milk. In: Wong, N.P. (Ed.), 3rd Anema, S.G., Creamer, L.K., 1993. Effect of the A and B variants ed, Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry, VanNostrand-Reinhold, of both a -k-casein on bovine casein micelle solvation and k-casein content. J. Dairy Res. 60, 505–516.
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