Farmacia italiana online: Comprare antibiotico Amoxicillina e Roma senza ricetta.
Atomic energy (safe disposal of radioactive waste) rules, 1987
ATOMIC ENERGY (SAFE DISPOSAL OF
RADIOACTIVE WASTES) RULES, 1987.
G.S.R. 125. — In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) read with clause (i) of sub-section (2) of Section 30 and clause (b) of sub-section (1) of Section 17 of the Atomic EnergyAct, 1962 (33 of 1962) and all other powers enabling it in this behalf, the Central Governmenthereby makes the following rules, namely —
1. Short title, extent and commencement —
(1) These rules may be called the Atomic Energy (Safe Disposal of Radioactive Wastes)Rules, 1987.
(2)They shall come into force on the date of their publication in the Official Gazette.
— In these rules, unless the context otherwise requires :-
(i) “accident condition” means a substantial deviation from normal operating conditions whichcould lead to release of unacceptable quantities of radioactive materials if the relevantengineered safety features did not function as per design intent;
(ii) “Act” means the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 (33 of 1962);
(iii) “adequate protection” means protection against radiation so provided that the prescribedoperational limits are not exceeded;
(iv) “applicant” means a person or an organisation that applies, in Form A , for granting ofauthorisation to perform specified activities connected with disposal of radioactive wastes;
(v) “authorisation” means permission for disposal of radioactive wastes, granted by thecompetent authority in Form B;
(vi) “authorised person” means a person authorised by the competent authority to disposal ofradioactive waste in accordance with the provisions of these rules;
(vii) “competent authority” means any officer or authority appointed by the CentralGovernment by notification under these rules;
(viii) “Conditioning” means those operations, chemical or physical, that transform theradioactive waste into a form suitable for transport, storage or final disposal and may includeconverting the waste to another form, enclosing the waste in containers and providingadditional packaging;
(ix) “Contamination” means the presence of radioactive substance in a material or place thatmay be specified as excessive by the competent authority by notification for the purposes ofthese rules;
(x) “disposal” means release of any material to the environment in a manner leading to loss ofcontrol over the future disposition of the radionuclides contained therein and includesemplacement of waste materials in a repository;
(xi) “disposal limits” means the limits for disposal of radioactive waste, prescribed from timeto time by the competent authority under these rules;
(xii) “effluent” means gaseous, particulate or liquid emission which is discharged from theinstallation into its environment;
(xiii) “environment” means the surroundings of an installation that will influence the life,survival and development of human beings and any organisms relevant to man;
(xiv) “employer” means a person who employs workers or who is self-employed as a workerin an installation;
(xv) “Form” means form attached to these rules;
(xvi) “installation” or “institution” means any location wherein the processes incidental to thewaste generation, conditioning, storage and disposal are carried out;
(xvii) “institutional control” means controls or actions to preclude unauthorised human contactwith radioactive waste and includes controlled access to the installation and to the restrictedarea around it, periodic inspection and surveillance of the said installation and its restrictedarea, controlled productive use of the said restricted area and restrictions in the form of titlesand deeds for land use;
(xviii) “operational limits” means operational limits prescribed from time to time under theRadiation Protection Rules, 1971;
(xix) “packaging” means any container prepared for containing the conditioned waste forhandling, transportation, storage or disposal and may be permanent part of the waste packageor it may be a reusable cask or overpack;
(i) any individual, corporation, association of persons whether incorporated or not,partnership, estate, trust, private or public institution, group, government agency, or anystate or any political sub-division thereof or any political entity within state, any foreigngovernment or nation or any political sub-division of any such government or nation orother entity; and
(ii) any legal successor, representative or agent of each of the foregoing;
(xxi) “Radiological Safety Officer” means any person who is so designated by the employerand who, in the opinion of the competent authority, is qualified to discharge the duties andfunctions outlined in rule 13 of these rules;
(xxii) “radioactive waste” means any waste material containing radionuclides in quantities orconcentrations as prescribed by the competent authority by notification in the official gazette;
(xxiii) “repository” means an underground geological formation with or without engineneredbarriers or an overground vault in which waste may be emplaced for disposal;
(xxiv) “restricted area” means any area access to which is controlled by the employer andapproved as such by the competent authority for purposes of protection of individuals fromexposure to radiation and radioactive contamination;
(xxv) “scheduled” means schedule attached to these rules;
(xxvi) “storage” as distinct from disposal, means containment of the radioactive wastes undercontrolled conditions and under radiation surveillance in accordance with the provisions of theRadiation Protection Rules, 1971;
(xxvii) “Surveillance” includes all planned activities performed, —
(i) to ensure that conditions at an installation remain within prescribed limits;
(ii) to ensure that the operational limits prescribed under the Radiation Protection Rules,1971, are not exceeded; and
(iii) to detect in a timely manner any unsafe condition and the degradation of structure,system and components which could at a later time result in an unsafe condition in theinstallation or in its environment;
(xxviii) “waste form” means the physical land chemical form of the waste, without itspackaging;
(xxix) “waste package” means waste form duly contained in its packaging for handling,transportation, storage or disposal;
(xxx) words and expressions used in these rules and not defined but defined in the Act, shallhave the meanings respectively assigned to them in the Act.
