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Scientific references for the ADDENDUM to
the food industry’s contribution to the list of claims according to Article 13 (3) of the regulation 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and VITAMIN B2 and Mental performance .3
PANTOTHENIC ACID and Mental performance.3
FOLATE and Mental performance .3
ZINC and Mental performance .4
COFFEA ARABICA and Mental and physical stimulant effect.4
READY-TO-EAT BREAKFAST CEREALS and Weight management .5
READY-TO- EAT BREAKFAST CEREALS and Reduction or maintenance of body fat.7
READY TO EAT BREAKFAST CEREALS and Healthier body weight .7
BREAKFAST and Mental performance .8
FOOD LOW/FREE OF ENERGY and Bodyshape management.10
PROTEIN and Satiety.13
INOSITOL and Cognitive and mental performance .14
TAURINE and Cognitive performance .15
TYROSINE and Cognitive function.16
TRYPTOPHAN and Mental and nerve function .17
BACOPA MONNIERI and Mental health .21
CAMELLIA SINENSIS and Cognitive performance .23
CENTELLA ASIATICA and Cognition.25
CROCUS SATIVUS and Mental health .26
GARCINIA CAMBOGIA and Weight management.27
FUCUS VESICULOSUS and Weight management .28
LYCOPODIUM SERRATUM and Mental health .29
VITAMIN B2 and Mental performance
Authoritative Body:
Institute of Medicine (1998) Riboflavin In Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academy Press, Washington D.C, chapter 5, pp 87-122 Review:
Haller J: The actions of vitamins and other nutrients on psychological parameters. In: Human Psychopharmacology (Hindmarch I, Stonier PD, eds). London: Wiley, 1995; pp 229–261 Huskisson E, Maggini S, Ruf M: The influence of micronutrients on cognitive function and performance. J Int Med Res 2007; 35(1): 1-19 Huskisson, E.; Maggini, S. and Ruf, M. (2007) The role of vitamins and minerals in energy metabolism and well-being. J. Internat. Med. Res. 35, 277-289 PANTOTHENIC ACID and Mental performance
Authoritative Body:
Institute of Medicine (1998) Pantothenic Acid In Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academy Press, Washington D.C, chapter 10, pp 357-373 Review:
Haller J: The actions of vitamins and other nutrients on psychological parameters. In: Human Psychopharmacology (Hindmarch I, Stonier PD, eds). London: Wiley, 1995; pp 229–261 Huskisson E, Maggini S, Ruf M: The influence of micronutrients on cognitive function and performance. J Int Med Res 2007; 35(1): 1-19 Huskisson, E.; Maggini, S. and Ruf, M. (2007) The role of vitamins and minerals in energy metabolism and well-being. J. Internat. Med. Res. 35, 277-289 FOLATE and Mental performance
Authoritative Body:
Institute of Medicine (1998) Folate In Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academy Press, Washington D.C, chapter 8, pp 196-305 Review:
Haller J: The actions of vitamins and other nutrients on psychological parameters. In: Human Psychopharmacology (Hindmarch I, Stonier PD, eds). London: Wiley, 1995; pp 229–261 Huskisson E, Maggini S, Ruf M: The influence of micronutrients on cognitive function and performance. J Int Med Res 2007; 35(1): 1-19 Huskisson, E.; Maggini, S. and Ruf, M. (2007) The role of vitamins and minerals in energy metabolism and well-being. J. Internat. Med. Res. 35, 277-289 Clinical Study
Flood VM, Smith WT, Webb KL, et al: Prevalence of low serum folate and vitamin B12 in an older Australian population. Aust N Z J Public Health 2006; 30(1): 38–41 Tucker KL, Qiao N, Scott T, Rosenberg I, Spiro A: High homocysteine and low B vitamins predict cognitive decline in aging men: the Veterans affairs normative aging study. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 82(3): 627–635 ZINC and Mental performance
Authoritative Body
Institute of Medicine (2001) Zinc In Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and. National Academic Press, Washington D.C., chapter 12, pp 442-501 Review
Frederickson CJ, Suh SW, Silvia D, Frederickson CJ, Thompson RB: Importance of zinc in the central nervous system: the zinc-containing neuron. J Nutr 2000; 130: 1471S–1483S Huskisson E, Maggini S, Ruf M: The influence of micronutrients on cognitive function and performance. J Int Med Res 2007; 35(1): 1-19 Prasad AS: Zinc: an overview. Nutrition 1995; 11: 93–99 Sandstead HH: Causes of iron and zinc deficiencies and their effect on brain. J Nutr 2000; 130: 347S-349S Clinical Study
