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Agency name biofuels-related activities technical area (e.g., feedstocks, biochemical conversion)

Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
Brief Description
Main Barrier Addressing
of Activities
(Link to BFI Needs)
Million $
Modeling
Reducing Costs and
Increasing Values of Forest
Products
Gasification for
Biomass for Energy
Laboratory
Energy & Syngas
Flash Pyrolysis
Concentrate Energy in
of Forest
Forest Biomass for
Products
Biomass in
Transportability to Central
Laboratory
Mobile Unit
F-T Processing
Produce Liquid
Conserve Water for
Fuels With
Irrigation in Producing
Products
Minimal Process
Agricultural and Woody
Laboratory
Energy Crops
Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
Brief Description Main Barrier
Funding Million
of Activities
Addressing (Link $
to BFI Needs)

USDA Forest
Modeling
Need to better
$0.04 (FY06)
nationwide
model supply
timber markets
and demand for
and resource
biofuels in
context of
overall wood use

USDA Forest
Analyzing value
Need generic
prior to pulping
process model
biorefining
and business
business case
case feasibility
model for risk
assessment

Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
• Model Biomass Gasification Business Concept to Produce Energy and Syngas Feedstock For F-T Liquids & Chemicals – Potlatch Forests studied biomass gasification of available forest residues at pulp and paper mill – Potlatch is sharing accumulated information for development of a model that may be applied throughout industry Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
Wisconsin in Bench Scale Evaluation of Process Concept – May expand process concept to incorporate flash pyrolysis with syngas production on laboratory bench – Concentrate process so that rapid heat transfer may make portable plant feasible Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
analyses to develop processes that will conserve water in producing transportation fuels efficiently – Take advantage of feedstock water in Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
• Expand biorefinery concept at pulp and paper plants to convert black liquor to methanol or DME • Produce hydrogen from forest biomass • Consider combinations of feedstocks to gain more efficient use of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in syngasproduction Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
Brief Description of
Main Barrier Addressing (Link to BFI Needs)
Activities
Million $
Gasification
Reducing NOx through close-coupled
Bioenergy
of agricultural
fluidized bed biomass gasification and
residues,
direct combustion systems, reburning
syngas; gasify DDGs as energy source for
dry mill, economic feasibility; develop
value-added uses for solid residuals;
develop selective catalysts mixed with
biomass to catalyze syngas formation and
catalytically active char

Linking
gasification

Optimizing bioprocessing of syngas,
fermentation
to produce
ethanol and
chemicals

Uses for bio-oils; optimize continuous
pyrolyzer/combustor/power generation
Pyrolysis
unit that uses poultry litter; optimize high
performance carbon fibers from
pyrolyzed chicken feathers

Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
Biomass-Based Energy, Oklahoma/Mississippi Consortium

Combines gasification and fermentation technologies to produce ethanol and chemicals Utilizing perennial grasses and crop residues as feedstocks for gasification, and the resulting synthesis gas (syngas) is used to drive the fermentation process. Two biomass gasifiers, a fluidized-bed reactor and a downdraft unit have been optimized using switchgrass, bermudagrass, and corn fermentation waste as inputs.
The Iowa Biotechnology Consortium

Brings together university faculty, scientific staff and industry R&D specialists to develop technologies that allow the recovery and recycling of energy, chemicals, and materials from agriculture- and biotechnology-related processing wastes. Airlift reactor modeling for syngas fermentation; production of 3-hydroxypropionate from syngas The National Alternative Fuels Laboratory, University of North Dakota