3. Restrictions on the disposal of radioactive waste
— No person shall dispose of radioactive
(a) unless he has obtained an authorisation from the competent authority under these rules;
(b) in any manner other than in accordance with the terms and conditions specified in theauthorisation issued under these rules;
(c) in any location different from those specified in the authorisation;
(d) in quantities exceeding those specified in the authorisation.
4. Application for authorisation
— Each application for authorisation to dispose of or transfer
radioactive waste shall be made (save as provided in rule 15) in Form I and shall include —
(a) the process, materials and equipment generating radioactive wastes in the installation;
(b) the equipment and systems provided in the waste generating installation to monitor andcontrol the radioactive wastes and to reduce environmental releases;
(c) the environment around the installation;
(d) the processes and equipment in the installation for conditioning, treatment and disposalof radioactive waste and the staff employed for the purpose;
(e) safety devices incorporated in the waste disposal installation to contain the radioactiveeffluents and control their release to unrestricted areas during normal operations, includinganticipated operational occurrences and to keep these releases as low as reasonablyachievable (ALARA);
(f) an estimate of the amounts of annual releases, discharges and leakages from radioactivewaste repositories during normal condition and an analysis of their anticipatedenvironmental impact;
(g) an analysis of the potential accidents which may occur in the installation and designfeatures and monitoring equipment incorporated in the waste disposal installation to controlthe release of radioactivity in the event of such accidents;
(h) procedures to be followed for safe collection of radioactive wastes arising from suchaccidents and
(i) design features of surveillance equipment incorporated or otherwise provided in andaround the waste disposal installation to monitor the normal releases of activity andthose released in the event of an accident;
(ii) estimates of the quantities of each of the principal radionuclides expected to bereleased in the environment annually (in solid, liquid and gaseous form) during normaloperations;
(iii) any other information, which the competent authority may deem necessary toevaluate the safety status of waste disposal operations.
5. Issuance of authorisation
— The competent authority shall issue authorisation in Form II
where it is satisfied that the applicant has complied with the requirements of rule 4.
6. Duties of the authorised person
— Every authorised person shall ensure that —
(i) disposal of radioactive wastes is done in accordance with the provisions of these rules,and in accordance with the terms and conditions laid down in the authorisation;
(ii) records of waste disposal are maintained in Form III for the periods stipulated by thecompetent authority;
(iii) all the requirements of the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971 are complied with;
(iv) any operation likely to result in a more hazardous accident than that envisaged in thesafety analysis given by the applicant under rule 4(i)(g) are not carried out in theinstallation;
(v) personnel monitoring and environmental surveillance is carried out on a continued basisto evaluate the risks and to monitor the environmental impact of the waste disposaloperations;
(vi) unless stipulated otherwise in the authorisation, quarterly reports are submitted to thecompetent authority in Form IV;
(vii) reports received on any hazardous situation, as provided under clause (g) of rule 13,are forthwith transmitted to the competent authority;
(viii) that the Radiological Safety Officer discharges his duties under rule 13 of these rules;
(ix) after the waste disposal installation is closed, institutional control is maintained forsuch time as stipulated by the competent authority in each specific case under rule 11.
