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Dementia awareness faq's

The term 'dementia' is used to describe the symptoms that occur when the brain is affected by specific diseases and conditions. Symptoms of dementia include loss of memory, confusion and problems with speech and understanding.
Dementia is caused by damage to brain cells, which stops them from communicating effectively with each other. Gradually brain cells die, leading to the shrinkage of the brain typically seen in brain scans in some types of dementia.
820,000 people. 25 million of the UK population have a close friend or family member with dementia. There are over 17,000 younger people with dementia in the UK. There will be over 1 million people with dementia by 2021 and 1.7 million by 2051.
Two thirds of people with dementia are women.
Yes. The proportion of people with dementia doubles for every 5 year age group. Approximately one in 20 people over the age of 65 have dementia. By the age of 80 about one in six are affected, and one in three people in the UK will have dementia by the time they die.
There are over 25,000 people with dementia from black and minority ethnic groups in the UK.
How many deaths occur each year in the UK 60,000 deaths a year are directly attributable to dementia. Delaying the onset of dementia by 5 years would reduce deaths directly attributable to dementia by 30,000 a year.
It is unpredictable, but treatment is getting better and average life expectancy has increased. Every diagnosis is different but approximately it’s between 5-15 years.
Over £23 billion a year, more than cancer and heart disease combined. Despite these figures, dementia research is desperately underfunded. Social care accounts to £9bn (40%), Health care £1.2bn (5%), Productivity losses £1.2bn (5%), Unpaid Carers £12bn (50%) How much does an individual dementia patient On average £27,647 per year: more than the UK medium cost? Registered charity 1131749 2013 Enhance the UK No, each case is different and it depends on the stage of dementia. Two thirds of people with dementia live in the community while one third live in a care home, however 80% of people living in care homes have a form of dementia or severe memory problems. Patients living at home will receive home care from the NHS which also supports the carers living at home with patients. Supported living is is also a popular alternative to a care home.
There are more than 17,000 younger people with dementia in the UK. However, this number is likely to be an under-estimate, and the true figure may be up to three times higher. The person's age, but younger people may have different needs, and require some different support.
Types of dementia in younger people:‣ Alzheimer's disease‣ Vascular dementia‣ Fronto-temporal dementia - most commonly occurs between the ages of 45 and 65. In about 40 per cent of cases the person has a family history of the disease.
‣ Alcohol-related brain impairment otherwise known as Korsakoff’s syndrome) - around 10 per cent of dementias in younger people are alcohol-related.
‣ Dementia with Lewy bodies - caused by the build-up of tiny protein deposits in the brain. Symptoms tend to fluctuate, and people can develop the features of Parkinson's disease. Around 10 per cent of younger people with dementia have dementia with Lewy bodies.
‣ Rarer forms of dementia - Around 20 per cent of younger people with dementia have a Examples include conditions that can lead to dementia, such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD).
under the age of 65 continue to 27% of of people with dementia also continue to work.
(England and Wales) protects anyone . Under the Equality Act employers must make reasonable adjustments for employees with a disability so that they are not disadvantaged at work.
Registered charity 1131749 2013 Enhance the UK Advances in medical and social care have led to a significant increase in the life expectancy of people with learning disabilities. Dementia generally affects people with learning disabilities in similar ways to people without a learning disability, but there are some important differences. People with a learning disability are at greater risk of developing dementia at a younger age - particularly those with Down's syndrome.
Statistics of people with Down's syndrome who have Alzheimer's disease: ‣ 1 in 50 of those aged 30 to 39 years‣ 1 in 10 of those aged 40 to 49 years‣ 1 in 3 of those aged 50 to 59 years‣ more than half of those who live to 60 or over.
Statistics of people with learning disabilities other than Down's syndrome who have dementia: ‣ 1 in 10 of those aged 50 to 65‣ 1 in 7 of those aged 65 to 75‣ 1 in 4 of those aged 75 to 85‣ nearly three-quarters of those aged 85 or over.
Diagnosing dementia is often difficult, particularly in the early stages. is the first person to consult. being diagnosed and those close to them, a physical examination, memory tests and/or brain scans.
commonly used test for complaints of memory problems or when a diagnosis of dementia is being considered.
Becoming forgetful does not necessarily mean that you have dementia. Memory loss can be an effect of ageing. It can also dementia-like symptoms can be caused by vitamin deficiencies and/or a brain tumour.