Marshall TA, Stumbo PJ, Warren JW, Xie X-J: Inadequate nutrient intakes are common and are associated with low diet variety in rural, community-dwelling elderly. J Nutr 2001; 131: 2192–2196 COFFEA ARABICA and Mental and physical stimulant effect
Textbooks
Hagers Handbuch, 5 Auflage, Springer Verlag, 1994, 926-940 Magkos F, Kavouras SA. Caffeine use in sports, pharmacokinetics in man, and cellular mechanisms of action. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2005;45(7-8):535-62. Nehlig A, Debry G., Caffeine and sports activity: a review, Int J Sports Med. 1994 Jul;15(5):215-23. Links. Powers SK, Dodd S., Caffeine and endurance performance. Sports Med. 1985 May-Jun;2(3):165-74. Williams JH, Caffeine, neuromuscular function and high-intensity exercise performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1991 Sep;31(3):481-9. Links Human Studies
Beck TW, Housh TJ, et al. The acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on strength, muscular endurance, and anaerobic capabilities. J Strength Cond Res. 2006 Aug;20(3):506-10. Childs E, de Wit H. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects of acute caffeine in light, nondependent caffeine users. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 May;185(4):514-23. Doan BK, Hickey PA, et al. Caffeinated tube food effect on pilot performance during a 9-hour, simulated nighttime U-2 mission. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2006 Oct;77(10):1034-40. Haskell CF, Kennedy DO, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB. Cognitive and mood improvements of caffeine in habitual consumers and habitual non-consumers of caffeine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Jun; 179(4):813-25. Epub 2005 Jan 28. Hewlett P, Smith A. Acute effects of caffeine in volunteers with different patterns of regular consumption. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2006 Apr;21(3):167-80. Jarvis MJ. Does caffeine intake enhance absolute levels of cognitive performance? Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1993;110(1-2):45-52. Jay SM, Petrilli RM, Ferguson SA, Dawson D, Lamond N. The suitability of a caffeinated energy drink for night-shift workers. Physiol Behav. 2006 May 30;87(5):925-31. Epub 2006 Mar 29. Johnson-Kozlow M, Kritz-Silverstein D, et al. Coffee consumption and cognitive function among older adults. Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Nov 1;156(9):842-50. Texte intégral: http://aje.oxfordjournals.org Kamimori GH, Johnson D, Thorne D, Belenky G. Multiple caffeine doses maintain vigilance during early morning operations. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2005 Nov;76(11):1046-50. Philip P, Taillard J, Moore N, Delord S, Valtat C, Sagaspe P, Bioulac B. The effects of coffee and napping on nighttime highway driving: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Jun 6;144(11):785-91. Robelin M, Rogers PJ. Mood and psychomotor performance effects of the first, but not of subsequent, cup-of-coffee equivalent doses of caffeine consumed after overnight caffeine abstinence. Behav Pharmacol. 1998 Nov; 9(7):611-8. Schweitzer PK, Randazzo AC, et al. Laboratory and field studies of naps and caffeine as practical countermeasures for sleep-wake problems associated with night work. Sleep. 2006 Jan 1;29(1):39-50. Smith A, Brice C, Nash J, Rich N, Nutt DJ. Caffeine and central noradrenaline: effects on mood, cognitive performance, eye movements and cardiovascular function. J Psychopharmacol. 2003 Sep;17(3):283-92. READY-TO-EAT BREAKFAST CEREALS and Weight management
Authoritative Body
2006 Canadian clinical practice guidelines on the management and prevention of obesity in adults and children. Can Med Ass J, 2007; Lau CMAJ et al.; 176(8); S1-S13. Meta Analysis