7.Maintenance of Records of Waste Disposal
— Every authorised person shall maintain
records of disposal or radioactive waste giving the following particulars —
(a) the description, quantity, physical state, chemical characteristics and the date of disposal ofeach consignment of radioactive waste;
(b) mode of disposal, concentration of radioactive material in the waste disposed of and site ofdisposal;
(c) names of the workers and the Radiological Safety Officer associated with the disposal ofthe radioactive waste;
(d) data on periodic radiation surveillance in and around the site of the disposal of radioactivewaste, as specified in the authorisation;
(e) any other information which the competent authority deems necessary.
8. Installation for Disposal of Radioactive Waste to be considered as Radiation Installation
— Any installation for disposal of radioactive waste shall be considered a radiation installation as
defined under the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971.
9. Prevention of Entry into Restricted Areas
— The authorised person shall make adequate
arrangements to prevent entry of unauthorised members of the public in the restricted areas and
shall further ensure that only the essential staff remains in the said areas to perform necessary
10. Power to inspect installations
— Any person duly authorised by the competent authority
under section 17 of the Act, for purposes of inspection and enforcement of these rules may at any
(a) inspect any installation where disposal of radioactive waste is carried out;
(b) inspect any equipment (permanently installed or mobile) therein;
(c) make such tests and or measurements as may be necessary for purposes of evaluatingradiation hazards;
(d) order disposal of such radioactive wastes as he deems necessary in the interest of radiationprotection;
(e) do all such things (including examination of relevant records) as he may considernecessary for purposes of determining the adequacy or otherwise of the methods employedand devices used therein for controlling and monitoring environmental release of radioactivematerials.
11. Closure and Institutional Control
— Decommissioning or closure of a radioactive waste
disposal installation and institutional control shall be undertaken by the authorised person after
obtaining permission from the competent authority and in accordance with the procedure as
prescribed by the competent authority in each case.
12. Radiological Safety Officer
— The authorised person shall designate, with the approval of
the competent authority; either himself or a person under his employ as Radiological Safety
Officer. The Radiological Safety Officer shall possess the following minimum educational
qualifications, training and experience —
(i) A graduate in science with mathematics and physics as the subjects;
(ii) Training in radiological safety at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre or at any otherorganisation recognised as equivalent by the competent authority; and
(iii) One year experience of discharging relevant duties under a qualified Radiological SafetyOfficer.
13. Duties and Functions of the Radiological Safety Officer
— The duties and functions of the
Radiological Safety Officer in the radiation installation shall be as follows :
(a) to advise the employer regarding the safe handling and disposal of radioactive wastes andon the steps necessary to ensure that the operational limits are not exceeded;
(b) to instruct the radiation workers engaged in waste disposal on the hazards of radiation andon suitable safety measures and work practices aimed at minimising exposures to radiationand contamination, and to ensure that adequate radiation surveillance is provided for allradiation workers and the environment;
(c) to carry out such tests on conditioned radioactive wastes, as specified by the competentauthority;
(d) to ensure that all buildings, laboratories and plants wherein radioactive wastes will be orare likely to be handled/produced, conditioned or stored or discharged from, are designed toprovide adequate safety for safe handling and disposal of radioactive waste;
(e) to assess the radiation protection instruments required for an installation and to keep suchinstruments in use under proper calibration;
(f) to help investigate and initiate prompt and suitable remedial measures in respect of anysituation that could lead to radiation hazards;
(g) to ensure that reports on all hazardous situations (including situations of the type referredto in rule 14 or as laid down by the competent authority regarding operational limits) alongwith details of any immediate remedial measures that may have been initiated are madeavailable immediately to his employer and a copy thereof to the competent authority;
(h) to ensure that the provisions of the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971 are followedproperly.
14. Accidental release of radioactive waste
— In the event of accidental release of any
radioactive material resulting in personnel, surface or environmental contamination, the
Radiological Safety Officer shall —
(a) take steps to arrange for the immediate decontamination of the affected personnel and areasand other remedial measures as required;
(b) inform immediately the employer and the competent authority; details of the incident,remedial measures initiated and programme for disposal of contaminated material, if any.
15. Special provisions for installations such as Hospitals and Tracer Research
(1) Persons using small amounts of radioisotopes of very short effective half life (such as inmedical practice and tracer applications) may submit their application in Form V forauthorisation to dispose of radioactive waste.
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of these rules, a person thus authorised may dispose ofwastes containing short lived radioisotopes, contaminated materials and contaminatedeffluents, in accordance with the procedures and conditions laid down in the schedule.