A definite diagnosis of the cause of dementia may only be confirmed at post mortem or, in very rare instances, through a brain biopsy.
Registered charity 1131749 2013 Enhance the UK There is a variety of drugs that can help the symptoms of dementia or slow the progression of the disease but it is incurable.
There are two main types of medication used to treat Alzheimer's disease - cholinesterase inhibitors and and NMDA receptor antagonists which work in different ways: Drugs include donepezil hydrochloride (Aricept), rivastigmine (Exelon), galantamine (Reminyl) and memantine (Ebixa).
Between 40 and 70 per cent of people with Alzheimer's disease benefit from cholinesterase inhibitor treatment, but it is not effective for everyone and may improve symptoms only temporarily, between six and 12 months in most cases. According to an Alzheimer's Society survey of 4,000 people, those using these treatments often experience improvements in motivation, anxiety levels and confidence, in addition to daily living, memory and thinking.
One of the main obstacles to creating effective treatments to dementia is that scientists still don't fully understand it. that dementia may start to develop decades before symptoms show. Even if drugs were found that could target the proteins causing damage to brain cells in neurodegenerative disease, the damage may already have been done.
Finally, dementia is very difficult to diagnose. There is no single test to pinpoint the disease. A diagnosis is made on the clinical judgement of a patient's symptoms, history and results from a variety of tests, many of which are used to rule out other possible causes.
Someone who is diagnosed with continue driving for some time. However, they must fulfil certain legal requirements. As the person's dementia , they will reach a point where they can no longer drive safely and must stop driving. Many people find this very difficult to accept.
Do I tell someone if they have dementia? There is no right or wrong answer. Some people deal well with their diagnoses, however many do not. It is something which should be discussed with the family and be judged against the stage of symptoms.
Registered charity 1131749 2013 Enhance the UK most people will become increasingly frail due to the progression of the illness. They will also gradually become dependent on others for all of their care. The later stages of dementia can be a distressing time for carers and relatives.
Symptoms in the later stages:‣ Memory loss is likely to be very severe. People may be unable to recognise those close to them or even their own reflection. They may no longer be able to find their way around familiar surroundings or identify everyday objects. However, they may occasionally experience sudden flashes of recognition.
‣ Problems with communication - understanding what is being said to them and what is going on around them. They with other people. They may gradually lose their speech, or they may repeat a few words or cry out from time to time.
‣ Loss of mobility‣ Eating and weight loss which can affect the immune system, making it harder to fight infections.
‣ Problems with continence‣ Unusual behaviour Helping minimise discomfort and distress: ‣ Make sure that the person's glasses are clean and hearing aid is functioning properly, if they use these.
‣ Check whether the person's medication is appropriate or whether they might be ill or in pain.
‣ Check that they are not being disturbed by too many people, too much activity, harsh lights, loud noises or abrupt movements.
‣ Consider whether they may be bored or in need of stimulation. Gentle activities such as a hand massage, listening to their favourite music or stroking a soft piece of fabric may help.
‣ Most importantly, make sure the person is comfortable – for example, not too hot or too cold, hungry or thirsty, or needing the toilet.
Registered charity 1131749 2013 Enhance the UK Yes is the short answer. A mental health condition is considered a disability if it has a long-term effect on your normal day-to-day activity. This is defined under the Equality Act 2010.
Your condition is ‘long term’ if it lasts, or is likely to last, 12 months or longer.
‘Normal day-to-day activity’ is defined as something you do regularly in a normal day. For example - using a computer, working set times or interacting with people.
There are many different types of mental health condition which can lead to a disability, including:‣ dementia‣ depression‣ bipolar disorder‣ obsessive compulsive disorder‣ schizophrenia‣ self-harm Changes to the welfare system in 2013 mean that dementia patients could qualify for Council Tax deductions.
There are around 100 different types of dementia. However Alzheimer's disease is the most common form, affecting 62% of those living with dementia.
Types of dementia - Alzheimer’s disease Alzheimer’s disease is probably the best–known cause of dementia, accounting for about two–thirds of cases in the elderly. More than half a million people in the UK have Alzheimer’s.
Typical early symptoms of Alzheimer’s include:‣ Regularly forgetting recent events, names and faces.
‣ Regularly misplacing items or putting them in odd places.
‣ Confusion about the time of day.