Scientific dossier relating to ready to eat breakfast cereals (RTEC) and special K (SPK) with potential claims regarding weight loss. 2007; Ashwell Associates. Meta-Analysis report for Kellogg. The role of low-fat diets in body weight control: a meta-analysis of ad libitum dietary intervention studies. Int J Obes, 2000; Astrup A. et al.; 24(12); 1545-52. Individual Studies
Changes in thiamin intake and blood levels in young overweight/obese women following hypo-caloric diets based on the increased relative consumption of cereals or vegetables. Ortega R.M. et al. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007; 61: 77-82. Changes in folate status in overweight / obese women following two different weight control programmes based on an increased consumption of vegetables or fortified breakfast cereals. Ortega R.M. Br J Nutr; 2006: 1-9. Effect of post-dinner snack and partial meal replacement program on weight loss. Vander Wal J.S. et al. Int J Food Sci Nutr; 2006; 57(1/2): 97-106. Ready-to-eat cereal used as a meal replacement promotes weight loss in humans. Mattes R.D. J Am Coll Nutr; 2002; 21(6): 570-577. Ready-to-eat cereal products as meal replacements for weight loss. Vander Wal J.S. et al. Int J Food Sci Nutr; 2007; 58(5): 331-340. Promotion of dietary carbohydrate as an approach to weight maintenance after initial weight loss: a pilot study. Kirk T. et al. J Hum Nutr Dietet; 2000: 13; 277-285 Studies
Ashwell Associates (2007) Scientific dossier relating to ready to eat breakfast cereals (RTEC) and special K (SPK) with potential claims regarding weight loss. Meta-Analysis report for Kellogg. Astrup A, Grunwald GK, Melanson EL, Saris WHM, Hill JO (2000) The role of low-fat diets in body weight control: a meta-analysis of ad libitum dietary intervention studies. Int J Obes, 24(12); 1545-52. De La Hunty A, Ashwell M (2007) Are people who regularly eat breakfast cereals slimmer than those who don’t? A systematic review of the evidence. Nutrition Bulletin, 32: 118-128. Kirk T, Crombie N, Cursiter M (2000) Promotion of dietary carbohydrate as an approach to weight maintenance after initial weight loss: a pilot study. J Hum Nutr Dietet, 13; 277-285. Lau DCW, Douketis JD, Morrison KM, Hramiak IM, Sharma AM, Ur E, for members of the Obesity Canada Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Panel (2007) 2006 Canadian clinical practice guidelines on the management and prevention of obesity in adults and children [summary]. Can Med Ass J, 176(8); S1-S13. Mattes RD (2002) Ready-to-eat cereal used as a meal replacement promotes weight loss in humans. J Am Coll Nutr, 21(6); 570-577. Ortega RM, Andres P, Lopez-Sobaler AM, Rodriguez-Rodriguez E, Aparicio A, Bermejo LM, Garcia-Gonzalez L, Basabe B (2007) Changes in thiamin intake and blood levels in young overweight/obese women following hypo-caloric diets based on the increased relative consumption of cereals or vegetables. Eur J Clin Nutr, 61; 77-82. Ortega RM, Lopez-Sobaler AM, Andres P, Rodriguez-Rodriguez E, Aparicio A, Bermejo LM, Lopez-Plaza B (2006) Changes in folate status in overweight / obese women following two different weight control programmes based on an increased consumption of vegetables or fortified breakfast cereals. Br J Nutr, 2006; 1-9. Vander Wal JS, McBurney MI, Cho S, Dhurandhar NV (2007) Ready-to-eat cereal products as meal replacements for weight loss. Int J Food Sci Nutr, 58(5); 331-340. Vander Wal JS, Waller SM, Klurfeld DM, McBurney MI, Cho S, Kapila M Dhurandhar NV (2006) Effect of post-dinner snack and partial meal replacement program on weight loss. Int J Food Sci Nutr, 57(1/2); 97-106. Voedingscentrum Nederland (1998) Zo eet Nederland, Resultaten van de Voedselconsumptiepeiling 1997-1998 (This is how the Netherlands eats, the results of the 1997-1998 food consumption survey). READY-TO- EAT BREAKFAST CEREALS and Reduction or maintenance of body fat
Meta Analysis
Scientific dossier relating to ready to eat breakfast cereals (RTEC) and special K (SPK) with potential claims regarding weight loss. 2007; Ashwell Associates. Meta-Analysis report for Kellogg. The role of low-fat diets in body weight control: a meta-analysis of ad libitum dietary intervention studies. Int J Obes, 2000; Astrup A. et al.; 24(12); 1545-52. Individual Studies