16. Prior approval of modifications
— Any modification to any installation for the disposal of
radioactive waste or any change in the working conditions therein, shall be done only with the
approval of the competent authority.
17. Power to suspend or cancel an authorisation
— The competent authority may cancel an
authorisation issued under these rules or suspend it for such period as it thinks fit, if in its opinion,
the authorised person has failed to comply with any of the conditions of the authorisation or with
any provisions of the Act or these Rules after giving the authorised person an opportunity to show
cause and after recording reasons therefor.
18. Power of the competent authority in the case of cancellation of authorisation
suspension or cancellation of the authorisation and during the pendency of an appeal the
competent authority may give directions to the persons whose authorisation has been suspended
or cancelled for the safe storage of the radioactive wastes, and such person shall comply with
19. Authorisation for Existing Installations
— Every person presently engaged in disposing of
radioactive wastes shall, obtain an authorisation under these rules from the competent authority
within six months from the date of coming into force of these rules.
20. Powers to ask for records
— In addition to the quarterly reports in Form IV, the authorised
person shall submit such periodical reports to the competent authority, as stipulated in the
authorisation for ensuring safe disposal of radioactive waste.
21. Appeal —
(1) An appeal shall lie, against any order of suspension or cancellation or refusal of
an authorisation by the competent authority, to the Central Government.
Every appeal shall be in writing and shall be accompanied by a copy of the order appealed against and shall be presented within thirty days of the order passed.
Application for Authorisation to Dispose of Radioactive Waste
(This form is meant to assess the suitability of the institution for carrying out waste disposaloperations).
2. (i) Name of the employer: (ii) Name of the Head of the installation
4. Name and designation of the Head of the Dept.
5. Name of the individual who is entrusted
with day to day administration of radiation protection in the department (Radiological Safety Officers)
members of the personnel monitoring service ? If so,please give details
7. Give details of the experience, if any, of the staff
members in handling radioactive waste in Appendix I.
8. Give details or particulars of radioactive wastes for : which the application is made in Appendix II.
* Complete address of the installation with Telephone No. (during and outside office hours) andtelex number, if any, may please be provided in the space provided below :
(a) Please attach to this application the following drawings:-
(i)A SITE PLAN of the installation (1:500 scale or as appropriate) of the installationindicating the locations of buildings, producing the radioactive waste and the buildingsfor its conditioning, packaging and ultimate disposal. Please indicate the points ofdischarge of radioactive effluents into the environment. Also indicate the nature ofoccupancies and land utilisation in the neighbourhood of the above buildings and waterresources of the above land and their utilisation.
(ii) ARCHITECTURAL BLUEPRINTS (1:50 scale or as appropriate) with dimensionsof each of the buildings housing the waste producing, conditioning and disposalequipment and systems. Please indicate in the blue prints the nature of work carried out
in each room. Further, please mark clearly the locations of the radioactive wastegenerating conditioning and packaging equipment and storage facility, work benches,sinks, fumehoods, decontamination equipment, monitoriny and surveillance equipmentand specify the nature of occupied or other areas around the rooms or in the rooms inquestion as applicable.
(iii) A drawing showing CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS of radioactive waste storagefacilities available (e.g. lead container, concrete closest or vaults etc.)
(b) Please provide details of any special ventilation facilities incorporated (such as fume-hood, stacks, exhausts, general air inlet and exhaust facilities for the rooms etc.)
the floor areas of the rooms are covered with special material such as linoleum ?
the workbenches are covered with stainless steel or polythenesheet ?
the walls are coated with stripable paint or conporous washable paint ?
(i)the installations in the plans are to be built;(ii)existing rooms are to be modified as per the plans;(iii) rooms already built and fitted up as per plan.
List of equipment available with the department (alongwith their specifications) where
the radioactive waste will be handled. Please give details including the numbers of equipmentavailable with you under each category (attach additional sheets if necessary).
(A) Equipment for collection of radioactive wastes (unconditioned);
(B) System for transporting unconditioned waste within the installation;
(C) Equipment for conditioning radioactive waste;
(D) Equipment for transportation of conditioned waste packages;
(E) Equipment for package handling and shipment at repository sites;
(F) Equipment for monitoring and surveillance;
(G) Details of safety devices incorporating in the systems to contain the radioactiveeffluents and control their releases (Please give their design features, technicalspecifications and analysis of their behaviour under off normal conditions).