Pyrolysis of wood and crop residues to produce bio-oils as a source of chemical Optimize the production of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) from vegetable oil-refining byproducts (soapstocks), Optimize a process that utilizes electricity and carbon dioxide for production of urea fertilizer. Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
• It is anticipated that more resources will be directed to thermochemicalconversion technologies through formula funded programs at land grant universities.
• The National Research Initiative and Small Business Innovation Research Programs will continue to support biomass conversion technologies.
Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
Brief Description
Main Barrier Addressing
of Activities
(Link to BFI Needs)
Million $
Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
Brief Description
Main Barrier Addressing
of Activities
(Link to BFI Needs)
Million $
Manure to energy - Increasing net energy yield Utilization of manure nutrients,CO , and waste heat for additional digestible biomass (algae) production Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
Brief Description
Main Barrier Addressing
of Activities
(Link to BFI Needs)
Million $
residues for energy and petrochemical feedstock replacement Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
Brief Description
Main Barrier Addressing
of Activities
(Link to BFI Needs)
Million $
evaluate feasibility for liquid fuel production.
of on-farm straw gasification biomass to bio-oils mitigate immediate by pyrolysis and lignocellulosic biomass through SSF.
Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
Brief Description
Main Barrier Addressing
of Activities
(Link to BFI Needs)
Million $
evaluate feasibility -Catalysts resistant to S, P, of wet gasifying -Energetically inefficient MSR to liquid fuel production conversion system animal manure in production for animal waste Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
• A feasibility study for the development of a research and demonstration hybrid (coal, biomass) gasification unit at BARC is in progress.
– This effort is a collaboration between USDA-ARS BARC and – The size of gasification unit will be appropriate for application in – Approx. 15% of the heat energy will come from coal • Base heat allows for fluctuating energy/water content of available biomass – A pilot-scale pyrolysis unit is to be included in the design Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
- Demonstration of a Viable Gasification System Which Can Be Used Directly or - Biomass Feed Preparation and Feeder Development - Single and Multiple Biomass and/or Industrial Feed - Gasifier Syngas - Low Temperature Membrane Gas Separation Experiments for Fuel - Chemical Synthesis/ Specific Biomass Liquid Fuel Experiment and Verification of - Evaluation of Ash as a Soil Amendment- Biomass Drying and Heat Recycle- CO2 and Heat Recovery for Pilot Sized Algae and Other Biomass Growth Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
BARC has a full-scale anaerobic digester associated with the dairy. The digester was installed over 10 years ago for the purpose of odor control. Funds were received in FY-06 from NPS to initiate research on biogas production.
– Currently the digester is being instrumented for research– Research will occur at bench-, pilot-, and full-scale– The overall objective is to improve the net energy production from the biogas Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
• Development of new approach to collect, transport and store loose (unbaled) straw. New approach reduces cost and improves energy balance for cellulosic-derived transportation fuels.
• Collaboration with Farm Power, a non-profit consortium of farmers, private citizens and environmental concerns to conduct on-farm trials. • Collaboration with Kentucky bluegrass seed producer to establish on-farm gasification research capabilities.
• Collaboration with Kentucky bluegrass seed producer to quantify the impact of straw removal on carbon sequestration and soil and water quality. Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
Thermochemical characterization via pyrolysis of energy crops being developed by the ARS breeding groups.
Thermochemical conversion of crop residues and processing byproducts to bio-oils and gaseous energy carriers.
Systematic studies of pyrolysis yield products on warm- and cold-season grasses that could serve as a biofuels feedstock for the mid-western and southeastern US and other climatologically similar regions. Warm-seasoned grasses have included switchgrass, bermudagrass & gamagrass. Cool-season grasses have included reed canarygrass, alfalfa stems. Pilot-scale fluidized-bed production of pyrolysis oil from perennial grasses -establishing reactor scale-up parameters for larger production capacity and economic evaluation.
Pilot-scale fluidized-bed production of syngas and hydrogen via the chemical looping combustion (CLC) and catalytic conversion approach.
Collaboration with ARS-Corvallis to establish on-farm gasification research capabilities.
Collaboration with PA switchgrass farmer to demonstrate a small-scale power generation using syngas produced from switchgrass.
Developing feasibility and process/cost simulation and analysis for co-located fuel ethanol and gasification/pyrolysis plants.
Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
– Direct gasification of raw, wet manures (up to 15% solids) – Swine manure produces about twice more energy than – Very high capital, O&M costs ($375 vs. $85 per AU) – Expensive Ru catalysts – S, P, Ca must be removed – Alternative Waste treatment technology? – destroys pathogens, estrogens, PACs, CODs, recovers NH3 in liquid, produces relatively clean water for potential livestock drinking water.
– If liquid fuel is desired, CH4 needs to be steam reformed – not Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
• Plan to expand on-farm straw gasification research and to approach DOE and others regarding collaboration to develop on-farm end use technologies to convert syngas into liquid transportation fuels.
• Plan to expand quantification of impact of straw removal on soil carbon and erosion.
Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
Plan to expand on the characterization of the thermochemical potential for crop residues and ARS bioenergy feedstocks under development.
Plan to expand on the development of the thermochemical biomass conversion technologies including direct combustion, pyrolysis into bio-oils and gasification to syngas.
Plan to produce, characterize and upgrade bio-oil from all energy crops within ARS.
Plant to determine the optimum pyrolysis conditions to produce bio oil with optimum qualities for storage, refining, and using for direct combustion or for further converting to gaseous and liquid fuels.
Plan to expand pilot-scale studies to the production of Fischer-Tropsch grade syngas.
Plan to expand pilot-scale work to steam reforming and CLC for the production of high-quality hydrogen from energy crops for fuel-cell applications. Plan to engineer such processes to suitable farm-scale conversion processes.
Plan to expand on ERRC work on the economics of co-location of ethanol plants with gasification facilities.
Plan to expand on ERRC work on pyrolysis to include economic uses of char co-products.
Plan to expand on economic and cost analysis of thermochemical conversion processes as compared with bioconversion. Federal Biofuels Posture Plan Workshop
• Start a 1st generation gasification+ conversion system to produce liquid fuel from animal manure and biomass

Source: http://biofuelspostureplan.govtools.us/documents/USDA_ARS_Thermochem.pdf

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