Effect of post-dinner snack and partial meal replacement program on weight loss. Vander Wal J.S. et al. Int J Food Sci Nutr; 2006; 57(1/2): 97-106. Promotion of dietary carbohydrate as an approach to weight maintenance after initial weight loss: a pilot study. Kirk T. et al. J Hum Nutr Dietet; 2000: 13; 277-285 Ready-to-eat cereal used as a meal replacement promotes weight loss in humans. Mattes R.D. J Am Coll Nutr; 2002; 21(6): 570-577. Ready-to-eat cereal products as meal replacements for weight loss. Vander Wal J.S. et al. Int J Food Sci Nutr; 2007; 58(5): 331-340. Studies
Ashwell Associates (2007) Scientific dossier relating to ready to eat breakfast cereals (RTEC) and special K (SPK) with potential claims regarding weight loss. Meta-Analysis report for Kellogg. Astrup A, Grunwald GK, Melanson EL, Saris WHM, Hill JO (2000) The role of low-fat diets in body weight control: a meta-analysis of ad libitum dietary intervention studies. Int J Obes, 24(12); 1545-52. De La Hunty A, Ashwell M (2007) Are people who regularly eat breakfast cereals slimmer than those who don’t? A systematic review of the evidence. Nutrition Bulletin, 32: 118-128. Kirk T, Crombie N, Cursiter M (2000) Promotion of dietary carbohydrate as an approach to weight maintenance after initial weight loss: a pilot study. J Hum Nutr Dietet, 13; 277-285. Mattes RD (2002) Ready-to-eat cereal used as a meal replacement promotes weight loss in humans. J Am Coll Nutr, 21(6); 570-577. Vander Wal JS, McBurney MI, Cho S, Dhurandhar NV (2007) Ready-to-eat cereal products as meal replacements for weight loss. Int J Food Sci Nutr, 58(5); 331-340. Vander Wal JS, Waller SM, Klurfeld DM, McBurney MI, Cho S, Kapila M Dhurandhar NV (2006) Effect of post-dinner snack and partial meal replacement program on weight loss. Int J Food Sci Nutr, 57(1/2); 97-106. Voedingscentrum Nederland (1998) Zo eet Nederland, Resultaten van de Voedselconsumptiepeiling 1997-1998 (This is how the Netherlands eats, the results of the 1997-1998 food consumption survey). READY TO EAT BREAKFAST CEREALS and Healthier body weight
Review
de La Hunty A, Ashwell M (2007) Are people who regularly eat breakfast cereals slimmer than those who don’t? A systematic review of the evidence. Nutrition Bulletin, 32, 118-128 List of references used in the review
Albertson AM, Anderson GH, Crockett SJ et al. (2003) Ready-to-eat cereal consumption: its relationship with BMI and nutrient intake of children aged 4–12 years. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 103: 1613–9. Barton BA, Eldridge AL, Thompson D et al. (2005) The relationship of breakfast and cereal consumption to nutrient intake and body mass index: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 105: 1383–9. Bazzano LA, Song Y, Bubes V et al. (2005) Dietary intake of whole and refined grain breakfast cereals and weight gain in men. Obesity Research 13: 1952–60. Bertrais S, Polo Luque ML, Preziosi P et al. (2000) Contribution of ready-to-eat cereals to nutrition intakes in French adults and relations with corpulence. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 44: 249–55. Cho S, Dietrich M, Brown CJ et al. (2003) The effect of breakfast type on total daily energy intake and body mass index: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Journal of the American College of Nutrition 22: 296–302. Farshchi HR, Taylor MA & Macdonald IA (2004) Decreased thermic effect of food after an irregular compared with a regular meal pattern in healthy lean women. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 28: 653–60. Gibson SA & O’Sullivan KR (1995) Breakfast cereal consumption patterns and nutrient intakes of British schoolchildren. Journal of the Royal Society of Health 115: 366–70. Ortega RM, Requejo AM, Lopez-Sobaler AM et al. (1998) Difference in the breakfast habits of overweight/obese and normal weight schoolchildren. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 68: 125–32. Pollitt E & Mathews R (1998) Breakfast and cognition: an integrative summary. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67: 804S–813S. Rajpathak SN, Rimm EN, Rosner B et al. (2006) Calcium and dairy intakes in relation to long-term weight gain in US men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83: 559–66. Ruxton CH & Kirk TR (1997) Breakfast: a review of associations with measures of dietary intake, physiology and biochemistry. British Journal of Nutrition 78: 199–213. Schlundt DG, Hill JO, Sbrocco T et al. (1992) The role of breakfast in the treatment of obesity: a randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55: 645–51. Song WO, Chun OK, Obayashi S et al. (2005) Is consumption of breakfast associated with body mass index in US adults? Journal of the American Dietetic Association 105: 1373–82. Summerbell CD, Moody RC, Shanks J et al. (1996) Relationship between feeding pattern and body mass index in 220 free-living people in four age groups. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50: 513–9. Trowman R, Dumville JC, Hahn S et al. (2006) A systematic review of the effects of calcium supplementation on body weight. British Journal of Nutrition 95: 1033–8. Zemel MB (2004) Role of calcium and dairy products in energy partitioning and weight management. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79: S907–12. BREAKFAST and Mental performance
Individual Studies
Andersen L.F. et al (1995) Scientific data on breakfast and cognitive function among children and adolescents. Scand. J. Nutr. 39: 73-78. Belderson P., Harvey I., Kimbell R., O'Neill J., Russell J. and Barker M. (2003). Does breakfast club attendance affect schoolchildren's nutrient intake? A study of dietart intake at three school. British Journal of Nutrition, 90, 1003-1006. Benton D. & Sargent J. (1992) Breakfast, blood glucose and memory. Biological Psychology 33, 207-210. Benton, D & Parker, P. (1998) Breakfast, Blood glucose and cognition. Am J Clin Nutr, 67 (Suppl) 772S-778S Benton, D. Sargent, J. (1992) Breakfast, blood glucose and memory. Biological Psychology 33, 207-210 Chandler A-M. K. et al (1995) School Breakfast Improves Verbal Fluency in Undernourished Jamaican Children. J. Nutr. 125: 894-900. Connors, C. K. & Blouin, A. G. (1983). Nutritional effects on behaviour of children. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17, 198-201. Cromer, B.A. et al (1990) The School Breakfast. Program and Cognition in Adolescents,” Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, Vol. 11, No. 6, 295-300. Gregory G Phillips W. (2005) Does Eating Breakfast Affect the Performance of College Students on Biology Exams? Bioscene Volume 30(4) P.15-19. December 2005 Jacoby E. et al (1995) Dietary and cognitive effects of a school breakfast program among Andean children of Peru. FASEB. Lindeman A.K. & Clancy K.L. (1990) Assessment of Breakfast Habits and Social/Emotional Behavior of Elementary Schoolchildren. J. of Nutr. Educ. Vol. 22, No. 5. Lechky O. (1990) If children are developing poorly, ask what they had for breakfast. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 1990: 143 (3), 210-213. Lopez I. et al (1993) Breakfast omission and cognitive performance of normal, wasted and stunted schoolchildren. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 47, 533-542. Meyers, A. F., Sampson, A. E., Weitzman, M., Rogers, B. L. & Kayne, H. (1989). School Breakfast Program and school performance. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 143, 1234-1239. Murphy, J.M. et.al. (1997) School Breakfast and Psychosocial Functioning: Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Observations in an Inner-City School Sample. Pollitt E. (1995) Does breakfast make a difference in school?J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 95: 1134-1139. Pollitt, E (1998) Breakfast, Cognition and School Learning. Am J Clin Nutr, 67 (Suppl): 747S-748S Pollitt, E., Leibel, R. L. & Greenfield, D. (1981). Brief fasting, stress and cognition in children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 34, 1526-1533. Pollitt, E., Lewis, N. L., Garza, C. & Schulman, J. (1982-83). Fasting and cognitive function. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17, 169-174. Popkin B.M. & Lim-Ybanez M. (1982) Nutrition and School Achievement. Social Science & Medicine 16: 53-61. Simeon D.T. & Grantham-McGregor S. (1988) Effects of missing breakfast on the cognitive functions of school children of differing nutritional status. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 49, 646-53 Smith, A. (1998) Breakfast and mental health. Int J food Sci & Nutr, 49, 397-402 Smith, A. (1998) Breakfast Consumption and Intelligence in Elderly Persons. Psychological Reports pages 424-426 Vaisman, N., Voet, H., Akivis, A., Vakil, E. (1996) Effect of breakfast timing on the cognitive functions of elementary school students, Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Vol. 150 pp.1089-92. Wesnes, K. A., Pincock, C., Richardson, D., Helm, G. & Hails, S. (2003). Breakfast reduced declines in attention and memory over the morning in schoolchildren. Appetite, 41, 329-331. Worobey, J. & Worobey, H. S. (1999). The impact of a two-year school breakfast program for preschool-aged children on their nutrient intake and pre-academic performance. Child Study Journal, 29(2), 113-131. Wyon D. et al (1995) Energy intake at breakfast improves school performance of 10 year old Swedish children. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. Vol. 95 No. 9: A92. Wyon, D. P., Abrahamsson, L., Jartelius, M. & Fletcher, R. J. (1997). An experimental study on the effects of energy intake at breakfast on the test performance of 10-year-old children in school. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 48, 5-12. Reviews
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Authoritative Body
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Annu Rev Biochem 1998; 67: 227–64 Stewart JW, Harrison W, Quitkin F, Baker H. Low B6 levels in depressed outpatients. Biol Psychiatry 1984; 19: 613–16 Stone TW. Inhibitors of the kynurenine pathway. Eur J Med Chem 2000; 35: 179–86. Strite D, Valentine AD, Meyers CA. Manic episodes in two patients treated with interferon alpha. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1997; 9: 273–6. Thomas SR, Stocker R. Redox reactions related to indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway. Redox Rep 1999; 4: 199–220 Trivedi S. Psychiatric symptoms in carcinoid syndrome. J Indian Med Assoc 1984; 82: 292–4. Van der Vange BH, Kloosterboer HJ, Haspels AA. Effects of seven low-dose combined contraceptives on vitamin B6 status. Contraception 1989; 40: 377–84 van Praag HM, Kahn RS, Asnis GM, Wetzler S, Brown SL, Bleich A, Korn ML. Denosologization of biological psychiatry or the specificity of 5-HT disturbances in psychiatric disorders. J Affect Disord 1987; 13: 1–8. 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Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia, New Edition, 2002, Vol. I, pg. 70-77, Joint Publication of IDMA (Mumbai) and RRL (Jammu-Tawi). Indian Pharmacopeia 1996, Addendum 2005, pg 947- 948, Govt of India. Pharmacopoeia in Ayurveda , Part II, Govt of Andhra Pradesh, 1970, pg 29. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India,1999, Part I, Volume II, First Edition, Govt of India, pg 25-26. Peer-reviewed Publications
Allan JJ, Damodaran A, Deshmukh NS, Goudar KS and Amit A (2007) ”Safety evaluation of a standardized phytochemical composition extracted from Bacopa monnieri in Sprague Dawley rats”, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 45: 1928-1937. Barbhaiya HC, Desai R, Saxena VS, Pravina K, Venkateshwaralu K, Pathan WA, Geetharani P, Allan JJ and Amit A “Efficacy and tolerability of a specialized preparation of Bacopa monnieri on memory improvement in elderly volunteers - a double blind placebo controlled study”. Journal of Science and Healing (Submitted, under review). Deb DD, Kapoor P, Dighe RP, Padmaja R, Anand MS, D’Souza P, Deepak M, Murali B and Amit A. (2007) “In vitro safety evaluation ond anticlastogenic effect of BacoMind™ on human lymphocytes”, Biomedical and Environmental Sciences (In Press). Deepak M and Amit A (2004) “The need for establishing identities of ‘bacoside A and B’, the major bioactive saponins of Indian medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri”, Phytomedicine, 