Please give a brief description of the proposed procedures for :(a) Shut down and stabilisation of waste disposal site after intended period of operation.
(b) Observation and maintenance of stabilised disposal site for institu-
(c) Provision of funds and financial assets for the above shut down and institutional control for 100 years.
Please give details of anticipated accidents and procedures to be followed for their
management (attach emergency preparedness plan, if available).
Any other relevant information the applicant wishes to furnish in support of his case.
(a) all the statements made above are correct to the best of my knowledge and belief.
(b) the radioactive waste will not be disposed off except as specified under paragraph 8 ofthis form.
(c) radioactive waste will not be moved from the authorised place without prior approval ofthe competent authority.
(d) radioactive waste packages will be transported outside the restricted area in dulyshielded containers and after obtaining the necessary safe transport certificate from thecompetent authority.
(e) full facilities will be accorded by us to any authorised representative of the competentauthority to inspect the department in which the radioactive waste will be handled.
(f) radiation monitoring and environmental surveillance shall be provided in the installationand in the restricted areas to ensure adequate protection.
(g) the radioactive waste will not be sold, rented or transferred to any other Institution,without prior approval of the competent authority.
(h)all recommendations that may be made from time to time by the competent authority inrespect of radiation safety measures will be duly implemented.
Appendix I (Form I)
Appendix II (Form I)
giving rise to the & chemical charac- waste and its
of the land ofof waste repo-sitory or burialrests
Authorisation for Disposal or Transfer of Radioactive Waste :
Pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1962 and the enabling rules made thereunder and speciallythe “Atomic Energy (Safe Disposal of Radioactive Wastes) Rules, 1987” and in reliance on thestatements and representations made by the applicant in his application dated __________, anauthorisation is hereby issued authorising the applicant to dispose of Radioactive Waste listedbelow and in conformity with the technical specifications given in the attachment to hisauthorisation and subject to the terms and conditions specified on the back-side of thisauthorisation :
authorised for disposal (viz. Name ofradionuclide, physical form, chemicalcomposition)
page etc. of the attachment givingtechnical specifications governingthis authorisation.
Signature and seal of theCompetent Authority
TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF AUTHORISATION
1. The person authorised shall abide by all the provisions concerning disposal of radioactivewaste and radiation protection laid down in —
(i) the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 (33 of 1962);
(ii) the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971; and
(iii) the Atomic Energy (Safe Disposal of Radioactive Wastes) Rules, 1987.
2. The person authorised shall dispose off radioactive waste strictly in accordance with thetechnical specifications (Ref. No. _____________dated _____________ ) which are attachedherewith.
3. The person authorised shall not rent, lend, sell, transfer or otherwise transport the radioactivewaste without obtaining prior permission of the competent authority.
4. Any unauthorised change in personnel, equipment, working conditions, from that given in hisapplication by the person authorised shall constitute a breach of this authorisation.
5. It is the duty of the authorised person to take prior permission of the competent authority forshut down of the waste disposal installation and to provide institutional controls as stipulated bythe competent authority in the aforesaid permission.
3. Description of unconditioned radioactive waste :
4. Description of conditioned radioactive waste :
5. Details of transportation of radioactive waste :
the consignee of the waste any, on the site of of the package for trans-
6. Details of disposal of radioactive waste :
7. Data on periodic radiation surveillance:
Format for Record of Disposal of Radioactive Waste
(To be submitted to the competent authority)
1. Name and address of the Institution :2. Details of waste disposal operations :
dose per transport- disposal descript- diposal and
pal radio volume conditioning any, on the site of sketch
3. Details of environmental surveillance :
Application for Authorisation for disposal of Radioactive Waste by small installations
entrusted with day to day adminis-tration of radiation protectionin the department (RadiologicalSafety Officer)
* Complete address of the installation with Telephone No. (during and outside office hours) and telex number, if any, may please be provided in thespace provided below :
work members of the PersonnelMonitoring Service ? If so, pleasegive details
any, of the staff members inhandling radioactive waste (inAppendix I).
radioactive wastes for which theapplication is made (in Appendix II)
(i) A SITE PLAN of the installation (1:500 scale) making the location of waste disposal installations, the nature of occupancies around these,the neighbouring land utilisation and water resources with the utilisations.