‣ Disorientation, especially away from your normal surroundings.
‣ Getting lost. ‣ Problems finding the right words. ‣ Reduced judgement, for example, being unaware of danger.
‣ Mood or behaviour problems such as apathy, irritability, or losing confidence.
In the vast majority of cases, the cause is still unclear. It is likely to be a combination of our age, lifestyle, environment and genetic make-up. Inherited or ‘familial’ forms of Alzheimer’s are rare.
Registered charity 1131749 2013 Enhance the UK Vascular dementia is the second most common cause of dementia and is caused by a reduction of blood flow to the brain. This can happen after a stroke or if blood vessels in the brain become damaged. Some people have both Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia – often called mixed dementia.
Vascular dementia can have symptoms similar to Alzheimer’s, including memory loss. There can also be more specific symptoms and these may differ depending on the area of the brain that is affected.
These symptoms may include:‣ Becoming slower in thinking.
‣ Disorientation and periods of confusion.
‣ Personality changes, depression and apathy.
‣ Becoming more emotional.
‣ Difficulty walking or changes in the way a person walks.
‣ Frequent urge to urinate or other bladder symptoms. This can be common in older age, but can be a feature of vascular dementia when seen with other symptoms.
The symptoms of vascular dementia get more severe over time. Vascular dementia normally progresses over several years but the rate of progression can vary during the course of the disease and from person to person. There may be a sudden or stepwise change following an event such as a stroke.
Registered charity 1131749 2013 Enhance the UK Frontotemporal dementia (originally called Pick’s disease) is a relatively rare form of dementia. Although it is thought to account for less than 5% of all dementia cases, it is the second most common cause of dementia in people under the age of 65.
Frontotemporal dementia is caused by damage to cells in areas of the brain called the frontal and temporal lobes. The frontal lobes regulate our personality, emotions and behaviour, as well as reasoning, planning and decision-making. The temporal lobes are involved in the understanding and production of language.
The early symptoms depend on which area of the brain is affected. In semantic dementia, the parts of the temporal lobe which support understanding of language and factual knowledge are most affected. In progressive non-fluent aphasia, parts of the frontal and temporal lobes which control speech are most affected. In other forms of frontotemporal dementia, the parts of the frontal lobe which regulate social behaviour may be most affected.
Some of these symptoms may include:‣ Decline in language abilities. This might include difficulty getting words out or understanding words. People may repeat commonly used words and phrases, make grammatical errors and forget the meaning of words.
‣ Difficulty recognising people or knowing what objects are for.
‣ Personality changes. This may include a lack of social awareness, loss of sympathy and empathy, apathy and inappropriate behaviour.
‣ Lack of personal awareness. People may fail to maintain their normal level of personal hygiene and grooming.
‣ Changes in food preference or over-eating.
‣ Behaviour changes. People may change their humour or sexual behaviour, develop unusual beliefs, interests or obsessions.
‣ Difficulty with even simple plans and decisions.
Frontotemporal dementia is a progressive condition which means symptoms get worse over time. The speed of progression of frontotemporal dementia can vary widely, but often unfolds over years – with some people living with the condition for more than 15 years. As the disease progresses, people may start to show some problems with movement similar to those seen in Parkinson’s or Motor Neurone Disease.
Registered charity 1131749 2013 Enhance the UK Dementia with Lewy bodies is the third most common cause Symptoms of dementia with Lewy bodies can be similar to those of other dementias, including memory loss, spatial awareness problems and a decline in problem solving skills. There are also some more specific symptoms associated with dementia with Lewy bodies. Some of these symptoms are also seen in Parkinson’s dementia.
These symptoms include:‣ Changes in alertness, attention and confusion, which may be unpredictable and change from hour-to-hour or day-to-day.
‣ Parkinson’s disease-type symptoms such as slowed movements, muscle stiffness and tremors.
‣ Visual hallucinations. These can involve seeing people or animals that aren’t really there.
‣ Sleep disturbances which can cause people to move or talk in their sleep.
‣ Fainting, unsteadiness and falls.
‣ Dementia with Lewy bodies is a progressive condition which means symptoms get worse over time. The disease can progress slowly over several years but the speed of progression and type of symptoms can vary from person to person.
Registered charity 1131749 2013 Enhance the UK

Source: http://enhancetheuk.org/enhance/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Dementia-Awareness-FAQs.pdf

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