11: 264-268. Deepak M, Sangli GK, Arun PC and Amit A (2005) “Quantitative determination of the major saponin mixture ‘Bacoside A’ in Bacopa monnieri by HPLC, Phytochemical analysis, 16 (1): 24-29. Kasture SB, Kasture VS, Joshua AJ, Damodaran A and Amit A (2007), “Nootropic activity of BacoMind™, an enriched phytochemical composition from Bacopa monnieri”, Journal of Natural Remedies, 7(1): 166-173. Nikhil S, Sudha S, Aruna B, Amarjeeth R, Guido S and Amit A (2007) “Preliminary evaluation of different components of Bacopa monnieri for laxative effect”, Journal of Natural Remedies, 7 (1): 174-182. Prashanth D, Deepak D, Padmaja R, Sandhya K, Anjana M, Arun PC and Amit A (2002) "Brine shrimp lethality assay of Bacopa monnieri", Phytotheraphy Research, 16 (2): 197-198. Pravina K, Ravindra KR, Goudar KS, Vinod DR, Joshua AJ, Wasim P, Venkateshwaralu K, Saxena VS and Amit A (2007) “Safety evaluation of BacoMind™ in healthy volunteers: a phase I study”, Phytomedicine, 14: 301-308. Samiulla DS, Prashanth D and, Amit A (2001) “Mast cell stabilising activity of Bacopa monnieri”, Fitoterapia 72: 284-285. Sudha S, Kumaresan S, Amit A, David J and Venkataraman BV (2002) “Anti-convulsant activity of different extracts of Centella asiatica and Bacopa monnieri in animals”, Journal of Natural Remedies, 2/1: 33- 41. Sudha S, Bindu R, Joyce G, Amit A and Venkataraman BV (2005) “Pharmacological interaction of Centella asiatica and Bacopa monnieri with antiepileptic drugs – an experimental study in rats”, Journal of Natural Remedies, 5 (1): 63-69. Evidence of Tradition of Use
Ambikadatta Shastri, Bhaisajya Ratnavali, Pub: Chaukambha Sanskrit Sansthan, 1996, Hindi-Sanskrit version, 113, 362, 373. Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, First edn. Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of ISM&H. 1999, Part I, Vol. II, Chapter II, 25 – 26, Ayurvedic drugs and their plant sources V. V Sivarajan and Indira Balachadran. Bhishagratna KL, Susrutha Samhita-English translation, Chowkhamba publication, Veranasi, 1996,fifth edn,vol-II, 524-526. Gupta AK, Sharma M, Tandon N, Reviews on Indian Medicinal Plants, Indian council of Medical Research, New Delhi, 2004, 4 , 4-23. Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia, New Edition, 2002,Vol.I,p.70-77,Joint Publication of IDMA (Mumbai) and RRL ( Jammu-Tawi). Indian Medicinal Plants - a compendium of 500 species Part 3 by Orient Longman Publications, 1997, 209. Indian Pharmacopeia 1997, Addendum 2005, pg 947- 948, Govt of India. Nadkarni KM, Indian Materia Medica, Vol. 1, Popular Prakashan, 1993, 624. Pharmacopoeia in Ayurveda , Part II, Govt of Andhra Pradesh, 1970, pg 29. o Kings 4:33, An indigenous plant to Western Asia and modern Africa o Exodus 12:22, The Isralites used in sprinkling the blood of the paschal lamb upon the o Leviticus 14:4,6,51,52, In sprinkling blood in purifications o Hebrews 9:9, In sprinkling blood in purifications o Numbers19:6, Used in the sacrifices of separation o John 19:29, Used in giving Jesus vinegar on the cross Sharma PV, Charaka Samhita, Chikithsa Sthana, chapter I, Chaukambha Orientalia publication, edn II, 1996, English version, 22, 24-29. Sharma PV, Dhanwantri Nigantu, Karaveeradi Varga (Suvarchala Vishesha), Chaukambha Orientalia pub. I, 1982, Hindi - Sanskrit version, 137, 236. Sharma PC, Yelne MB, Dennis TJ, Database on Medicinal plants used in Ayurveda, Central council for research in Ayurveda & Siddha (Dept. Of ISM&H, Min. of Health &Family Welfare, Govt of India), New Delhi, 2000, Vol-1,93-101. Srikantamurthy K, Sharanghadhara Samhitha, Swarasa Adhyaya, Chapter I, edn. II, 1995, Chaoukambha Orientalia publication, 53. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India, 32- GHRTA (Snehakalpa), Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Planning, Department of Health, 1987, Part I, 77 – 6. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, 1999, Part I, Volume II, First Edition, Govt of India, pg 25-26. Traditionally used in India for over 5000 years. CAMELLIA SINENSIS and Cognitive performance
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