(ii) An ARCHITECTURAL BLUEPRINT (1:50 scale) with dimensions of the building housing the waste disposal equipment and systems.
Please indicate in the blue print the nature of disposal work carried out in each location. Further, please mark clearly the location of theradioactive waste storage facility, work benches, sinks, fumehoods, decontamination equipment and the points of discharge of radioactiveeffluents into the environment.
(iii) Details of radioactive waste burial/incineration facilities if available.
(iv) Details of any special ventilation facilities incorporated (such as fume hood exhausts, general air inlet and exhaust facilities for the roomsetc.)(v) Details of drainage system till it joins the sewerage soak-pit.
(vi) Please state whether —
(a) (i) the installations shown in the plan are to be built.
(ii)existing installations are to be modified as per plan.
(iii) Waste disposal facilities already built and fitted up as per plan (b) Are the floor areas of the rooms covered with special material such as linoleum ?
(c) Are the work benches covered with stainless steel or polythene sheet ?
(d) Are the walls coated with shippable paint or non-porous washable paint ?
Proposed procedure for final disposal of radioactive wastes (solid, liquid and gases).
List of equipments available with the department (along with their specifica
tions) where the radioactive waste will be handled.
equipment available with you under each category.
A. Radioactive waste handling equipment.
B. Radioactive waste storage facilities (e.g. waste bins, carbouys etc.)
C. Radiation Protection Devices (e.g. lead bricks, remove handling tools, etc.)D.Radioisotope Laboratory Accessories (e.g. stainless steel trays/sinks, fume hoods, glove boxes, etc.)E. Radiation Detection/Measurement Equipment (e.g. area survey meters, contamination monitors, counters, etc.)
(a) all the statements made above are correct to the best of my knowledgeand belief.
(b) the radioactive waste will not be disposed of except as specified under paragraphs 8 and 10 of this form.
(c) radioactive waste will not be moved from the authorised place without prior approval of the competent authority.
(d) decayed, scaled sources will be returned to the supplier only in duly shielded containers as per the advice of the competent authority andafter obtaining the necessary safe transport certificate.
(e) full facilities will be accorded by us to any authorised representative of the competent authority to inspect the department in which theradioactive waste will be handled.
(f) personnel monitoring badges will be worn by all persons engaged in radiation work, as required by the competent authority.
(g) the radioactive waste will not be sold, rented or transferred to any other institutions, without prior approval of the competent authority.
(h) all recommendations that may be made from time to time by the competent authority will be duly implemented.
Signature and seal of theHead of the installation.
Conditions and procedures for disposal of Radioactive Waste by Institutions handling smallquantities of Radioisotopes.
Institutions such as hospitals and tracer research laboratories, handling small quantities ofradioisotopes of short effective half life may, after obtaining the authorisation, under rule 3,undertake disposal of radioactive waste, in accordance with the following procedures :-
1. Disposal of Radioactive Waste by release into Sanitary Sewerage system - An authorisedperson may discharge radioactive waste into a Sanitary sewerage system, provided :-
(a) the waste is readily soluble or dispersible in water;
(b) the maximum quantity of radioactive material released in the sanitary sewerage systemis less than the quantity prescribed in Table I of this Schedule and is not in excess of thequantity which, if diluted by the average daily quantity of sewerage released into thesewerage system by the authorised institution, will result in an average monthlyconcentration equal to the limits:-
(i) as specified in Table 1, or(ii) as specified by the competent authority, on a case by case basis for radionuclides,not listed in Table 1,
(c) the gross quantity of radioactive material released into the sewerage system by theinstitution does not exceed 37 GBq per year;
(d) when more than one radionuclide is present in the liquid waste, the sum of the ratios ofthe individual quantities of each of the radioisotopes present and their respective maximumquantities allowed as per Table 1, does not exceed unity;
(e) periodic maintenance and monitoring of the path-ways of the liquid effluents, till theeffluents reach the sewerage system, is done by the Radiological Safety Officer, to ensurethat the appropriate disposal limits and operational limits are not exceeded in and outsidethe drainage system;
(f) a log book is maintained in Form III recording the identity and quantity of eachradioisotope disposed, its time of disposal, the name of the person who has supervised thewaste disposal and the data on radiation surveillance.
2.Disposal of Solid Radioactive Waste — An authorised person may dispose of solidradioactive waste by burial into pits prepared in an exclusive burial ground, provided :
(a) the burial ground is located in an isolated site owned by the said person;
(b) the site is duly fenced off to prevent unauthorised entry;
(c) the site is duly approved by the competent authority for burial of radioactive waste, theapproval being governed by factors such as the nature of environment includingtopographical and geological characteristics of the burial site, usage of ground and surfacewaters in the general area around the site, with a view to minimise the assessed anticipatedrisk of accidental dispersal of the waste to potentially affected locations or back to theenvironment;
(d) the total activity in the wastes buried in any one pit of the burial ground does notexceed —
(i) the limits specified in Table 2 of this schedule; or
(ii) the limit specified by the competent authority on a case by case basis; forradionuclides not listed in Table 2 of this Schedule;
(e) when more than one radionuclides is present in the solid waste, the sum of the ratios ofthe individual quantities of each of the radioisotopes present and their respective maximumquantities allowed as per Table 2, does not exceed unity;
(f) the depth of the burial pit is so chosen that the wastes have a top layer of compact earthof minimum 120 cm thickness when the pit head is closed;
(g) successive burial pits are separated by a distance of at least 180 cm;
(h) not more than 12 burials are made in any one year;
(i) a closed pit is not opened for reuse till 10 half lives, of the longest lived radioisotopeburied in that pit, have elapsed;
(j) the burial area is treated as restricted area and subjected to periodic environmentalsurveillance by the Radiological Safety Officer to ensure that the appropriate disposallimits and operational limits are not exceeded;
(k) the material excavated from a closed pit is released for normal disposal, under thesupervision of the Radiological Safety Officer before reusing the pit as laid down in (i);
(l) periodic monitoring of the burial ground and its environment is done by theRadiological Safety Officer to ensure that the operational limits on radioactivecontamination are not exceeded;
(m) a log book is maintained in Form III recording identity and quantity of eachradioisotope buried, description of waste, time of burial, name of the person who hassupervised the burial operations and the data on radiation surveillance.
3.Incineration of Radioactive Waste — An authorised person may undertake incineration ofradioactive wastes, including incineration of radioactive animal card cases, provided thecompetent authority is duly satisfied that —
(a) the design of the incinerator is suitable for the intended operations and provides forretention of solid and liquid combustion/scrubbing by products and for controlled dischargeof liquid and gaseous effluents;
(b) the incineration operations will not result in air borne radioactive contamination inexcess of the operational limits prescribed under Radiation Protection Rules, 1971, forunrestricted areas;
(c) the solid and liquid radioactive wastes arising from incineration operations will be dulycollected and disposed off in accordance with these rules;
(d) adequate environmental surveillance, including air monitoring where necessary, will beprovided to ensure that the operational limits are not exceeded;
(e) the incineration operations are undertaken under direct supervision of the radiologicalsafety officer;
(f) up-to-date records are maintained, in Form III annexed to these rules, of the incinerationoperations indicating the names of radionuclides and their amounts finally disposed ingaseous, liquid and solid form, the details of such disposals, names of the persons involvedin these operations and the date of radiation surveillance.
4. Records, etc. — Quarterly records, in respect of the disposal operations, shall be submitted
to the competent authority in Form IV.
Other conditions — The authorised person shall abide by —
(i) such orders as may be issued by notifications, by the competent authority modifyingthe concentrations prescribed in Table 1 or the quantities prescribed in Table 1 & 2.
(ii) any other safety measures stipulated by the competent authority in accordance withthese rules.
Disposal limits for sanitary sewerage systems
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention Reducing Bioavailable Sex Hormones through a Comprehensive Changein Diet: the Diet and Androgens (DIANA) Randomized Trial1 Franco Berrino,2 Cristina Bellati, Giorgio Secreto, increased phytoestrogen intake decreases the Edgarda Camerini, Valeria Pala, Salvatore Panico, bioavailability of serum sex hormones in hyperandrogenic Giovann
:: Verinotio - Revista On-line de Educação e Ciências Humanas. Nº 5, Ano III, Outubro de 2006, periodicidade semestral – ISSN 1981-061X Em seu terceiro ano e quinto número, a Verinotio – Revista on-line de Educação e Ciências Humanas traz a lume textos inéditos que dizem respeito à filosofia, à estética, à ciência política e à educação e primam pelo rigor